The tax payer complained that the Permanent Secretary for Tax had, in an off the record briefing disclosed tax details regarding a film investment scheme. Despite the off the record basis, details were published in a newspaper. His claims had been rejected at first instance and at the court of appeal. Held: The taxpayer’s appeal … Continue reading Ingenious Media Holdings Plc and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Revenue and Customs: SC 19 Oct 2016
The claimant sought judicial review of the disclosure, off the record by an officer of the defendant to a journalist, of confidential materials as to their investigation of his involvement in a film investment scheme. The claim had been rejected by . .
Application for judicial review of a decision of the Defendants acting by one of their most senior officials to disclose information relating to the claimants in an ‘off the record’ briefing with two journalists.
Held: The request for judicial . .
The claimants sought to set aside warrants and executions under them to provide assistance to a foreign court investigating alleged unlawful assistance to companies in Bosnia Herzegovina. Held: The issue of such a warrant was a serious step. The court gave guidance on the practice to be followed, but it was not correct for the … Continue reading Energy Financing Team Ltd and others v The Director of the Serious Fraud Office, Bow Street Magistrates Court: Admn 22 Jul 2005
United Kingdom legislation is to be construed so far as possible so as to give effect to the purpose(s) of the European directives. As to the meaining of ‘consideration’ under the Sixth Directive: ‘Having regard to art 11A(1)(a) of the Sixth Directive, we are, therefore, subject to one important qualification prepared to accept that the … Continue reading Trafalgar Tours Ltd v Customs and Excise Commissioners: CA 1990
Where a payment is made by credit card, some form of underlying contractual scheme will pre-date any individual contract of sale. This may include not merely the contract between the card-holder and card-issuer, but also an arrangement between the card-issuer or acquirer and the store. In over-the-counter sales, the retailer commonly has no record of … Continue reading Customs and Excise Commissioners v Diner’s Club Ltd: CA 1989
The court consideerd the basic nature of Value Added Tax (VAT): ‘First, . . .. the concept of supply for the purposes of VAT is not identical with that of contractual obligation. Secondly, in consequence, it is perfectly possible that although the parties in any given situation may conclude their contractual arrangements in writing so … Continue reading Customs and Excise Commissioners v Reed Personal Services Ltd: 1995
The collector of taxes distrained on the goods of the company under section 61 TMA 1970 for unpaid taxes and the company entered into a walking possession agreement. Before the collector had sold the goods, and completed the distress, the company entered into voluntary winding-up and a liquidator was appointed. There was a deficiency of … Continue reading Herbert Berry Associates Ltd v Inland Revenue Commissioners: ChD 1976
The complainant made a request to HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) for information relating to the issue of fraudulently or dishonestly acquiring vehicles VAT-free through the disability scheme. HMRC provided some of the requested information but refused to provide all of the requested information. It explained that some of the information requested was exempt from … Continue reading Her Majestys Revenue and Customs: ICO 27 Apr 2011
The House was asked whether a particular transaction was ‘an adventure in the nature of trade’. Held: Although the House accepted that this was ‘an inference of fact’, on the primary facts as found by the Commissioners ‘the true and only reasonable conclusion’ contradicted that decision. The House set out principles for establishing that decisions … Continue reading Edwards (Inspector of Taxes) v Bairstow: HL 25 Jul 1955
Two women parties used funds generated by a joint business venture to buy a house in which they lived together. It was vested in the sole name of the plaintiff but on the understanding that they were joint beneficial owners. The purpose of the arrangement was so that false benefit claims could be made to … Continue reading Tinsley v Milligan: HL 28 Jun 1993
Statutory Duty Not Extended by Common Law The claimant sought damages after a road accident. The driver came over the crest of a hill and hit a bus. The road was not marked with any warning as to the need to slow down. Held: The claim failed. The duty could not be extended to include … Continue reading Gorringe v Calderdale Metropolitan Borough Council: HL 1 Apr 2004
