GMC v Szisz: Admn 23 Dec 2013

Application made by Part 8 claim form for an extension of an interim order of conditions imposed on the defendant by the Interim Orders Panel of the General Medical Council originally on the 4th January 2013. The defendant is a Hungarian national who currently practises in Hungary.

Pelling QC HHJ
[2013] EWHC 4452 (Admin)
Bailii

Health Professions

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.521083

Raabe, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department: Admn 20 Jun 2013

The claimant challenged his removal from a panel advising on the misuse of drugs on the basis that he had authored a paper setting out his approval of heterosexual relationships only.

Stadlen J
[2013] EWHC 1736 (Admin)
Bailii
England and Wales

Health Professions, Discrimination

Updated: 14 November 2021; Ref: scu.510948

Save Our Surgery Ltd, Regina (on The Application of) v Joint Committee of Primary Care Trusts: Admn 7 Mar 2013

The claimants sought judicial review of the report prepared by the defendants under which departments providing childrens’ heart surgery at their regional hospital would close. They complained that the consultation had been inadequate and flawed.
Held: Review was granted. The respondent had failed to disclose necessary elements of the decision making progress so that the claimants could make representations. It could not be said that the decision would inevitable have been the same if disclosure had taken place.
The scoring was very close as between the competing entres, and the court did not accept that characterisation by the defendants of the ‘sub-scores as being no more than ‘underlying workings’. They provided the basis for the consensus score which was ultimately used as one of the most valuable and thus significant tools in the assessment of ‘Quality’ of the respective centres.’

Nicola Davies J
[2013] EWHC 439 (Admin), [2013] PTSR D16
Bailii
National Health Service Act 2006 1 3, National Health Service (Functions of Strategic Health Authorities and Primary Care Trust and Administration Arrangements) (England) Regulations 2002 3
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRegina v Brent London Borough Council ex parte Gunning 1985
The demands of fair consultation procedures will vary from case to case and will depend on the factors involved. The requirements are: ‘First, that consultation must be at a time when proposals are still at a formative stage. Second, that the . .
CitedRegina v North and East Devon Health Authority ex parte Coughlan and Secretary of State for Health Intervenor and Royal College of Nursing Intervenor CA 16-Jul-1999
Consultation to be Early and Real Listening
The claimant was severely disabled as a result of a road traffic accident. She and others were placed in an NHS home for long term disabled people and assured that this would be their home for life. Then the health authority decided that they were . .
CitedDevon County Council and Another v Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Admn 21-Jun-2010
The court was asked to consider the decision to merge two health authorities. Ouseley J discussed what need to be made available to support the consultation: ‘What needs to be published about the proposal is very much a matter for the judgment of . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Doody and Others HL 25-Jun-1993
A mandatory lifer is to be permitted to suggest the period of actual sentence to be served. The Home Secretary must give reasons for refusing a lifer’s release. What fairness requires in any particular case is ‘essentially an intuitive judgment’, . .
CitedBushell v Secretary of State for the Environment HL 7-Feb-1980
Practical Realities of Planning Decisions
The House considered planning procedures adopted on the construction of two new stretches of motorway, and in particular as to whether the Secretary of State had acted unlawfully in refusing to allow objectors to the scheme to cross-examine the . .
CitedEisai Ltd, Regina (on the Application of) v National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Shire Pharmaceuticals Limited and Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (Interveners) CA 1-May-2008
The applicant pharmaceutical companies challenged the decision of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) to to list certain drugs saying that the procedure adopted was unfair. NICE had revealed that results of calculations it had made . .
CitedKioa v West 18-Dec-1985
kioa_westHCA1985
(High Court of Australia) Immigration and Aliens – Deportation – Power of Minister – Principles of natural justice – Whether applicable – Standing as Australian citizen of infant daughter of aliens – Intended deportation order – Whether notice . .
CitedLambeth London Borough Council v Ireneschild CA 16-Mar-2007
The tenant held a secure tenancy of a first floor flat of the Council. She was severely disabled and argued that the danger of injury meant that she should be allowed to occupy the empty ground floor flat. She complained at the way the authority had . .
CitedEisai Ltd v The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Admn 10-Aug-2007
The company sought to challenge the decision of the respondent not to approve its drug for use for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Held: In requiring all patients to have a certain MMSE score in order to qualify for funding . .
CitedEasyjet Airline Co Ltd, Regina (on The Application of) v Civil Aviation Authority CA 15-Dec-2009
The claimant appealed against rejection of its challenge to the respondent’s decision on charging structures for the use by airline of Gatwick airport, and in particular the alleged lack of adequate consultation by the respondent. After its own . .
CitedSmith v North East Derbyshire Primary Care Trust CA 23-Aug-2006
The cliamant had challenged a decision by the respondent on the method of provision of general practioner medical services in her village. She said that the procedure had been flawed in that the consultation had been inadequate.
Held: Her . .
CitedSecretary of State for Education and Science v Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council HL 21-Oct-1976
An authority investigating an application for registration of rights of common over land has an implied duty to ‘take reasonable steps to acquaint (itself) with the relevant information.’ A mere factual mistake has become a ground of judicial . .
CitedRegina (Holding and Barnes plc) v Secretary of State for Environment Transport and the Regions; Regina (Alconbury Developments Ltd and Others) v Same and Others HL 9-May-2001
Power to call in is administrative in nature
The powers of the Secretary of State to call in a planning application for his decision, and certain other planning powers, were essentially an administrative power, and not a judicial one, and therefore it was not a breach of the applicants’ rights . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health Professions, Natural Justice

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.471509

Department of Health, Regina (on The Application of) v Information Commissioner: Admn 20 Apr 2011

The department appealed against an order requiring it to disclose statistical information about late abortions. The department argued that the numbers involved were such that the individual patients involved mighty be identified, and that therefore the information constituted personal data and was exempt under section 40 of the 2000 Act. The claimant had altered its practice to follow guidelines published by the Office for National Statistics. Though there had been occasional attempts to identify the doctors and patients involved, the risks were thought to be low.
Held: The decision to order the disclosure of the information was correct. The Tribunal had been in error in holding the requested information to be personal data. The court traced where the Data Protection and Freedom of Information laws met and used similar definitions. The fact that the Department had other information which could be added to the data to identify subjects did not make this personal data. The consequences of the identification of a patient could indeed be disatrous, but the tribunal had been entitled to conclude that the risk was extremely remote.

Cranston J
[2011] EWHC 1430 (Admin)
Bailii
Freedom of Information Act 2000 1(1) 40, Abortion Act 1967 1(1), Data Protection Act 1998 7(1)(c), European Council Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedCorporate Officer of the House of Commons v The Information Commissioner and others Admn 16-May-2008
Applicants had sought disclosure of information supplied by members of Parliament in support of expenses claims. The Office appealed against an order from the Commissioner to produce that information, saying that the actions of Parliament are not . .
CitedDepartment of Health v Information Commissioner (Freedom of Information Act 2000) FTTGRC 15-Oct-2009
The Department had altered the way it reported the incidence of late abortions so as to protect the identities of those involved. It said that the numbers were so small that any detail could lead to identification.
Held: (1) The disputed . .
CitedCommon Services Agency v Scottish Information Commissioner HL 9-Jul-2008
An MP had asked the Agency under the 2002 Act for details of all incidents of childhood leukaemia for both sexes by year from 1990 to 2003 for all the DG (Dumfries and Galloway) postal area by census ward. The Agency replied by saying that the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Information, Health Professions

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.440859

Regina v Secretary of State for Health ex parte Quintavalle (on behalf of Pro-Life Alliance): HL 13 Mar 2003

Court to seek and Apply Parliamentary Intention

The appellant challenged the practice of permitting cell nuclear replacement (CNR), saying it was either outside the scope of the Act, or was for a purpose which could not be licensed under the Act.
Held: The challenge failed. The court was to give effect to the intentions of Parliament, and statutes were to be read accordingly. The words which suggested it only applied to those which had human life given by fertilisation were words of description and not words of exclusive definition.
The words ‘where fertilisation is complete’ were intended not to qualify which embryos were protected, but the time at which they were protected. This was an Act passed for the protection of live human embryos created outside the human body. The essential thrust of section 1(1)(a) was directed to such embryos, not to the manner of their creation. The process was within the scope of the Act, and could accordingly be licensed under it. There was a ‘clear purpose in the legislation’ which could ‘only be fulfilled if the extension [was] made’.
Lord Bingham said: ‘The basic task of the court is to ascertain and give effect to the true meaning of what Parliament has said in the enactment to be construed. But that is not to say that attention should be confined and a literal interpretation given to the particular provisions which give rise to difficulties. Such an approach not only encourages immense preliminary complexity in drafting, since the draftsman will feel obliged to provide expressly for every contingency which may possibly arise. It may also (under the banner of loyalty to the will of Parliament) lead to the frustration of that will, because undue concentration on the minutia of the enactment may lead the court to neglect the purpose which Parliament intended to achieve when it enacted the statute. Every statute other than a pure consolidating statute is, after all, enacted to make some change, or address some problem, or remove some blemish or effect some improvement to the national life. The court’s task, within the permissible bounds of interpretation, is to give effect to Parliament’s purpose. So the controversial provision should be read in the context of the statute as a whole, and the statute as a whole should be read in the historical context of the situation which led to its enactment . . There is, I think, no inconsistency between the rule that statutory language retains the meaning it had when Parliament used it and the rule that a statute is always speaking . . The courts have frequently had to grapple with the question whether a modern invention or activity falls within old statutory language . . a revealing example is found in Grant v Southwestern and County Properties Limited [1975] Ch 185, where Walton J had to decide whether a tape recording falls within the expression ‘document’ in the Rules of the Supreme Court. Pointing out, at p190, that the furnishing of information had been treated as one of the main functions of a document, the judge concluded that a tape recording was a document.’
Lord Steyn noted that Acts were generally to be construed as ‘always speaking’ unless they were in an exceptional category dealing with a particular problem. Otherwise the court was free to apply the meaning of the statute to the present day conditions.

Bingham of Cornhill, Steyn, Hoffmann, Millett, Scott of Foscoe, LL
[2003] UKHL 13, Times 14-Mar-2003, [2003] 2 WLR 692, [2003] 2 AC 687, (2003) 71 BMLR 209, [2003] 1 FCR 577, [2003] 2 All ER 113
House of Lords, Bailii
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 1(1)
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromRegina (Quintavalle) v Secretary of State for Health CA 18-Jan-2002
A cloned cell, a cell produced by cell nuclear replacement came within the definition of embryo under the Act. The Act required that fertilisation was complete.
Held: The act could be applied in a purposive way. The legislative policy was that . .
AdoptedRoyal College of Nursing of the United Kingdom v Department of Health and Social Security HL 2-Jan-1981
The court was asked whether nurses could properly involve themselves in a pregnancy termination procedure not known when the Act was passed, and in particular, whether a pregnancy was ‘terminated by a medical practitioner’, when it was carried out . .
CitedGrant v Southwestern and County Properties Ltd ChD 1974
The court had to decide whether a tape recording fell within the expression ‘document’ in the Rules of the Supreme Court.
Held: The furnishing of information had been treated as one of the main functions of a document, and the tape recording . .
CitedCabell v Markham 1945
In discussing the purposive approach to the interpretation of statutes, the judge held: ‘Of course it is true that the words used, even in their literal sense, are the primary, and ordinarily the most reliable, source of interpreting the meaning of . .
CitedChristopher Hill Ltd v Ashington Piggeries Ltd HL 1972
Mink farmers had asked a compounder of animal foods to make up mink food to a supplied formula.
Held: There was reliance as to the suitability of the ingredients only.
Lord Diplock said: ‘Unless the Sale of Goods Act 1893 is to be allowed . .
CitedRegina v Burstow, Regina v Ireland HL 24-Jul-1997
The defendant was accused of assault occasioning actual bodily harm when he had made silent phone calls which were taken as threatening.
Held: An assault might consist of the making of a silent telephone call in circumstances where it causes . .

Cited by:
CitedQuintavalle, Regina (on the Application of) v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority CA 16-May-2003
A licence was sought so that a couple could have a child who would be tissue typed to establish his suitability to provide an umbilical cord after his birth to help treat his future brother. A licence had been granted subject to conditions, and the . .
CitedKirin-Amgen Inc and others v Hoechst Marion Roussel Limited and others etc HL 21-Oct-2004
The claims arose in connection with the validity and alleged infringement of a European Patent on erythropoietin (‘EPO’).
Held: ‘Construction is objective in the sense that it is concerned with what a reasonable person to whom the utterance . .
CitedQuintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority HL 28-Apr-2005
The parents of a boy suffering a serious genetic disorder sought IVF treament in which any embryo would be tested for its pre-implantation genetic status. Only an embryo capable of producing the stem cells necessary to cure the boy would be . .
CitedRegina v Z (Attorney General for Northern Ireland’s Reference) HL 19-May-2005
The defendants appealed their convictions for being members of proscribed organisations. They were members of the ‘Real IRA’, but only the IRA was actually proscribed.
Held: The appeals failed. In construing an Act of Parliament it may be of . .
CitedKay v Commissioner of the Police of the Metropolis HL 26-Nov-2008
The claimant had been involved in a monthly cycle ride through central London which had continued for many years. The ride took place without any central organisation and without any route being pre-planned. They objected to being required to apply . .
CitedHM Treasury v Ahmed and Others SC 27-Jan-2010
The claimants objected to orders made freezing their assets under the 2006 Order, after being included in the Consolidated List of suspected members of terrorist organisations.
Held: The orders could not stand. Such orders were made by the . .
CitedHM Treasury v Ahmed and Others SC 27-Jan-2010
The claimants objected to orders made freezing their assets under the 2006 Order, after being included in the Consolidated List of suspected members of terrorist organisations.
Held: The orders could not stand. Such orders were made by the . .
CitedGaunt v OFCOM and Liberty QBD 13-Jul-2010
The claimant, a radio presenter sought judicial review of the respondent’s finding (against the broadcaster) that a radio interview he had conducted breached the Broadcasting Code. He had strongly criticised a proposal to ban smokers from being . .
CitedBritish Pregnancy Advisory Service v Secretary of State for Health Admn 14-Feb-2011
The claimant sought a declaration that the administration of an abortifacient drug was not ‘any treatment for the termination of pregnancy’ for the purposes of section 1 of the 1967 Act, allowing the piloting and possible adoption of early medical . .
CitedBritish Bankers Association, Regina (on The Application of) v The Financial Services Authority and Another Admn 20-Apr-2011
The claimant sought relief by way of judicial review from a policy statement issued by the defendants regarding the alleged widespread misselling of payment protection insurance policies, and the steps to be taken to compensate the purchasers. They . .
CitedRobertson v Swift SC 9-Sep-2014
Notice Absence did not Remove Right to Cancel
The defendant had contracted to arrange the removal of the claimant’s household goods on moving house. The claimant cancelled the contract, made at his housel, but refused to pay the cancellation fee, saying that the contract not having been made at . .
CitedTrail Riders Fellowship and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Dorset County Council and Others CA 20-May-2013
The Fellowship had applied for orders upgrading public rights of way. The council rejected the applications saying that the digital mapping software used to repare the maps submitted were not compliant with the requirements of the legislation. They . .
CitedEnglish Bridge Union Ltd, Regina (on The Application of) v The English Sports Council and Others Admn 15-Oct-2015
The claimant Union claimed that the defendant should recognise the game of bridge as a sport. The defendant had adopted a definition from Europe which required physical activity, and the Union said that this was a misconstruction of its Royal . .
CitedTransport for London v Uber London Ltd Admn 16-Oct-2015
TFL sought a declaration as to the legality of the Uber taxi system. Otherwise unlicensed drivers took fares with fees calculated by means of a smartphone app. The Licensed Taxi drivers said that the app operated as a meter and therefore required . .
CitedTrail Riders Fellowship and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Dorset County Council SC 18-Mar-2015
Objection had been made that a plan, used to register a right of way before it would disappear if un-registered, was to the wrong scale and that therefore the application was ineffetive.
Held: The Council’s appeal failed. The plan was too . .
CitedLittlewoods Ltd and Others v Commissioners for Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs SC 1-Nov-2017
The appellants had overpaid under a mistake of law very substantial sums in VAT over several years. The excess had been repaid, but with simple interest and not compound interest, which the now claimed (together with other taxpayers amounting to 17 . .
CitedBarlow v Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council CA 1-Jun-2020
Presumption of dedication dates back.
The claimant tripped over a tree root raising a path in the park. The court was now asked whether the pathway through a public park, but which was not a public right of way, was maintainable at public expense as a highway governed by the 1980 Act. . .
CitedHuman Rights Commission for Judicial Review (Northern Ireland : Abortion) SC 7-Jun-2018
The Commission challenged the compatibility of the NI law relating to banning nearly all abortions with Human Rights Law. It now challenged a decision that it did not have standing to bring the case.
Held: (Lady Hale, Lord Kerr and Lord Wilson . .
CitedOwens v Owens SC 25-Jul-2018
W petitioned for divorce alleging that he ‘has behaved in such a way that [she] cannot reasonably be expected to live with [him]’. H defended, and the petition was rejected as inadequate in the behaviour alleged. She said that the section should be . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health Professions, Administrative, Constitutional

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.179803

Greater Glasgow Health Board v Doogan and Another: SC 17 Dec 2014

Roman Catholic Midwives, working as Labour Ward Co-ordinators had objected to being involved in an administrative capacity in abortions being conducted by the appellants. The Outer House had said they were not entitled to opt out, but the Inner House had declared that ‘the petitioners’ entitlement to conscientious objection to participation in treatment for termination of pregnancy and feticide all in terms of section 4(1) of the Abortion Act 1967 includes the entitlement to refuse to delegate, supervise and/or support staff in the provision of care to patients undergoing termination of pregnancy or feticide throughout the termination process save as required of the petitioners in terms of section 4(2) of the said Act’. The Board appealed.
Held: The appeal succeeded, and the declarator was set asde.
Lady Hale said: ‘the course of treatment to which the petitioners may object is the whole course of medical treatment bringing about the termination of the pregnancy. It begins with the administration of the drugs designed to induce labour and normally ends with the ending of the pregnancy by delivery of the foetus, placenta and membrane. It would also, in my view, include the medical and nursing care which is connected with the process of undergoing labour and giving birth, – the monitoring of the progress of labour, the administration of pain relief, the giving of advice and support to the patient who is going through it all, the delivery of the foetus, which may require the assistance of forceps or an episiotomy, or in some cases an emergency Caesarian section, and the disposal of the foetus, placenta and membrane. In some cases, there may be specific aftercare which is required as a result of the process of giving birth, such as the repair of an episiotomy. But the ordinary nursing and pastoral care of a patient who has just given birth was not unlawful before the 1967 Act and thus was not made lawful by it.’
. . And ‘Whatever the outcome of the objectors’ stance, it is a feature of conscience clauses generally within the health care profession that the conscientious objector be under an obligation to refer the case to a professional who does not share that objection. This is a necessary corollary of the professional’s duty of care towards the patient. Once she has assumed care of the patient, she needs a good reason for failing to provide that care. But when conscientious objection is the reason, another health care professional should be found who does not share the objection. ‘

Lady Hale, Deputy President, Lord Wilson, Lord Reed, Lord Hughes, Lord Hodge
[2014] UKSC 68, [2015] 2 WLR 126, [2014] WLR(D) 550, UKSC 2013/0124
Bailii, WLRD, Bailii Summary, SC Summary, SC
Abortion Act 1967 4(2), Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990
Scotland
Citing:
At Outer HouseDoogan and Another, Re Judicial Review SCS 29-Feb-2012
(Outer House, Court of Session) Midwives worked on a labour ward which also had care of patients having later terminations. As sincere Roman Catholics, they sought to assert a right of conscientious objection to allow them to be excused from taking . .
Appeal fromDoogan and Another v NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Health Board SCS 24-Apr-2013
(Extra Division, Inner House) The reclaimers, Roman Catholic midwives working on a labour ward as co-ordinators, sought to assert a right of conscientious objection under the 1967 Act. The respondents said that only those directly involved in the . .
CitedRoyal College of Nursing of the United Kingdom v Department of Health and Social Security HL 2-Jan-1981
The court was asked whether nurses could properly involve themselves in a pregnancy termination procedure not known when the Act was passed, and in particular, whether a pregnancy was ‘terminated by a medical practitioner’, when it was carried out . .
CitedRegina v Newton and Stungo 1958
Ashworth J gave a direction at trial: ‘The law about the use of instruments to procure miscarriage is this: such use of an instrument is unlawful unless the use is made in good faith for the purpose of preserving the life or health of the woman. . .
CitedRoyal College of Nursing of the United Kingdom v Department of Health and Social Security CA 1981
The College sought clarification of the role to be undertaken by nurses in abortion procedures. Lord Denning MR said: ‘when a pregnancy is terminated by medical induction, who should do the actual act of termination? Should it be done by a doctor? . .
CitedJanaway v Salford Area Health Authority HL 1-Feb-1988
The plaintiff took work as a secretary at a health centre, but objected to having to type out letters referring patients to an abortion clinic, saying that she conscientiously objected to participation in the process.
Held: Her appeal was . .
CitedEweida And Others v The United Kingdom ECHR 15-Jan-2013
Eweida_ukECHR2013
The named claimant had been employed by British Airways. She was a committed Christian and wished to wear a small crucifix on a chain around her neck. This breached the then dress code and she was dismissed. Her appeals had failed. Other claimants . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health Professions