The claim patented sought to protect a genetic molecule rather than a whole mouse namely that the molecule would, if inserted into a suitable host cell, cause the cell to make antigens of the Hepatitis B virus. A recombinant method of making the antigens of a hepatitis virus was patented with a priority date of … Continue reading Biogen Plc v Medeva Plc: HL 31 Oct 1996
A Jersey Charity created under a will of a Jersey resident was transfer to the UK, and reregistered with the UK Charity Commission. The Revenue sought to apply Inheritance Tax. Held: Jersey was to be considered a third country for the purpose of a transfer of capital from the United Kingdom. The restriction of relief … Continue reading Routier and Another v Revenue and Customs: SC 16 Oct 2019
Executors appealed against a decision that a residual gift in a will was not charitable and that it was therefore subject to Inheritance Tax arguing that the section if construed in this way was an unlawful restriction on the free movement of capital. The revenue contended that the gift by a Jersey resident was to … Continue reading Routier and Another v Revenue and Customs: CA 16 Sep 2016
Executors appealed against rejection of their claim that a gift in the will qualified for relief against Inheritance Tax as being a charitable gift. The Trusts concerned assets in Jersey. Held: The appeal failed: ‘The expression ‘held on trust for charitable purposes’ in section 23(6) requires not only that the charitable purposes be UK law … Continue reading Routier and Another v Revenue and Customs: ChD 18 Sep 2014
The question was whether a taxpayer can deduct as input tax the VAT which it has incurred in purchasing entitlements to an EU farm subsidy, the Single Farm Payment. The taxpayer had used those entitlements to annual subsidies over several years and intended to use money resulting from the receipt of those subsidies to fund … Continue reading Revenue and Customs v Frank A Smart and Son Ltd: SC 29 Jul 2019
The use of taxable goods for an exempt transaction disallowed a claim against VAT input tax. The use in that provision of the words ‘for transactions’ shows that to give the right to deduct under paragraph 2, the goods or services in question must have a direct and immediate link with the taxable transactions, and … Continue reading BLP Group v Commissioners of Customs and Excise: ECJ 6 Apr 1995
Income Tax/Corporation Tax : Assessment/Self-Assessment – INCOME TAX- preliminary issue – ‘voluntary returns’ – no notice given by HMRC under s.8(1) Taxes Management Act 1970 (TMA) requiring a taxpayer to file a return – HMRC treating returns as made under s 8 TMA – enquiry commenced under s. 9A TMA – closure notice issued under … Continue reading Patel and Another v Revenue and Customs: FTTTx 5 Apr 2018
The taxpayer sold double glazing, supported by an insured guarantee, for which a charge was made. The additional charge was exempt, but it was contended that the contract should have stated the amount pursuant to Note 5. Held: The contract gave the rate of charge at 10 per cent. The Act allowed the commisioners to … Continue reading C R Smith Glaziers (Dunfermline) Limited v Commissioners of Customs and Excise: HL 20 Feb 2003
Swap deals outwith Council powers The authority entered into interest rate swap deals to protect itself against adverse money market movements. They began to lose substantial amounts when interest rates rose, and the district auditor sought a declaration that the contracts were void, there being no express power in the relevant legislation. Held: The arrangements … Continue reading Hazell v Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough Council: HL 1991
Temporary approval pending appeal was preferred The company challenged refusal of fit and proper approval for registration as wholesaler of duty paid alcohol. Held: The appeals were allowed in part. HMRC, having once concluded that the applicant was not fit and proper was not free to approve them pending their appeal. Better was a temporary … Continue reading ABC Ltd and Another v HM Revenue and Customs: CA 7 Jul 2017
The wholesalers sought approval from the respondent for the wholesale supply of duty-paid alcohol. Approval was refused, but the parties sought a means of allowing a temporary approval pending determination by the FTT. The two questions considered were: (1) What power does HMRC have to permit a person to carry on trading pending the determination … Continue reading OWD Ltd (T/A Birmingham Cash and Carry) and Another v Revenue and Customs: SC 19 Jun 2019
The claimant said that the widows’ bereavement tax allowance available to a wife surviving her husband should be available to a man also if it was not to be discriminatory. Held: Similar claims had been taken before the Human Rights Act to the ECHR, and been settled. The 1998 Act made it unlawful to act … Continue reading Wilkinson, Regina (on the Application Of) v Inland Revenue: HL 5 May 2005
Reference to Parliamentary Papers behind Statute The inspector sought to tax the benefits in kind received by teachers at a private school in having their children educated at the school for free. Having agreed this was a taxable emolument, it was argued as to whether the taxable benefit was the cost to the employer, or … Continue reading Pepper (Inspector of Taxes) v Hart: HL 26 Nov 1992
Statutory Duty Does Not Create Common Law Duty The mere existence of statutory power to remedy a defect cannot of itself create a duty of care to do so. A highway authority need not have a duty of care to highway users because of its duty to maintain the highway. The two stage test ‘involves … Continue reading Stovin v Wise, Norfolk County Council (Third Party): HL 24 Jul 1996
The Property of Every Man is Sacred The King’s Messengers entered the plaintiff’s house and seized his papers under a warrant issued by the Secretary of State, a government minister. Held: The common law does not recognise interests of state as a justification for allowing what would otherwise be an unlawful search. Lord Camden CJ … Continue reading Entick v Carrington: KBD 1765
Lloyds Agents Owe Care Duty to Member; no Contract Managing agents conducted the financial affairs of the Lloyds Names belonging to the syndicates under their charge. It was alleged that they managed these affairs with a lack of due careleading to enormous losses. Held: The assumption of responsibility principle enunciated in Hedley is not confined … Continue reading Henderson v Merrett Syndicates Ltd: HL 25 Jul 1994
The claimant had served an asset freezing order on the bank in respect of one of its customers. The bank paid out on a cheque inadvertently as to the order. The Commissioners claimed against the bank in negligence. The bank denied any duty of care. Held: The bank’s appeal succeeded. The bank owed a duty … Continue reading HM Customs and Excise v Barclays Bank Plc: HL 21 Jun 2006
Smartphone App Contractors did so as Workers The court was asked whether the employment tribunal was entitled to find that drivers whose work was arranged through Uber’s smartphone application work for Uber under workers’ contracts and so qualify for the national minimum wage, paid annual leave and other workers’ rights; or whether, as Uber contended, … Continue reading Uber Bv and Others v Aslam and Others: SC 19 Feb 2021
The taxpayers used schemes to create allowable losses, and now appealed assessment to tax. The schemes involved a series of transactions none of which were a sham, but which had the effect of cancelling each other out. Held: If the true nature of the transactions could be seen by looking at them all together, then … Continue reading W T Ramsay Ltd v Inland Revenue Commissioners: HL 12 Mar 1981
Liability in Damages on Statute Breach to be Clear Damages were to be awarded against a Local Authority for breach of statutory duty in a care case only if the statute was clear that damages were capable of being awarded. in the ordinary case a breach of statutory duty does not, by itself, give rise … Continue reading X (Minors) v Bedfordshire County Council; M (A Minor) and Another v Newham London Borough Council; Etc: HL 29 Jun 1995
The court was asked whether nurses could properly involve themselves in a pregnancy termination procedure not known when the Act was passed, and in particular, whether a pregnancy was ‘terminated by a medical practitioner’, when it was carried out by nurses acting on the instructions of such a practitioner. Held: The phrase ‘treatment for the … Continue reading Royal College of Nursing of the United Kingdom v Department of Health and Social Security: HL 2 Jan 1981
The defendant tenants, anticipating that the landlord might delay or refuse consent to a subletting entered into a ‘virtual assignment’ of the lease, an assignment in everything but the deed and with no registration. The lease contained a standard form prohibition against assignments or sub-letting. The defendants now appealed against a finding that they were … Continue reading Clarence House Ltd v National Westminster Bank Plc: CA 8 Dec 2009
Legitimate Expectation once created not withdrawn The claimant said that a change of practice by the Revenue was contrary to a legitimate expectation. Held: The Inland Revenue could not withdraw from a representation if it would cause: substantial unfairness to the applicant; if the conditions for relying upon any such representation were fulfilled; and if … Continue reading Regina v Inland Revenue Commissioners, ex parte MFK Underwriting Agents Ltd: CA 1990