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.540220

Z v Finland: ECHR 25 Feb 1997

A defendant had appealed against his conviction for manslaughter and related offences by deliberately subjecting women to the risk of being infected by him with HIV virus. The applicant, Z, had been married to the defendant, and infected by him with HIV. Z’s doctors had been required to give evidence about her medical condition in spite of their, and her, objections to the disclosure of this information, and the police seized her medical records, including laboratory tests and information about her mental state. The police copied these and the Court included them in the case file.
Held: The court considered the making of an order for the disclosure of medical records: ‘In this connection the court will take into account that the protection of personal data, not least medical data, is of fundamental importance to a person’s enjoyment of his or her right to respect for private and family life as guaranteed by Article 8 of the Convention. Respecting the confidentiality of health data is a vital principle in the legal systems of all the Contracting Parties to the Convention. It is crucial not only to respect the sense of privacy of a patient but also to preserve his or her confidence in the medical profession and in the health services in general. Without such protection those in need of medical assistance may be deterred, when revealing such information of a personal and intimate nature as may be necessary in order to receive the appropriate treatment, from seeking such assistance thereby endangering their own health but, in the case of transmissible diseases, that of the community. The domestic law must therefore afford appropriate safeguards so there may be no such communication or disclosure of personal health data as may be inconsistent with the guarantees of Article 8 of the Convention.’

22009/93, (1997) 25 EHRR 371, [1997] ECHR 10
Worldlii, Bailii
Human Rights
Cited by:
CitedKent County Council v The Mother, The Father, B (By Her Children’s Guardian); Re B (A Child) (Disclosure) FD 19-Mar-2004
The council had taken the applicant’s children into care alleging that the mother had harmed them. In the light of the subsequent cases casting doubt on such findings, the mother sought the return of her children. She applied now that the hearings . .
CitedSzuluk, Regina (on the Application of) v HM Prison Full Sutton Admn 20-Feb-2004
The prisoner was receiving long term health treatment, and objected that his correspondence with the doctor was being read. He was held as a category B prisoner but in a prison also holding category A prisoners, whose mail would be read. The prison . .
CitedCampbell v Mirror Group Newspapers Ltd (MGN) (No 1) HL 6-May-2004
The claimant appealed against the denial of her claim that the defendant had infringed her right to respect for her private life. She was a model who had proclaimed publicly that she did not take drugs, but the defendant had published a story . .
CitedCampbell v Mirror Group Newspapers Ltd (MGN) (No 1) HL 6-May-2004
The claimant appealed against the denial of her claim that the defendant had infringed her right to respect for her private life. She was a model who had proclaimed publicly that she did not take drugs, but the defendant had published a story . .
CitedRegina (Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd) v Serious Fraud Office CA 11-Nov-2004
In 2002 the SFO was investigating allegations that drug companies were selling generic drugs, including penicillin-based antibiotics and warfarin, to the National Health Service at artificially sustained prices. To further the investigation the SFO . .
CitedAshworth Security Hospital v MGN Limited HL 27-Jun-2002
Order for Journalist to Disclose Sources
The newspaper published details of the medical records of Ian Brady, a prisoner and patient of the applicant. The applicant sought an order requiring the defendant newspaper to disclose the identity of the source of material which appeared to have . .
CitedAxon, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Another Admn 23-Jan-2006
A mother sought to challenge guidelines issued by the respondent which would allow doctors to protect the confidentiality of women under 16 who came to them for assistance even though the sexual activities they might engage in would be unlawful.
CitedMersey Care NHS Trust v Ackroyd QBD 7-Feb-2006
The trust, operators of Ashworth Secure Hospital sought from the defendant journalist disclosure of the name of their employee who had revealed to the defendant matters about the holding of Ian Brady, the Moors Murderer, and in particular medical . .
CitedKD v Chief Constable of Hampshire QBD 23-Nov-2005
The claimant’s daughter had made a complaint of rape. She alleged that she was sexually harassed by the investigating police officer, and sought damages also from the defendant, his employer. The officer denied that anything improper or . .
CitedTB, Regina (on the Application of) v The Combined Court at Stafford Admn 4-Jul-2006
The claimant was the child complainant in an allegation of sexual assault. The defendant requested her medical records, and she now complained that she had been unfairly pressured into releasing them.
Held: The confidentiality of a patient’s . .
CitedRe B (Disclosure to Other Parties) 2001
Witnesses and others involved in children proceedings have article 8 rights. . .
CitedNorfolk County Council v Webster and others FD 1-Nov-2006
The claimants wished to claim that they were victims of a miscarriage of justice in the way the Council had dealt with care proceedings. They sought that the proceedings should be reported without the children being identified.
Held: A judge . .
CitedMersey Care NHS Trust v Ackroyd CA 21-Feb-2007
The defendant journalist had published confidential material obtained from the claimant’s secure hospital at Ashworth. The hospital now appealed against the refusal of an order for him to to disclose his source.
Held: The appeal failed. Given . .
CitedBritish Broadcasting Corporation v CAFCASS Legal and others FD 30-Mar-2007
Parents of a child had resisted care proceedings, and now wished the BBC to be able to make a TV programme about their case. They applied to the court for the judgment to be released. Applications were also made to have a police officer’s and . .
CitedHafner and Hochstrasser (A Firm), Regina (on the Application of) v Australian Securities and Investments Commission Admn 5-Mar-2008
The Commission renewed its application for a review of a decision on their request for judicial assistance in obtaining evidence from the firm. The firm had produced confidential documents to the court, and not disclosed to the Commission.
CitedMarper v United Kingdom; S v United Kingdom ECHR 4-Dec-2008
(Grand Chamber) The applicants complained that on being arrested on suspicion of offences, samples of their DNA had been taken, but then despite being released without conviction, the samples had retained on the Police database.
Held: . .
CitedRe C (A Child) FC 29-Sep-2015
There had been care proceedings as to C. The mother was treated by a psychiatrist, X, and an associate Y. They also prepared expert reports. M formally complained about X, and the charges having been dismissed, the doctors now sought disclosure of . .
CitedA v British Broadcasting Corporation (Scotland) SC 8-May-2014
Anonymised Party to Proceedings
The BBC challenged an order made by the Court of Session in judicial review proceedings, permitting the applicant review to delete his name and address and substituting letters of the alphabet, in the exercise (or, as the BBC argues, purported . .
CitedThe Christian Institute and Others v The Lord Advocate SC 28-Jul-2016
(Scotland) By the 2014 Act, the Scottish Parliament had provided that each child should have a named person to monitor that child’s needs, with information about him or her shared as necessary. The Institute objected that the imposed obligation to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Information, Health Professions

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.165488

The NHS Business Services Authority v Williams: ChD 28 Jul 2016

The court was asked whether the Respondent was ‘in pensionable employment as a nurse’ within the meaning of Regulation 2 of Part R of the 1995 Regulations. She had no nursing qualification, and had worked as a nursery nurse in a hospital. The Authority now appealed against a decision that she was.
Held: The appeal succeeded. The phrase ’employment as a nurse’ within the Regulations had been intended to capture those members of the scheme who were qualified nurses employed in nursing jobs.

Warren J
[2016] EWHC 1952 (Ch), [2016] WLR(D) 461
Bailii, WLRD
National Health Service Pension Scheme Regulations 1995
England and Wales

Health Professions, Employment

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.568631

JD v East Berkshire Community Health NHS Trust and others: HL 21 Apr 2005

Parents of children had falsely and negligently been accused of abusing their children. The children sought damages for negligence against the doctors or social workers who had made the statements supporting the actions taken. The House was asked if the suffering of psychiatric injury by the parent was a foreseeable result of making it and such injury has in fact been suffered by the parent.
Held: The appeals were dismissed. The doctors had a duty to question whether abuse had occurred, and having honestly formed a suspicion, to act in accordance with the guidance given. The complaint was in substance as to the length of time taken to clear the parent of the false accusation.
health care and childcare professionals investigating allegations of child abuse did not owe a duty of care to the parents of the children concerned.
Lord Bingham of Cornhill (dissenting) said: ‘It could not now be plausibly argued that a common law duty of care may not be owed by a publicly-employed healthcare professional to a child with whom the professional is dealing. The fundamental complaint in each case was the absolute terms of the diagnosis made and ‘a negligent failure to investigate, test, explore, check and verify.”
Lord Nicholls of Birkenhead said: ‘identifying the parameters of an expanding law of negligence is proving difficult, especially in fields involving the discharge of statutory functions by public authorities.’ and ‘Abandonment of the concept of a duty of care in English law, unless replaced by a control mechanism which recognises this limitation, is unlikely to clarify the law. That control mechanism has yet to be identified. And introducing this protracted period of uncertainty is unnecessary, because claims may now be brought directly against public authorities in respect of breaches of Convention rights.’
Lord Nicholls explained that conflict of interest was a persuasive factor here. When considering whether a child has been abused, a doctor should be able to act single-mindedly in the interests of the child and he ought not to have at the back of his mind an awareness that if his doubts about intentional injury or sexual abuse were to prove unfounded he might be exposed to claims by a distressed parent: ‘At that time [when a doctor is carrying out his investigation] the doctor does not know whether there has been abuse by the parent. But he knows that when he is considering this possibility the interests of parent and child are diametrically opposed. The interests of the child are that the doctor should report any suspicions he may have and that he should carry out further investigation in consultation with other child care professionals. The interests of the parent do not favour either of these steps. This difference of interest in the outcome is an unsatisfactory basis for imposing a duty of care on a doctor in favour of a parent.’
Orse D v East Berkshire Community Health NHS Trust