Duty of Fairness to taxpayer – Written Assurance The applicant was assured by the Inland Revenue that it would not raise further inquiries on certain tax affairs if he agreed to forgo interest relief which he had claimed and to pay a certain sum in capital gains tax. Held: Where the lawfulness of the section … Continue reading Regina v Inland Revenue Commission ex parte Preston; In re Preston: HL 1984
The plaintiff firm of solicitors sought to recover money which had been stolen from them by a partner, and then gambled away with the defendant. He had purchased their gaming chips, and the plaintiff argued that these, being gambling debts, were worthless, and that therefore no consideration had been given. Held: The casino’s defence succeeded. … Continue reading Lipkin Gorman (a Firm) v Karpnale Ltd: HL 6 Jun 1991
The court considered the implementation of the ECJ decision between the parties. Held: The matter was to be remitted to the Special Commissioners. The ‘no possibilities’ test referred to in the ECJ’s judgment required an analysis of the recognised possibilities legally available given the objective facts of the company’s situation at the relevant time, and … Continue reading Marks and Spencer plc v Halsey (Inspector of Taxes): ChD 10 Apr 2006
The inspector issued a notice requiring production of certain documents. The respondents refused to produce them, saying that they were protected by legal professional privilege. Held: Legal professional privilege is a fundamental part of ensuring human rights as a right of privacy, and is recognised in European law (A M and S Europe Ltd). A … Continue reading Regina v Special Commissioner And Another, ex parte Morgan Grenfell and Co Ltd: HL 16 May 2002
‘This appeal is about an elaborate scheme designed and marketed by KPMG relating to demonstrator cars used by retail distributors for test drives and other internal purposes. In the ordinary course, a car distributor will buy new cars for use as demonstrators, paying VAT on the full amount of the sale price. This will in … Continue reading Revenue and Customs v Pendragon Plc and Others: SC 10 Jun 2015
The House considered the meaning of the word ‘bounty’ in an income tax context, where it had been used by the courts: ‘My Lords, I would venture to point out that the word ‘bounty’ appears nowhere in the statute. It is a judicial gloss upon the statute descriptive of those classes of cases which are … Continue reading Chinn v Hochstrasser (Inspector of Taxes): HL 11 Dec 1980
The bodies sought exemption from certain elements of VAT as ‘non-profit’ making or ‘voluntary’ bodies. Their activities included trading activities, but they did not set out to make a profit overall. Held: For certain exemptions, the term ‘non-profit-making’ refers to financial advantages for the members of an organisation, and not to end of year surpluses. … Continue reading Kennemer Golf and Country Club v Staatssecretaris van Financien, Zoological Society of London v Commissioners of Customs and Excise Case: ECJ 21 Mar 2002
ICO The complainant has requested information regarding a trust and the people responsible for running it. HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) refused to either confirm or deny if the information was held on the basis of section 44(2) of the FOIA, by virtue of section 18(1) of the Commissioners for Revenue and Customs Act 2005. … Continue reading HM Revenue and Customs (Decision Notice): ICO 10 Apr 2014
Second Hand Knowledge Supports Resaobnable Belief The plaintiff had been arrested on the basis of the 1984 Act. The officer had no particular knowledge of the plaintiff’s involvement, relying on a briefing which led to the arrest. Held: A reasonable suspicion upon which an arrest was founded need not be based on the arresting officer’s … Continue reading O’Hara v Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary: HL 21 Nov 1996
The court discussed the historic availability of set-off in an insolvency: ‘By the turn of the [20th] century, therefore, the authorities showed that debts whose existence and amount were alike contingent at the date of the receiving order, and claims to damages for future breaches of contracts existing at that date, were capable of proof … Continue reading In re Charge Card Services Ltd: ChD 1987
The appellants challenged decisions of the VAT and Duties Tribunal after seizure of their goods, and in particular whether the cases had been criminal or civil cases and following Roth, whether the respondent’s policy had been lawful and proportionate. Held: The present procedure does not involve the criminal courts and the absence of any criminal … Continue reading Gora and others v Commissioners of Customs and Excise and others: CA 11 Apr 2003
Revival of domicile of origin after loss of choice The House considered the domicile of the respondent’s father at the time of the respondent’s birth. The father had been born in Scotland but had left Scotland and taken a lease of a house in London. He had a castle in Scotland but that was not … Continue reading Udny v Udny: HL 1869
Court to seek and Apply Parliamentary Intention The appellant challenged the practice of permitting cell nuclear replacement (CNR), saying it was either outside the scope of the Act, or was for a purpose which could not be licensed under the Act. Held: The challenge failed. The court was to give effect to the intentions of … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for Health ex parte Quintavalle (on behalf of Pro-Life Alliance): HL 13 Mar 2003
The tax payer had overpaid Advance Corporation Tax under an error of law. It sought repayment. The revenue contended that the claim was time barred. Held: The claim was in restitution, and the limitation period began to run from the date when the claimants discovered their mistake. The appellants had submitted that section 33 of … Continue reading Deutsche Morgan Grenfell Group Plc v Inland Revenue and Another: HL 25 Oct 2006
The plaintiffs sought an interdict against the respondents, a dockers’ union, who sought to impose an embargo on their tweeds as they passed through the port of Stornoway. Held: A trade embargo was not tortious because the predominant purpose of the conspirators was to protect their own interests, not to damage those of the plaintiffs. … Continue reading Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Company Limited v Veitch: HL 15 Dec 1941
The BBC claimed to be exempt from income tax. It claimed crown immunity as an emanation of the crown. The court had to decide whether the BBC was subject to judicial review. Held: It is not a statutory creature; it does not exercise statutory functions; it is not in any general way subject to statutory … Continue reading The British Broadcasting Corporation v Johns (HM Inspector of Taxes): CA 5 Mar 1964
Application of Hastings-Bass Rule F had created two settlements. Distributions were made, but overlooking the effect of section 2(4) of the 2002 Act, creating a large tax liability. P had taken advice on the investment of the proceeds of a damages claim and created a discretionary trust. Unfortunately it was done in such a way … Continue reading Futter and Another v Revenue and Customs; Pitt v Same: SC 9 May 2013
The transitional rules introducing time limits for failing to deduct VAT inputs made insufficient allowance for the decisions in Marks and Spencer and Grundig. Held: Lord Hope said: ‘To be compatible with EU law, taxpayers were entitled to be told in advance of any transitional arrangements that would enable them to submit late accrued claims … Continue reading Fleming (T/A Bodycraft) v Revenue and Customs: HL 23 Jan 2008
ECJ Articles 43 EC and 48 EC – Corporation tax – Groups of companies – Tax relief – Profits of parent companies – Deduction of losses incurred by a resident subsidiary- Allowed – Deduction of losses incurred in another Member State by a non-resident subsidiary – Not included.Article 43 EC did not preclude provisions of … Continue reading Marks and Spencer v David Halsey (Inspector of Taxes): ECJ 13 Dec 2005
Settling of appeals by agreement – s 54, Taxes Management Act 1970 – s 5, Commissioners for Revenue and Customs Act 2005 – preliminary issues2002/03: whether 2004 settlement agreement precluded issue of closure notices – whether agreement reached on basis of assessment such that liability treated as settled under 2004 settlement agreement – whether certain … Continue reading Thomas and Another v Revenue and Customs: FTTTx 6 Mar 2013
Necessity for Reference to ECJ Lord Denning said that the test for whether a question should be referred to the European Court of Justice is one of necessity, not desirability or convenience. There are cases where the point, if decided one way, would shorten the trial greatly. But if decided the other way, it would … Continue reading HP Bulmer Ltd and Another v J Bollinger Sa and others: CA 22 May 1974
The House was asked whether an action for unlawful means conspiracy was available against a participant in a missing trader intra-community, or carousel, fraud. The company appealed a finding of liability saying that the VAT Act and Regulations contained the entire regime. Held: Criminal conduct at common law or by statute can constitute unlawful means … Continue reading Total Network Sl v Revenue and Customs: HL 12 Mar 2008