Lord Bingham of Cornhill, Lord Nicholls of Birkenhead, Lord Steyn, Lord Rodger of Earlsferry, Lord Brown of Eaton-under-Heywood
[2005] UKHL 23, [2005] 2 AC 373, Times 22-Apr-2005, [2005] 2 WLR 993
Bailii, House of Lords
European Convention on Human Rights
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedCaparo Industries Plc v Dickman and others HL 8-Feb-1990
Limitation of Loss from Negligent Mis-statement
The plaintiffs sought damages from accountants for negligence. They had acquired shares in a target company and, relying upon the published and audited accounts which overstated the company’s earnings, they purchased further shares.
Held: The . .
Appeal fromJD, MAK and RK, RK and Another v East Berkshire Community Health, Dewsbury Health Care NHS Trust and Kirklees Metropolitan Council, Oldham NHS Trust and Dr Blumenthal CA 31-Jul-2003
Damages were sought by parents for psychological harm against health authorities for the wrongful diagnosis of differing forms of child abuse. They appealed dismissal of their awards on the grounds that it was not ‘fair just and reasonable’ to . .
CitedX (Minors) v Bedfordshire County Council; M (A Minor) and Another v Newham London Borough Council; Etc HL 29-Jun-1995
Liability in Damages on Statute Breach to be Clear
Damages were to be awarded against a Local Authority for breach of statutory duty in a care case only if the statute was clear that damages were capable of being awarded. in the ordinary case a breach of statutory duty does not, by itself, give rise . .
CitedZ And Others v The United Kingdom ECHR 10-May-2001
Four children complained that, for years before they were taken into care by the local authority, its social services department was well aware that they were living in filthy conditions and suffering ‘appalling’ neglect in the home of their . .
CitedHill v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire HL 28-Apr-1987
No General ty of Care Owed by Police
The mother of a victim of the Yorkshire Ripper claimed in negligence against the police alleging that they had failed to satisfy their duty to exercise all reasonable care and skill to apprehend the perpetrator of the murders and to protect members . .
CitedTP And KM v The United Kingdom ECHR 10-May-2001
The Grand Chamber found a violation of Articles 8 and 13 and awarded each applicant GBP 10,000 in respect of a separation which lasted a year. Article 8 imposes positive obligations of disclosure on a local authority involved in care proceedings: . .
CitedOsman v The United Kingdom ECHR 28-Oct-1998
Police’s Complete Immunity was Too Wide
(Grand Chamber) A male teacher developed an obsession with a male pupil. He changed his name by deed poll to the pupil’s surname. He was required to teach at another school. The pupil’s family’s property was subjected to numerous acts of vandalism, . .
CitedDS RL v Gloucestershire County Council and London Borough of Tower Hamlets and London Borough of Havering CA 14-Mar-2000
The court considered and restated the criteria for liability set out in X (Minors). . .
CitedBarrett v London Borough of Enfield HL 17-Jun-1999
The claimant had spent his childhood in foster care, and now claimed damages against a local authority for decisions made and not made during that period. The judge’s decision to strike out the claim had been upheld by the Court of Appeal.
CitedWaters v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis HL 27-Jul-2000
A policewoman, having made a complaint of serious sexual assault against a fellow officer complained again that the Commissioner had failed to protect her against retaliatory assaults. Her claim was struck out, but restored on appeal.
Held: . .
CitedA and Another v Essex County Council CA 17-Dec-2003
The claimant sought damages. The respondent had acted as an adoption agency but had failed to disclose all relevant information about the child.
Held: Any such duty extended only during the period where the child was with the prospective . .
CitedA, B v Essex County Council QBD 18-Dec-2002
The applicants sought damages after they had had placed with them for adoption a child who proved to be destructively hyperactive.
Held: The authority might be liable where they failed to disclose to adoptive parents known characteristics of a . .
CitedPhelps v Hillingdon London Borough Council; Anderton v Clwyd County Council; Gower v Bromley London Borough Council; Jarvis v Hampshire County Council HL 28-Jul-2000
The plaintiffs each complained of negligent decisions in his or her education made by the defendant local authorities. In three of them the Court of Appeal had struck out the plaintiff’s claim and in only one had it been allowed to proceed.
CitedSpring v Guardian Assurance Plc and Others HL 7-Jul-1994
The plaintiff, who worked in financial services, complained of the terms of the reference given by his former employer. Having spoken of his behaviour towards members of the team, it went on: ‘his former superior has further stated he is a man of . .
CitedE and Others v The United Kingdom ECHR 26-Nov-2002
The four applicants had been abused by their stepfather, and sought investigation of the local authority for failing to protect them. They had been compensated by the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority in part, but now sought a remedy from the . .
CitedL (Minor), P (Father) v Reading Borough Council Chief Constable of Thames Valley Police CA 12-Mar-2001
A social worker and police officer interviewed a child and father on allegations of sexual abuse made by the mother. No criminal proceedings followed, but the father alleged that the misrepresentation of the interviews by the officer and social . .
CitedSutherland Shire Council v Heyman 4-Jul-1985
(High Court of Australia) The court considered a possible extension of the law of negligence.
Brennan J said: ‘the law should develop novel categories of negligence incrementally and by analogy with established categories. ‘
Dean J said: . .
CitedCLT v Connon and Others 8-May-2000
Austlii (Supreme Court of South Australia) The father, the appellant, was accused of sexually abusing his three children. He sued for damages alleging negligence on the part of the medical practitioners who . .
CitedB v United Kingdom ECHR 1987
A local authority considering taking action in respect of a child must consider also the views and opinions of the parents. . .
CitedVenema v The Netherlands ECHR 17-Dec-2002
A young child aged 11 months was separated from her mother because of fears that the mother was suffering from Munchausen syndrome by proxy and would injure her. The child was returned five months later, following medical reports which found that . .
CitedP, C And S v The United Kingdom ECHR 16-Jul-2002
The applicants challenged the way in which their newborn children had been removed by the state after birth. S had not had the opportunity of legal representation, after her lawyers had withdrawn. The removal of S’s child was challenged as . .
CitedRe L (Care: Assessment: Fair Trial) FD 2002
The court emphasised the need, in the interests not merely of the parent but also of the child, of a transparently fair and open procedure at all stages of the care process, including the making of documents openly available to parents.
Munby . .
CitedW v United Kingdom ECHR 1987
A local authority must, in reaching decisions on children in care, take account of the views and interests of the natural parents, which called for a degree of protection. In the context of care proceedings, public authorities may not be required to . .
CitedElsholz v Germany ECHR 13-Jul-2000
A violation of article 8 was found when access to his child was denied to an innocent father. . .
CitedMcMichael v United Kingdom ECHR 2-Mar-1995
In the course of care proceedings, medical and social services’ reports were disclosed to the courts, but not to the parents involved.
Held: The courts’ failure to show reports to the parents in care proceedings was a breach of the Convention. . .
CitedEverett v Griffiths HL 1921
The plaintiff had been committed to a mental hospital. The question was whether the doctor (Anklesaria) who signed the certificate to support his committal was liable to him in negligence.
Held: The House affirmed the judgment of the Court of . .
CitedEverett v Griffiths CA 1920
The plaintiff, who had been detained as a lunatic as the result of the decision of Griffiths, a Justice of the Peace and Chairman of the Board of Guardians in reliance on a medical certificate signed by Anklesaria, a Doctor, sued them both in . .
CitedKapfunde v Abbey National Plc and Dr Daniel and Another CA 25-Mar-1998
A Doctor employed by a potential employer to report on the health of applicants for employment, owed no duty of care to those applicants. . .
CitedSmith v Eric S Bush, a firm etc HL 20-Apr-1989
In Smith, the lender instructed a valuer who knew that the buyer and mortgagee were likely to rely on his valuation alone. The valuer said his terms excluded responsibility. The mortgagor had paid an inspection fee to the building society and . .
CitedRoss v Caunters (a firm) ChD 1979
The court upheld a finding of negligence against a firm of solicitors for failing to ensure the correct attestation of a will, and also the award of damages in favour of a disappointed beneficiary.
A solicitor owes a duty of care to the party . .
CitedSidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital and the Maudsley Hospital HL 21-Feb-1985
The plaintiff alleged negligence in the failure by a surgeon to disclose or explain to her the risks inherent in the operation which he had advised.
Held: The appeal failed. A mentally competent patient has an absolute right to refuse to . .
CitedGartside v Sheffield Young and Ellis 1983
(New Zealand) The court discussed the potential liability of a solicitor having failed to prepare an effective will: ‘To deny an effective remedy in a plain case would seem to imply a refusal to acknowledge the solicitor’s professional role in the . .
CitedRe N CA 20-May-1999
The claimant was a victim of a rape. She alleged that the police had mishandled the prosecution, resulting in the dismissal of the charges against the defendant, which in turn, she said exacerbated her own post traumatic stress disorder.
Held: . .
CitedGillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and Department of Health and Social Security HL 17-Oct-1985
Lawfulness of Contraceptive advice for Girls
The claimant had young daughters. She challenged advice given to doctors by the second respondent allowing them to give contraceptive advice to girls under 16, and the right of the first defendant to act upon that advice. She objected that the . .
CitedB and others v Attorney General and others PC 16-Jul-2003
(New Zealand) Children were removed from their home. The father was interviewed for suspected child abuse, but no charges were laid. He sought damages in negligence for the way the matter had been handled. Children whose allegations against adopted . .
CitedSullivan v Moody 11-Oct-2001
(High Court of Australia) A medical practitioner who examines and reports on the condition of an individual may owe a duty to more than one person: ‘The duty for which the [appellant fathers] contend cannot be reconciled satisfactorily, either with . .
CitedIn Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation) CA 22-Sep-2000
Twins were conjoined (Siamese). Medically, both could not survive, and one was dependent upon the vital organs of the other. Doctors applied for permission to separate the twins which would be followed by the inevitable death of one of them. The . .
CitedAttorney-General v Prince and Gardner 1998
(New Zealand Court of Appeal) Claims in negligence were made by the natural mother of a child who had been adopted, and also by the child, now an adult, complaining of the process followed in the adoption and also of failure to investigate a . .
CitedJames Mcgregor Fairlie v Perth and Kinross Healthcare NHS Trust IHCS 8-Jul-2004
A claim for damages might perhaps have been pleaded under article 8 of the European Convention, but since the pursuer’s claim was in effect for loss of reputation, the claim in negligence was bound to fail even if the judge had not held, as he did . .
CitedBest v Samuel Fox and Co Ltd 1952
The court considered liability for injury to secondary victims. Lord Morton of Henryton: ‘it has never been the law of England that an invitor, who has negligently but unintentionally injured an invitee, is liable to compensate other persons who . .
CitedMarc Rich and Co Ag and Others v Bishop Rock Marine Co Ltd and Others HL 6-Jul-1995
A surveyor acting on behalf of the classification society had recommended that after repairs specified by him had been carried out a vessel, the Nicholas H, should be allowed to proceed. It was lost at sea.
Held: The marine classification . .
CitedDick v Burgh of Falkirk HL 1976
Their lordships were prepared to contemplate the idea of a defender owing a common law duty of care to the victim’s relatives. . .
CitedRobertson v Turnbull HL 1982
. .
CitedWhite and Another v Jones and Another HL 16-Feb-1995
Will Drafter liable in Negligence to Beneficiary
A solicitor drawing a will may be liable in negligence to a potential beneficiary, having unduly delayed in the drawing of the will. The Hedley Byrne principle was ‘founded upon an assumption of responsibility.’ Obligations may occasionally arise . .
CitedNorth Glamorgan NHS Trust v Walters CA 6-Dec-2002
A new mother woke in hospital to see her baby (E) fitting. E suffered a major epileptic seizure leading to coma and irreparable brain damage. E was transferred to a London hospital and the following day the claimant was told by a consultant that E’s . .
CitedTredget and Tredget v Bexley Health Authority 1994
(Central London County Court) As a result of the defendant hospital’s negligent management of Mrs Tredget’s labour, her baby was born in a severely asphyxiated state and died two days later. The actual birth of the child with its ‘chaos’ or . .
CitedMcLoughlin v O’Brian HL 6-May-1982
The plaintiff was the mother of a child who died in an horrific accident, in which her husband and two other children were also injured. She was at home at the time of the accident, but went to the hospital immediately when she had heard what had . .
CitedAlcock and Others v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire Police HL 28-Nov-1991
The plaintiffs sought damages for nervous shock. They had watched on television, as their relatives and friends, 96 in all, died at a football match, for the safety of which the defendants were responsible. The defendant police service had not . .

Cited by:
CitedBrooks v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and others HL 21-Apr-2005
The claimant was with Stephen Lawrence when they were both attacked and Mr Lawrence killed. He claimed damages for the negligent way the police had dealt with his case, and particularly said that they had failed to assess him as a victim of crime, . .
CitedAD and OH (A Child) v Bury Metropolitan Borough Council CA 17-Jan-2006
The claimants, mother and son, sought damages from the respondent after they had commenced care proceedings resulting in the son being taken into temporary care. The authority had wrongly suspected abuse. The boy was later found to suffer brittle . .
CitedWatkins v Home Office and others HL 29-Mar-2006
The claimant complained of misfeasance in public office by the prisons for having opened and read protected correspondence whilst he was in prison. The respondent argued that he had suffered no loss. The judge had found that bad faith was . .
CitedLawrence v Pembrokeshire County Council CA 15-May-2007
The claimant complained of the negligence of the defendant council’s social worker’s in putting her four children into care. The Ombudsman had found the council guilty of maladministration and had awarded her andpound;5,000 for distress.
Held: . .
CitedRowley and others v Secretary of State for Department of Work and Pensions CA 19-Jun-2007
The claimants sought damages for alleged negligence of the defendant in the administration of the Child Support system.
Held: The defendant in administering the statutory system owed no direct duty of care to those affected: ‘a common law duty . .
CitedPierce v Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council QBD 13-Dec-2007
The claimant sought damages, saying that the local authority had failed to protect him when he was a child against abuse by his parents.
Held: The claimant had been known to the authority since he was a young child, and they owed him a duty of . .
CitedMitchell and Another v Glasgow City Council HL 18-Feb-2009
(Scotland) The pursuers were the widow and daughter of a tenant of the respondent who had been violently killed by his neighbour. They said that the respondent, knowing of the neighbour’s violent behaviours had a duty of care to the deceased and . .
Appeal fromMAK and RK v The United Kingdom ECHR 23-Mar-2010
mak_ukECHR10
When RK, a nine year old girl was taken to hospital, with bruises, the paediatrician wrongly suspecting sexual abuse, took blood samples and intimate photographs in the absence of the parents and without their consent.
Held: The doctor had . .
CitedJames-Bowen and Others v Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis SC 25-Jul-2018
The Court was asked whether the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (‘the Commissioner’) owes a duty to her officers, in the conduct of proceedings against her based on their alleged misconduct, to take reasonable care to protect them from . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Health Professions, Negligence

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.224322

Re JS (Disposal of Body): FD 10 Nov 2016

Child’s Wish for post-mortem cryonic Preservation

JS, a child of 14, anticipating her death from cancer expressed the desire that her body should receive cryonic preservation in the hope that one day a treatment might be available to allow her to be revived, and proceedings were issued. Her parents were divorced, and they differed as to what should be done.
Held: The form of application was for a specific issue order. JS had capacity, and there would be no inevitable practical obstacle: ‘All this case is about is providing a means by which the uncertainty about what can happen during JS’s lifetime and after her death can be resolved so far as possible. JS cannot expect automatic acceptance of her wishes, but she is entitled to know whether or not they can be acted upon by those who will be responsible for her estate after her death. It would be unacceptable in principle for the law to withhold its answer until after she had died. Also, as a matter of practicality, argument about the preservation issue cannot be delayed until after death as the process has to be started immediately if it is to happen at all.’
Applying the JSB case, with acknowledgement to the different statutory context, a prospective order was available, and granted injunctions limiting the manner in which the father can act not only while JS is alive, but also following her death, and the making of a prospective order investing the mother with the sole right to apply for letters of administration after JS dies.

Peter Jackson J
[2016] Inquest LR 259, [2016] EWHC 2859 (Fam), (2017) 153 BMLR 152, [2016] WLR(D) 650, [2017] WTLR 227, [2017] Med LR 37, [2017] 4 WLR 1
Bailii, Judiciary
Human Tissue Act 2004, Children Act 1989 8, Wills Act 1837 8, Non-Contentious Probate Rules 1987 22(1)(c)
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedWilliams v Williams 1882
By codicil to his will the deceased directed that his executors should give his body to Miss Williams; and by letter he requested her to cremate his body under a pile of wood, to place the ashes into a specified Wedgwood vase and to claim her . .
CitedRegina v Gwynedd County Council ex parte B and Another 1992
The ambit of the 1980 act does not extend to regulating events arising after a child’s death. . .
CitedFessi v Whitmore 1999
The place with which the deceased had the closest connection is relevant as to the decision as to his or her ultimate resting place. . .
CitedBorrows v HM Coroner for Preston QBD 15-May-2008
The family members disputed who should have custody of the deceased’s body and the right to make arrangements for the funeral. . .
CitedIbuna and Another v Arroyo and Another ChD 2-Mar-2012
The action concerns the competing claims as to the right to take possession of the body of Ignacio Arroyo (‘Congressman Arroyo’) to enable it to be buried. Congressman Arroyo was a congressman of the Negros Occidental Province of the Philippines. . .
CitedAnstey v Mundle ChD 2016
When faced with a dispute as to the disposal of a deceased’s body, the role of the court is not to give directions for the disposal of the body but to resolve disagreement about who may make the arrangements . .
CitedCurtis v Sheffield CA 1882
Lord Jessel MR said: ‘Now it is true that it is not the practice of the Court, and was not the practice of the Court of Chancery, to decide as to future rights, but to wait until the event has happened, unless a present right depends on the . .
CitedGillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and Department of Health and Social Security HL 17-Oct-1985
Lawfulness of Contraceptive advice for Girls
The claimant had young daughters. She challenged advice given to doctors by the second respondent allowing them to give contraceptive advice to girls under 16, and the right of the first defendant to act upon that advice. She objected that the . .
CitedPublic Trustee v Cooper 2001
The court looked at the circumstances required when a court was asked to approve a proposed exercise by trustees of a discretion vested in them. The second category of circumstances was (quoting Robert Walker J): ‘Where the issue was whether the . .
CitedBurke, Regina (on the Application of) v General Medical Council and others (Official Solicitor and others intervening) CA 28-Jul-2005
The claimant suffered a congenital degenerative brain condition inevitably resulting in a future need to receive nutrition and hydration by artificial means. He was concerned that a decision might be taken by medical practitioners responsible for . .
CitedHartshorne v Gardner ChD 14-Mar-2008
The deceased died in a motor accident, aged 44. The parties, his mother and father, disputed control over his remains, and requested an order from the court.
Held: The court has such an inherent jurisdiction. Since the claimants had an equal . .
AppliedIn re JSB; Chief Executive, Ministry of Social Development v S and B 4-Nov-2009
(New Zealand High Court) The child was alive but severely brain damaged, having been injured by his mother. There was a dispute between his grandparents, who were caring for him, and his birth parents as to the funeral arrangements if he were to . .
CitedTakamore v Clarke and others 18-Dec-2012
Supreme Court of New Zealand – The deceased was Tuhoe, but had spent the last twenty years of his life in Christchurch with his partner, whom he named his executor in his will. After his death his Tuhoe whanau moved his body to the Bay of Plenty and . .
CitedHughes and Others v Bourne and Others ChD 27-Jul-2012
A trust owned a majority shareholding in a family firm. A purchaser wished to buy a substantial interest. Differing sections of the beneficiaries wanted either to sell or not. The trustees sought advance approval for a planned use of their powers to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Wills and Probate, Children, Health Professions

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.571412

In the matter of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 ; A and Others: FD 11 Sep 2015

The court was asked: ‘who, in law, is or are the parent(s) of a child born as a result of treatment carried out under this legislation’
Held: The court pointed again to the failures to keep proper records within several fertility clinics. However: ‘Given the statutory framework, what it provides and, equally significant, what it does not provide, I do not see how a mere failure to comply with the HFEA’s direction that Form WP and Form PP ‘must’ be used can, of itself, invalidate what would otherwise be a consent valid for the purposes of section 37 or section 44. These sections do not prescribe a specific form. What is required is a ‘notice’ and that is not defined, although I would agree with Miss Broadfoot that, given the context, what is required is a document of some formality. The argument must be that it is the combined operation of section 12(1)(d) of the 1990 Act, which in effect elevates this requirement into a condition of the licence, coupled with the words ‘treatment provided . . under the licence’ in sections 37(1)(a) and 44(1)(a) (and the corresponding words ‘being so treated’ in sections 37(1)(b) and 44(1)(b)), that invalidates what would otherwise be a consent valid for the purposes of section 37 or section 44.’
. . And ‘in principle:
i) The court can act on parol evidence to establish that a Form WP or a Form PP which cannot be found was in fact properly completed and signed before the treatment began;
ii) The court can ‘correct’ mistakes in a Form WP or a Form PP either by rectification, where the requirements for that remedy are satisfied, or, where the mistake is obvious on the face of the document, by a process of construction without the need for rectification.
iii) A Form IC, if it is in the form of the Barts Form IC or the MFS Form IC as I have described them above, will, if properly completed and signed before the treatment began, meet the statutory requirements without the need for a Form WP or a Form PP.[2]
iv) It follows from this that the court has the same powers to ‘correct’ a Form IC as it would have to ‘correct’ a Form WP or a Form PP.’