Lapsed Currency conversion option lost status The taxpayer appealed his assessment to Capital Gains Tax on his redemption of loan notes arising following the sale of his computer company. He said that they were qualifying corporate bonds. The question was whether a security in which a currency conversion option has lapsed, becomes (as the taxpayer … Continue reading Harding v Revenue and Customs: CA 23 Oct 2008
Limitations on HMRC discretion on investigation The Commissioners had been concerned at tax evasion of up to 1 million pounds a year by casual workers employed in Fleet Street. They agreed with the employers and unions to collect tax in the future, but that they would not pursue those who had evaded taxes in the … Continue reading Regina v Inland Revenue Commissioners, ex parte the National Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses Ltd: HL 9 Apr 1981
The claimant had received two injuries resulting in his total blindness. He sought an order of certiorari against the respondent who had found only a 20% disability. The tribunal responded that its decision, under the Act was final. Held: In its decision the tribunal had made reference to the expert medical report and thereby had … Continue reading Regina v Medical Appeal Tribunal ex parte Gilmore; Re Gilmore’s Application: CA 25 Feb 1957
Taxpayer companies challenged the way that the revenue restricted claims for group Corporation Tax relief for subsidiary companies in Europe. The issue was awaiting a decision of the European Court. The Revenue said that the claims now being made by other companies should proceed through the Commissioners who could implement European law directly. The taxpayers … Continue reading Autologic Holdings Plc and others v Commissioners of Inland Revenue: HL 28 Jul 2005
New CPR govern Indemnity Costs awards The defendant had successfully defended the main claim and now appealed against the refusal of an order for costs on an indemnity basis even though judge thought that the claimants had behaved unreasonably. He had said that some conduct deserving of moral condemnation was required. The defendant had made … Continue reading Reid Minty (a firm) v Taylor: CA 2002
Account taken of circumstances wihout ambiguity The respondent gave advice on home income plans. The individual claimants had assigned their initial claims to the scheme, but later sought also to have their mortgages in favour of the respondent set aside. Held: Investors having once assigned their causes of action to the ICS, could not later … Continue reading Investors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society: HL 19 Jun 1997
When a valuation was to be attributed to a property the test must be applied to the property as it actually existed and not to some other property, even if in real life a vendor would have been likely to make some changes or improvements before putting it on the market. As to ‘Splitting and … Continue reading Duke of Buccleuch v Inland Revenue Commissioners: HL 1967
The court set down the conditions for the award of exemplary damages. There are two categories. The first is where there has been oppressive or arbitrary conduct by a defendant. Cases in the second category are those in which the defendant’s conduct has been calculated by him to make a profit for himself which may … Continue reading Rookes v Barnard (No 1): HL 21 Jan 1964
The defendants appealed against their convictions which had been based upon evidence of visual identification. Held: Identification evidence can be unreliable, and courts must take steps to reduce injustice. The judge should warn the jury of the special need for caution before convicting the accused in reliance upon the correctness of identification. No special form … Continue reading Regina v Turnbull and Another etc: CCA 9 Jun 1976
HMRC has power to conduct informal investigation The taxpayer, resident here, but with substantial oversea business interests, challenged the conduct of an informal investigation of his businesses under the 2005 Act, saying that HMRC, as a creature of statute, are only permitted to do that which they are expressly authorised to do by statute. They … Continue reading JJ Management Consulting Llp and Others v Revenue and Customs: CA 22 Jun 2020
HMRC appealed against an order for the return to the owner of goods seized under the 1979 Act. The respondents imported tobacco and alcohol which was seized. They said it had been for personal use. HMRC now said that the Tribunal’s jurisdiction to grant the original appeal was limited, and that the decision was out … Continue reading Revenue and Customs v Jones and Another: CA 18 Jul 2011