Sir James Munby
[2015] EWHC 2602 (Fam), [2016] 1 WLR 1325, (2015) 146 BMLR 123, [2015] 3 FCR 555, [2016] 1 All ER 273, [2015] WLR(D) 387, [2015] Fam Law 1333
Bailii, WLRD
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedAB v CD FD 24-May-2013
The Applicant AB, a lesbian woman aged 37, applied for contact to twin boys, E and F, aged 3. In making that application, she described herself as the boys’ ‘parent’; she ws so defined on the boys’ birth certificates. For the first 17 months of . .
CitedWallersteiner v Moir CA 1974
The making of a declaration is a judicial act. A shareholder is entitled to bring a derivative action on behalf of the company when it is controlled by persons alleged to have injured the company who refuse to allow the company to sue. It is an . .
CitedX v Y v St Bartholomew’s Hospital Centre for Reproductive Medicine (Assisted Reproduction: Parent) FC 13-Feb-2015
The required Form PP was not on the clinic’s file. Theis J set out four issues which accordingly arose: (1) Did X sign the Form PP so that it complied with section 37(1) of the 2008 Act? (2) If X did, was the Form PP subsequently mislaid by the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Children, Health Professions

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.552779

The British Medical Association, Regina (on the Application of) v The General Medical Council and Another: Admn 4 May 2016

The BMA sought to challenge the validity of the rules governing the procedure of Fitness to Practice panels. In particular the BMA challenged the new absence of a requirement that the panel’s legal advice and assistance be available to the parties.
Held: The claim failed: ‘I am wholly unconvinced that a legally qualified chair has two discrete and distinct functions subject to different criteria of conduct, so that, when he advises his fellow panel members, the jurisprudence that has built up around assessors applies.’
Although not formally judicial bodies, GMC disciplinary panels – FPPs and IOPs, and their predecessors or successors – exercise a judicial function, in respect of which the requirement for a fair hearing is protected by both article 6 of the ECHR and the common law.
Where a legal member of a tribunal expresses a view on the law to other members, he can properly be described as ‘advising’ those other members, without engaging the jurisprudence of legal assessors, because the member is a full member of the tribunal who participates fully in the decision-making process and thus attracting all of the jurisprudence that attaches to judges and other legal members who exercise full judicial function within a mixed tribunal.

Hickinbottom J
[2016] EWHC 1015 (Admin), [2016] 4 WLR 89, [2016] WLR(D) 237
Bailii, WLRD
Medical Act 1983, General Medical Council (Fitness to Practise and Over-arching Objective) and the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (References to Court) Order 2015
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedFox v General Medical Council PC 1960
The appeal by a doctor from the disciplinary committee of the GMC to the board of the Privy Council lies of right by the statute and the terms of statute do not limit or qualify the appeal in any way, so that the appellant is entitled to claim that . .
CitedNwabueze v General Medical Council PC 6-Apr-2000
Deliberations of the professional conduct committee hearing a case of professional conduct were in the presence of an assessor who gave advice to the committee. After returning from deliberation the assessor described the advice given, and the . .
CitedLe Compte, Van Leuven And De Meyere v Belgium ECHR 18-Oct-1982
Even where ‘jurisdictional organs of professional associations’ are set up: ‘Nonetheless, in such circumstances the Convention calls at least for one of the two following systems: either the jurisdictional organs themselves comply with the . .
CitedClark (Procurator Fiscal, Kirkcaldy) v Kelly PC 11-Feb-2003
PC (The High Court of Justiciary) The minuter challenged the role of the legal adviser to the district courts in Scotland, and as to his independence.
Held: The legal adviser was not subject to the same . .
CitedChien Sing-Shou v The Building Authority PC 12-Jun-1967
(Hong Kong) The Board considered the Hong Kong Architects’ Disciplinary Board which, by section 5 of the Buildings Ordinance 1955, comprised five members: three architects, the Building Authority or his representative, and ‘a legal adviser’. The . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health Professions, Human Rights, Natural Justice

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.563227

Landeshauptstadt Kiel v Norbert Jaeger: ECJ 9 Sep 2003

Concepts of working time and rest period – On Call

ECJ Reference for a preliminary ruling: Landesarbeitsgericht Schleswig-Holstein – Germany. Social policy – Protection of the safety and health of workers – Directive 93/104/EC – Concepts of working time and rest period – On-call service (Bereitschaftsdienst) provided by doctors in hospitals.
Social policy – Protection of the safety and health of workers – Directive 93/104/EC – Concepts of working time and rest period – On-call service (Bereitschaftsdienst) provided by doctors in hospitals
Where a doctor was required to be on hospital premises whilst he was ‘on-call’, the full on call duty was to be counted for the purposes of the working time Directive. This applied equally to periods in which he would be entitled to rest. Such periods of inactivity were part and parcel of on-call duties. There was a need for doctors to be available for emergencies and such rest could not be planned. ”working time’ shall mean any period during which the worker is working, at the employer’s disposal and carrying out his activity or duties, in accordance with national laws and/or practice”.

GC Rodriguez Iglesias, President, M Wathelet, R Schintgen (Rapporteur) and CWA Timmermans, Presidents of Chambers, C Gulmann, DAO Edward, P Jann, V Skouris, F Macken, N Colneric, S von Bahr, JN Cunha Rodrigues and A Rosas
C-151/02, Times 26-Sep-2003, [2003] EUECJ C-151/02, [2004] ICR 1528, (2004) 75 BMLR 201, [2003] 3 CMLR 16, [2003] ECR I-8389, [2004] All ER (EC) 604, [2003] IRLR 804
Bailii
Council Directive 93/104/EC concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time.
European
Citing:
CitedSindicato de Medicos de Asistancia Publica (SIMAP) v Colsilieria de Sanidad y Consumo de la Generalidad Valenciana ECJ 3-Oct-2000
Doctors working in primary health care teams are subject to the Working Time Directive. They are not to be assimilated as public service workers alongside emergency services. All time on call was working time and overtime if present at a health . .

Cited by:
CitedBritish Airways Plc v Williams and Others CA 3-Apr-2009
The company appealed against an adverse finding on its holiday pay payments to its pilots, saying that the pay was subject to the 2004 Regulations alone. The Directive suggested that holiday pay should be at normal average rates of pay, but the . .
CitedMacCartney v Oversley House Management EAT 31-Jan-2006
EAT The Tribunal erred in law in holding that the Appellant had received the rest breaks to which she was entitled under reg 12 of the Working Time Regulations 1998. Gallagher v Alpha Catering Services Ltd [2005] . .
CitedHughes v Jones and Another EAT 3-Oct-2008
EAT WORKING TIME REGULATIONS
NATIONAL MINIMUM WAGE
A care worker in a residential home who was provided with accommodation so that she could discharge her duty to be on call for the residents 11 hours . .
ApprovedPfeiffer v Deutsches Rotes Kreuz, Kreisverband Waldshut eV (1) ECJ 5-Oct-2004
pfeiffer_deutchesrotesreuzECJ102004
ECJ Reference for a preliminary ruling: Arbeitsgericht Lorrach – Germany. Social policy – Protection of the health and safety of workers – Directive 93/104/EC – Scope – Emergency workers in attendance in . .
CitedO’Brien v Ministry of Justice SC 28-Jul-2010
The appellant had worked as a part time judge. He now said that he should be entitled to a judicial pension on retirement by means of the Framework Directive. The Regulations disapplied the provisions protecting part time workers for judicial office . .
CitedGallagher and others v Alpha Catering Services Ltd CA 8-Nov-2004
The Claimants were employed to deliver food to aircraft at airports, loading and unloading food from the aircraft. Between loadings, they were on down time – not physically working, but required to remain in radio contact with their employers, and . .
CitedHughes v The Corps of Commissionaires Management Ltd CA 8-Sep-2011
The employee security guard appealed against a finding that his employer had allowed rest breaks as allowed under the Regulations. He worked a continuous shift during which he was allowed to use a rest area, but he remained on call.
Held: The . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Employment, Health Professions, Health and Safety

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.186330

Axon, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Another: Admn 23 Jan 2006

A mother sought to challenge guidelines issued by the respondent which would allow doctors to protect the confidentiality of women under 16 who came to them for assistance even though the sexual activities they might engage in would be unlawful.
Held: A person under 16 who was otherwise competent was entitled to seek medical assistance, but a parent also had responsibility for her welfare. The court remained bound by the decision in Gillick, and indeed the subsequent adoption of the UN Convention would move the answer further in the direction of respecting a child’s wishes: ‘it would be wrong and not acceptable to retreat from Gillick and to impose greater duties on medical professionals to disclose information to parents of their younger patients.’ The claimant said that the direction infringed her rights to family life. The courts had recognised a move away from parental rights as such over children. There was no interference.
A doctor could provide medical advice and treatment provided that the child was capable properly of understanding all relevant matters, that the doctor tried to dissuade the child, that the child was likely to commence sexual activity whether or not assistance was given, and that the doctor felt it to be in her best interests for the advice and treatment to be given.