Contract Damages; What follows the Breach Naturaly The plaintiffs had sent a part of their milling machinery for repair. The defendants contracted to carry it, but delayed in breach of contract. The plaintiffs claimed damages for the earnings lost through the delay. The defendants appealed, saying that the damages were too remote. Held: The case … Continue reading Hadley v Baxendale: Exc 23 Feb 1854
Rectification – Chartbrook not followed Opportunity for an appellate court to clarify the correct test to apply in deciding whether the written terms of a contract may be rectified because of a common mistake. Held: The appeal failed. The judge was right to conclude that an objective observer would have understood – just as Barclays … Continue reading FSHC Group Holdings Ltd v Glas Trust Corporation Ltd: CA 31 Jul 2019
Interpretation of Double Taxation Agreements This appeal is concerned with the interpretation and application of a double taxation agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States of America. A had been a member of an LLP in Delaware, and he was resident within the UK, but not domiciled here. He was liable to UK … Continue reading Anson v Revenue and Customs: SC 1 Jul 2015
The company had obtained legal advice but had taken it from their accountants. The Revenue sought its disclosure, and the company said that as legal advice it was protected by legal professional privilege. Held: The material was not protected. The privilege given under the Act by virtue of the Morgan Grenfell decision was limited to … Continue reading Prudential Plc and Another, Regina (on the Application of) v Special Commissioner of Income Tax and Another: Admn 14 Oct 2009
Trustees of a settlement had exercised their power of advancement under the section, in order to save estate duty by transferring investments to be held on the trusts of a later settlement. However the actual effect of the advancement was that the trusts in remainder were void for perpetuity. Held: A trustee when exercising a … Continue reading Re Hastings-Bass; Hastings v Inland Revenue: CA 14 Mar 1974
The trustees proposed establishing a new trust in respect of the share of an estate to which an infant beneficiary had a contingent entitlement. A portion of the trust fund would be allocated to the new trust. Held: This was a lawful exercise of the statutory power of advancement. The new trusts must be read … Continue reading In Re Pilkington’s Will Trusts; Pilkington v Inland Revenue Commissioners: HL 8 Oct 1962
When taking a car in part exchange, the company would initially offer the correct market value. If the customer wanted, the company would agree a higher price. When cars were returned, the company at first reclaimed the VAT on the re-purchase price, but then submitted a rebate claim based upon the market value, the ‘non-monetary … Continue reading Lex Services plc v Her Majestys Commissioners of Customs and Excise: HL 4 Dec 2003
Foreign Public Law Not Enforceable Here The claimant alleged a conspiracy by the defendants for his overthrow by means of a private coup d’etat. The defendants denied that the court had jurisdiction. The claimants appealed dismissal of their claim to damages. Held: The claims were not justiciable here. Public laws, like penal laws, may not … Continue reading Mbasogo, President of the State of Equatorial Guinea and Another v Logo Ltd and others: CA 23 Oct 2006
Right of Recovery of Money Paid under Mistake Kleinwort Benson had made payments to a local authority under swap agreements which were thought to be legally enforceable when made. Subsequently, a decision of the House of Lords, (Hazell v. Hammersmith and Fulham) established that such swap agreements were unlawful. Kleinwort Benson then sought restitution of … Continue reading Kleinwort Benson Ltd v Lincoln City Council etc: HL 29 Jul 1998
The society had set out to assert that regulations were unlawful in creating a double taxation. It paid money on account of the tax demanded. It won and recovered the sums paid, but the revenue refused to pay any interest accrued on the sums paid. The Society sought to challenge the decision by judicial review. … Continue reading Woolwich Equitable Building Society v Inland Revenue Commissioners (2): HL 20 Jul 1992
The company had paid substantial sums out in establishing a gas pipeline, and claimed those sums against its tax as capital allowances. The transaction involved a sale and leaseback arrangement which the special commissioners had found to be a pre-arranged series created only for a tax advantage, and the judge at first instance agreed saying … Continue reading Barclays Mercantile Business Finance Ltd v Mawson (HM Inspector of Taxes): HL 25 Nov 2004
The company wished to assign losses in its European subsidiaries against its profits. Since the losses were first claimed, the subsidiaries had gone into insolvent liquidation.
Held: Lord Hope said: ‘I would answer the first issue by rejecting . .
The defendant had been convicted, under regulations made under the Act, of smoking in a railway carriage. He sought to challenge the validity of the regulations themselves. He wanted to argue that the power to ban smoking on carriages did not . .
The taxpayer, a diver resident in South Africa had undertaken engagements within UK waters and now disputed his liability to Income Tax using a deeming provision in section 5 of the 2005 Act being self employed.
Held: HMRC’s appeal succeeded. . .
The plaintiff, on arriving at the airport found that his luggage had been lost. The defendant denied liability saying he had not notified his claim within the requisite period.
Held: Elementary justice requires that the rules by which the . .
Practice – Parties – Joinder – Proceedings between subjects raising issues material to income tax – Joinder of Commissioners of Inland Revenue – Income Tax Act 1952 (15 and 16 Geo. 6 and 1 Eliz. 2, c.10), ss. 52 and 64 ; Income Tax Management Act . .
The bank had entered into a master trading agreement with a trader under which the trader bought motor vehicles as agent for the bank for resale. The vehicles belonged to the bank. The defendant bought all the trader’s vehicles. The defendant now . .
The House was asked whether, in a taxing statute applying to the whole of the United Kingdom and allowing for deductions from and allowances against the income of land vested in trustees for charitable purposes, the words ‘charitable purposes’ . .
The taxpayer companies had paid funds into a trust for employees. They sought to set off the payments against their liability to corporation tax. The revenue argued that they were deductible only in the year in which they were paid to the employees. . .
The defendant appealed against an order regarding the remuneration of a receiver appointed to administer a restraint order placed on the assets of the defendant under the 1988 Act on the basis of an allegation that the defendant had been involved in . .
In each case, the employee had retired after long term sickness. The Employment tribunal had upheld their ability to claim arrears of sickness pay arising under the 1998 Regulations, as an unlawful deduction from their wages. They now appealed . .
The parties agreed that damages were payable in an action for restitution, but the sum depended upon to a calculation of interest. They disputed whether such interest should be calculated on a simple or compound basis. The company sought compound . .
The British law which meant that non-resident parent companies of British based businesses were not able to recover interest on payments of advance corporation tax, was discriminatory against other European based companies. Accordingly the law was . .
Several companies within a group paid VAT. Later the basis of charge to output VAT was revised, and a reclaim became due, but the VAT group had been dissolved. Could the appellant, former lead within the group now make the reclaim.
Held: . .
ECJ Taxation – Sixth VAT Directive – Exemptions – Article 13B(f) – Betting, lotteries and other forms of gambling – Principle of fiscal neutrality – Mechanised cash bingo – Slot machines – Administrative practice . .
The appellant challenged by review the use of closed material first in the issue of a search warrant, and subsequently to justify the retention of materials removed during the search.
Held: The appeal failed. No express statutory justification . .
The General Commissioner had held that an inspector’s refusal to renew a certificate allowing the taxpayer construction company to pay its sub-contractors without deducting income tax, infringed that company’s rights. The inspector appealed.
FTTTxp INCOME TAX – construction industry scheme – cancellation of gross payment status – s66 Finance Act 2004 – HMRC discretion – whether properly exercised – Failure to take into account effect of cancellation . .
The revenue had refused to renew the respondent’s certificate, and now itself appealed against the contractor’ success on appeal to the General Commissioners. . .
The claimants had been the registered proprietors of land, they lost it through the adverse possession of former tenants holding over. They claimed that the law had dispossessed them of their lawful rights.
Held: The cumulative effect of the . .
The taxpayers registration under the Construction Industry Scheme had been withdrawn. The Court was now asked whether HMRC are obliged, or at least entitled, to take into account the impact on the taxpayer’s business of the cancellation of its . .
Application for disclosure – Disclosure sought ‘potentially relevant’ to issue(s) in the case – Whether disclosure precluded by s 18 Commissioners for Revenue and Customs Act 2005 and GDPR – No – Application allowed – Directions made for progression . .