Silber J
[2006] EWHC 37 (Admin), Times 23-Jan-2006, [2006] 2 WLR 1130
Bailii
United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child, European Convention on Human Rights 8
England and Wales
Citing:
BindingGillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and Department of Health and Social Security HL 17-Oct-1985
Lawfulness of Contraceptive advice for Girls
The claimant had young daughters. She challenged advice given to doctors by the second respondent allowing them to give contraceptive advice to girls under 16, and the right of the first defendant to act upon that advice. She objected that the . .
CitedAttorney-General v Guardian Newspapers Ltd (No 2) (‘Spycatcher’) HL 13-Oct-1988
Loss of Confidentiality Protection – public domain
A retired secret service employee sought to publish his memoirs from Australia. The British government sought to restrain publication there, and the defendants sought to report those proceedings, which would involve publication of the allegations . .
CitedBritish American Tobacco UK Ltd and Others, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Health Admn 5-Nov-2004
The claimants challenged the validity of regulations restricting cigarette advertisements, saying that greater exceptions should have been allowed, and that the regulations infringed their commercial right of free speech.
Held: The Regulations . .
CitedVo v France ECHR 8-Jul-2004
Hudoc Preliminary objection rejected (ratione materiae, non-exhaustion of domestic remedies) ; No violation of Art. 2
A doctor by negligence had caused the termination of a pregnancy at the 20 to 24 weeks . .
CitedRegina v Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd CA 21-Dec-1999
Where information was given by a patient to the pharmacist, and he took the data, stripping out any possibility of the individual being identified, the duty of confidence which attached to the prescription was not breached by the passing on of the . .
CitedCampbell v Mirror Group Newspapers Ltd (MGN) (No 1) HL 6-May-2004
The claimant appealed against the denial of her claim that the defendant had infringed her right to respect for her private life. She was a model who had proclaimed publicly that she did not take drugs, but the defendant had published a story . .
CitedVenables and Thompson v News Group Newspapers and others QBD 8-Jan-2001
Where it was necessary to protect life, an order could be made to protect the privacy of individuals, by disallowing publication of any material which might identify them. Two youths had been convicted of a notorious murder when they were ten, and . .
CitedYousef v The Netherlands ECHR 5-Nov-2002
In ‘judicial decisions where the rights under article 8 of parents and of a child are at stake, the child’s rights must be the paramount consideration.’ . .
CitedZ v Finland ECHR 25-Feb-1997
A defendant had appealed against his conviction for manslaughter and related offences by deliberately subjecting women to the risk of being infected by him with HIV virus. The applicant, Z, had been married to the defendant, and infected by him with . .
CitedMabon v Mabon and others CA 26-May-2005
In the course of an action regarding their residence arrangements, the older children of the family sought an order to be allowed separate legal representation, and now appealed a refusal.
Held: The rights of freedom of expression and to . .
CitedHewer v Bryant CA 1970
The parental right to custody is: ‘a dwindling right which the courts will hesitate to enforce against the wishes of the child, and the more so the older he is. It starts with a right of control and ends with little more than advice.’
One . .
CitedX v Netherlands ECHR 1974
(Comission) A child asserted her right to live where she pleased.
Held: The state has an obligation to provide for its children to live with their parents in normal circumstances: ‘As a general proposition, and in the absence of any special . .
CitedRegina v Special Adjudicator ex parte Ullah; Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 17-Jun-2004
The applicants had had their requests for asylum refused. They complained that if they were removed from the UK, their article 3 rights would be infringed. If they were returned to Pakistan or Vietnam they would be persecuted for their religious . .
CitedMS v Sweden ECHR 27-Aug-1997
Hudoc Sweden – communication, without the patient’s consent, of personal and confidential medical data by one public authority to another and lack of possibility for patient, prior to the measure, to challenge it . .
CitedNielsen v Denmark ECHR 28-Nov-1988
The applicant, a minor, complained about his committal to a child psychiatric ward of a state hospital at his mother’s request. The question was whether this was a deprivation of his liberty in violation of article 5. The applicant said that it was, . .
CitedKjeldsen, Busk, Madsen and Peddersen v Denmark ECHR 7-Dec-1976
The claimants challenged the provision of compulsory sex education in state primary schools.
Held: The parents’ philosophical and religious objections to sex education in state schools was rejected on the ground that they could send their . .
CitedHandyside v The United Kingdom ECHR 7-Dec-1976
The appellant had published a ‘Little Red Schoolbook’. He was convicted under the 1959 and 1964 Acts on the basis that the book was obscene, it tending to deprave and corrupt its target audience, children. The book claimed that it was intended to . .
CitedThe Sunday Times (No 1) v The United Kingdom ECHR 26-Apr-1979
Offence must be ;in accordance with law’
The court considered the meaning of the need for an offence to be ‘in accordance with law.’ The applicants did not argue that the expression prescribed by law required legislation in every case, but contended that legislation was required only where . .
CitedK v United Kingdom ECHR 1986
(Commission) The existence of family ties depends upon ‘the real existence in practice of close family ties.’ . .
CitedSporrong and Lonnroth v Sweden ECHR 18-Dec-1984
Balance of Interests in peaceful enjoyment claim
An interference with the peaceful enjoyment of possessions must strike a fair balance between the demands of the general interests of the community and the requirements of the protection of the individual’s fundamental rights. This balance is . .
CitedHendricks v Netherlands ECHR 1983
(Commission) In the context of article 8 the rights and freedoms of the child include his interests. ‘The Commission has consistently held that, in assessing the question of whether or not the refusal of the right of access to the non-custodial . .
CitedRegina (Daly) v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 23-May-2001
A prison policy requiring prisoners not to be present when their property was searched and their mail was examined was unlawful. The policy had been introduced after failures in search procedures where officers had been intimidated by the presence . .
CitedRegina v Director of Public Prosecutions, ex parte Kebilene and others HL 28-Oct-1999
(Orse Kebeline) The DPP’s appeal succeeded. A decision by the DPP to authorise a prosecution could not be judicially reviewed unless dishonesty, bad faith, or some other exceptional circumstance could be shown. A suggestion that the offence for . .
CitedDe Freitas v The Permanent Secretary of Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Lands and Housing and others PC 30-Jun-1998
(Antigua and Barbuda) The applicant was employed as a civil servant. He joined a demonstration alleging corruption in a minister. It was alleged he had infringed his duties as a civil servant, and he replied that the constitution allowed him to . .
CitedHandyside v The United Kingdom ECHR 7-Dec-1976
The appellant had published a ‘Little Red Schoolbook’. He was convicted under the 1959 and 1964 Acts on the basis that the book was obscene, it tending to deprave and corrupt its target audience, children. The book claimed that it was intended to . .

Cited by:
CitedTB, Regina (on the Application of) v The Combined Court at Stafford Admn 4-Jul-2006
The claimant was the child complainant in an allegation of sexual assault. The defendant requested her medical records, and she now complained that she had been unfairly pressured into releasing them.
Held: The confidentiality of a patient’s . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health Professions, Children, Human Rights

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.237844

Re I (Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008): FD 12 Apr 2016

The court considered questions arising on applications for use of the equitable doctrine of rectification in cases of mistake at IVF Clinics.

Sir James Munby
[2016] EWHC 791 (Fam), [2016] Fam Law 678, [2017] 1 FLR 998
Bailii, Judiciary
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008
England and Wales

Health Professions, Children, Equity

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.562140

Regina v North Humberside and Scunthorpe Coroner ex parte Jamieson: CA 27 Apr 1994

The deceased prisoner had hanged himself. He had been a known suicide risk, and his brother said that the authorities being so aware, the death resulted from their lack of care. The inquest heard in full the circumstannces leading up to the death, but the Coroner directed the jury not to return a verdict which included any reference to lack of care.
Held: A finding of neglect is rarely consistent with a suicide, or one where the deceased contributed to his own death. It would be wrong to allow the jury to attribute blame.
Sir Thomas Bingham MR said: ‘Despite the rulings given by the appellate courts, problems continue to arise both for coroners seeking to conduct inquests and direct juries in accordance with the law as they understand it and for those interested in the death of a deceased person seeking to explore the full circumstances of the death and draw lessons which may prevent repetition. Coroners do their utmost to confine the proceedings before them within the bounds of what they consider to be proper. Interested parties not infrequently strain to pursue their quarry well beyond the boundaries set by the coroner.’ and ‘General Conclusions. An inquest is a fact finding inquiry conducted by a coroner, with or without a jury, to establish reliable answers to four important but limited factual questions. The first of these relates to the identity of the deceased, the second to the place of his death, the third to the time of death. In most cases these questions are not hard to answer but in a minority of cases the answer may be problematical. The fourth question, and that to which evidence and inquiry are most often and most closely directed, relates to how the deceased came by his death. Rule 36 requires that the proceedings and evidence shall be directed solely to ascertaining these matters and forbid any expression of opinion on any other matter.
Both in section 11(5)(b)(ii) of the Act of 1988 and in rule 36(1)(b) of the Rules of 1984, ‘how’ is to be understood as meaning ‘by what means.’ It is noteworthy that the task is not to ascertain how the deceased died, which might reach general and far-reaching issues, but ‘how the deceased came by his death,’ a more limited question directed to the means by which the deceased came by his death. It is the duty of the coroner as the public official responsible for the conduct of inquests, whether he is sitting with a jury or without, to ensure that the relevant facts are fully, fairly and fearlessly investigated. He is bound to recognise the acute public concern rightly aroused where deaths occur in custody. He must ensure that the relevant facts are exposed to public scrutiny, particularly if there is evidence of foul play, abuse or inhumanity. He fails in his duty if his investigation is superficial, slipshod or perfunctory. But the responsibility is his. He must set the bounds of the inquiry. He must rule on the procedure to be followed. His decisions, like those of any other judicial officer, must be respected unless and until they are varied or overruled.’
‘It is not the function of a coroner or his jury to determine or appear to determine, any question of criminal or civil liability, to apportion guilt or attribute blame . . the prohibition on returning a verdict so as to appear to determine any question of civil liability is unqualified, applying whether anyone is named or not. Much of the difficulty to which verdicts of lack of care have given rise appear to be due to an almost inevitable confusion between this expression and the lack of care which is the foundation for a successful claim in common law negligence. Since many of those seeking that verdict do so as a stepping-stone towards such a claim the boundary is bound to become blurred. But lack of care in the context of an inquest has been correctly described as the obverse of self-neglect. It is to be hoped that in future the expression ‘lack of care’ may for practical purposes be deleted from the lexicon of inquests and replaced by ‘neglect’. Neglect in this context means a gross failure to provide adequate nourishment or liquid, or provide basic medical attention or shelter or warmth for someone in a dependent position (because of youth, age, illness or incarceration) who cannot provide it for himself. Failure to provide medical attention for a dependent person whose physical condition is such as to show he obviously needs it may amount to neglect . . Neglect can rarely, if ever, be an appropriate verdict on its own . . Neglect may contribute to a death from natural causes. Neither neglect nor self-neglect should ever form any part of any verdict unless a clear and direct causal connection is established between the conduct so described and the cause of death.’

Sir Thomas Bingham MR
Times 28-Apr-1994, Independent 27-Apr-1994, [1995] QB 1, [1994] 3 All ER 972, [1994] 3 WLR 82, (1994) 158 JP 1011;, (1994) 19 BMLR 35
Coroners Act 1988 11(5)(b)(ii), Coroners Rules 1984 36(1) 40
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromRegina v North Humberside and Scunthorpe Coroner ex parte Jamieson QBD 12-Jul-1993
northhumberside_jamiesonCA1993
A prisoner had hanged himself after being left unsupervised in a single cell. He was a known suicide risk, but the Coroner directed the jury not to return a verdict which included any reference to lack of care.
Held: A coroner was free not to . .
CitedRegina v Coroner for Surrey, ex parte Wright 18-Jun-1966
The deceased died when unconscious under general anaesthetic in the course of dental surgery, as a result of an obstruction to his airway.
Held: There was no basis in such circumstances for contending that the verdict of accident should have . .

Cited by:
CitedRegina (Amin) v Secretary of State for the Home Department; Regina (Middleton) v Coroner for West Somersetshire CA 27-Mar-2002
A prisoner had been killed in his cell by a cell-mate known to be unstable and racist. His family sought to be involved in the inquiry into the death within the prison system. A second prisoner hanged himself in his cell. His family alleged that he . .
CitedKhan, Regina (on the Application of) v HM Coroner for West Hertfordshire and Another Admn 7-Mar-2002
The deceased died in police custody. The coroner refused to leave to the jury possible verdicts of unlawful killing, or death contributed to by neglect, or breach of his right to life. He adjourned the hearing to allow this challenge.
Held: . .
CitedRegina on the Application of Mullholland v HM Coroner for St Pancras QBD 7-Nov-2003
The applicant sought to re-open a coroner’s inquest. The deceased had been drunk, slipped banged his head and fallen to the ground. Police and ambulance were called. The ambulance worker was not told he had been unconscious, and he was taken to the . .
CitedIn the Matter of Captain Christopher John Kelly Admn 14-Jun-1996
The deceased was killed by ‘friendly fire’ during a night exercise in Kenya. A verdict of accidental death was returned, and a fresh inquest was sought particularly in the light of a statement from a fellow officer.
Held: The emergence of . .
CitedSacker, Regina (on the Application of) v Coroner for the County of West Yorkshire HL 11-Mar-2004
The deceased committed suicide in prison. Her family sought to have added to the verdict the words ‘contributed by neglect’ and complained that the inquest had not provided a full and proper investigation of the death.
Held: The Act needed to . .
CitedIn Re Neal (Coroner: Jury) QBD 17-Nov-1995
The father of the deceased sought to have the coroner quash the inquest. His daughter had died in Spain from carbon monoxide poisoning, apparently emanated from a faulty water heater in the apartment in which she had stayed. Her body had been . .
CitedIn re Catherine Lucy Clegg (an Application to Quash Inquisition on Inquest) Admn 2-Dec-1996
The father of the deceased sought an order quashing the inquest on her death. He had recorded a verdict of suicide. She had died from acute salicylate poisoning, an aspirin overdose. The hospital was said not to have recognised her condition and not . .
CitedBloom v HM Assistant Deputy Coroner for the Northern District of London and Another Admn 20-Dec-2004
The deceased had gone to hospital and was diagnosed as having a kidney stone. As it was removed there was evidence of infection. She declined and was transferred to the local NHS hospital in intensive care. She died and a post-mortem identified . .
CitedLM, Re (Reporting Restrictions; Coroner’s Inquest) FD 1-Aug-2007
A child had died. In earlier civil proceedings, the court had laid responsibility with the mother. Restrictions had been placed on the information which would effectively prevent the coroner conducting his inquest. The coroner sought a lifting of . .
CitedO’Connor, Regina (On the Application of) v HM Coroner for District of Avon and Another Admn 7-May-2009
Two children died when their father jumped with them from a hotel balcony. The father had been acquitted in Crete of manslaughter after evidence of his psychiatric condition. The applicant now challenged the English coroner’s verdict of unlawful . .
CitedP, Regina (on The Application of) v HM Coroner for The District of Avon CA 18-Dec-2009
The deceased was found hanging in her prison cell. The jury returned a verdict of accidental death, not being satisfied that she was not merely making a cry for help. The family appealed a finding that the inquest had satisfied the requirement for a . .
CitedJones v HM Coroner for The Southern District of Greater London and Another Admn 28-Apr-2010
The mother of the deceased asked for a new inquest, saying that there had been insufficient enquiry. He was an adult suffering Asperger’s syndrome and other difficulties, but had sought and been given excess prescriptions of fentanyl a drug to . .
CitedSmith, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Defence and Oxfordshire Assistant Deputy Coroner (Equality and Human Rights Commission intervening) SC 30-Jun-2010
The deceased soldier died of heat exhaustion whilst on active service in Iraq. It was said that he was owed a duty under human rights laws, and that any coroner’s inquest should be a fuller one to satisfy the state’s duty under Article 2.
CitedWilkinson, Regina (on The Application of) v HM Coroner for The Greater Manchester South District Admn 11-Oct-2012
The court was asked whether evidence of the commission of the criminal offence of causing death by careless driving contrary to section 2B of the 1988 Act is capable of justifying a verdict of ‘unlawful killing’ at an inquest.
Held: The . .
CitedKent County Council, Regina (on The Application of) v HM Coroner for The County of Kent (North-West District) and Others Admn 15-Oct-2012
The council sought review of the coroner’s decision that the inquest would be an article 2 inquest and with a jury. The deceased was 14 years old and had taken methadone. In the months before his death, he had had involvement with the council’s . .
CitedSreedharan, Regina (on The Application of) v HM Coroner for The County of Greater Manchester Admn 28-May-2012
The claimant doctor renewed his application for judicial review of the jury verdict of unlawful killing at the inquest into a patient. The patientwas alcoholic. The doctor prescribed a sedative drug for him, but it was known to be potentially lethal . .
CitedTyrrell v HM Senior Coroner County Durham and Darlington and Another Admn 26-Jul-2016
The court was aked what article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights requires of a coroner when a serving prisoner dies of natural causes.
Held: The reuest for judicial review failed. Mr Tyrrell’s death was, from the outset, one which . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Coroners, Health Professions, Prisons

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.87444

El-Huseini v General Medical Council: Admn 23 Sep 2016

No Doctor’s appeal out of time.

The court was asked whether it had jurisdition to hear an appeal out of time against a suspension of the claimant medical practitioner from practice made on the basis that his fitness to practise was impaired by reason of misconduct and his adverse physical and mental healthHeld: The ourt had no jurisdiction to give an extension of time to hear an appea.

David Cooke HHJ
[2016] EWHC 2326 (Admin)
Bailii
Medical Act 1983 40(4)
England and Wales

Health Professions

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.569625

DB v The General Medical Council: QBD 23 Sep 2016

Council unable to Disclose report

The Claimant General Practitioner, sought an order against the General Medical Council to prevent it from disclosing to his former patient, pursuant to his request under the 1988 Act, an expert report obtained by the GMC for the purpose of investigating P’s complaint concerning his professional competence.
Held: The claim succeeded: ‘in conducting the balancing exercise in mixed data cases of this type:
(1) it is essential to keep in mind that the exercise involves a balance between the respective privacy rights of data subjects;
(2) in the absence of consent, the rebuttable presumption or starting point is against disclosure (Durant). Furthermore the express refusal of consent is a specific factor to be taken into account;
(3) if it appears that the sole or dominant purpose is to obtain a document for the purpose of a claim against the other data subject, that is a weighty factor in favour of refusal, on the basis that the more appropriate forum is the Court procedure under CPR 31.’

Soole J
[2016] EWHC 2331 (QB)
Bailii
Data Protection Act 1998
England and Wales

Health Professions, Information

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.569595

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Storkwain: HL 19 Jun 1986

The defendant pharmacist had filled a prescription, but unknown to him the prescription was forged.
Held: The offence of sale of medicine contrary to the Act was one of strict liability, and was made out.
Lord Goff of Chieveley (with whom the other members of the House of Lords agreed) was prepared to ‘draw support from’ an order made twelve years after the statute he was construing

Lord Bridge of Harwich, Lord Brandon of Oakbrook, Lord Templeman, Lord Ackner, Lord Goff of Chieveley
[1986] 2 All ER 635, (1986) 150 JP 385, [1986] 1 WLR 903, 150 JP 385, [1986] Crim LR 813, [1986] UKHL 13, (1986) 83 Cr App R 359
Bailii
Medicines Act 1968 58(2)(a), Medicines (Prescription only) Order 1980
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRegina v Tolson CCR 11-May-1889
Honest and Reasonable mistake – No Bigamy
The defendant appealed against her conviction for bigamy, saying that she had acted in a mistaken belief.
Held: A man commits bigamy if he goes through a marriage ceremony while his wife is alive, even though he honestly and reasonably . .
CitedSweet v Parsley HL 23-Jan-1969
Mens Rea essential element of statutory Offence
The appellant had been convicted under the Act 1965 of having been concerned in the management of premises used for smoking cannabis. This was a farmhouse which she visited infrequently. The prosecutor had conceded that she was unaware that the . .
Appeal fromPharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Storkwain 1985
Farquharson J said: ‘It is perfectly obvious that pharmacists are in a position to put illicit drugs and perhaps other medicines on the market. Happily this rarely happens but it does from time to time. It can therefore be readily understood that . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Crime, Health Professions

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.223563

Spencer v General Osteopathic Council: Admn 8 Nov 2012

Irwin J was asked to elucidate the meaning of the phrase ‘unacceptable professional conduct’ within the 1993 Act. No authority was cited to the learned judge dealing, specifically, with that phrase in that Act but Counsel for the Appellant placed considerable reliance on authorities concerning legislation governing the medical and dental professions in which ‘misconduct’ was one of the bases upon which the regulator could find fitness to practise impaired. Having considered those authorities Irwin J answered: ‘In my judgment, the starting point for interpreting the Osteopaths Act 1993 must be the language of the Act itself. Although one notes that ‘unacceptable professional conduct’ has the definition in section 20(2): ‘conduct which falls short of the standard required of a registered osteopath’, there is an unhelpful circularity to the definition. Indeed one might not unfairly comment that the statutory definition adds little clarity. The critical term is ‘conduct’. Whichever dictionary definition is consulted, the leading sense of the term ‘conduct’ is behaviour, or the manner of conducting oneself. It seems to me that at first blush this simply does imply, at least to some degree, moral blameworthiness. Whether the finding is ‘misconduct’ or ‘unacceptable professional conduct’ there is in my view an implication of moral blameworthiness, and a degree of opprobrium is likely to be conveyed to the ordinary intelligent citizen. That is an observation not merely about the natural meaning of the language, but about the likely effect of the finding in such a case as this, given the obligatory reporting of a finding under the Act.’

Irwin J
[2012] EWHC 3147 (Admin), [2012] WLR(D) 314, [2013] 1 WLR 1307, (2013) 129 BMLR 162, [2013] Med LR 18
Bailii
Osteopaths Act 1993
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedHarford v The Nursing and Midwifery Council Admn 10-Apr-2013
The appellant challenged a finding that her fitness to practice had been impaired by misconduct and the attachment of a conditions of practice order effective for six months.
Held: The Panel had applied the correct test. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health Professions

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.465681

Wilsher v Essex Area Health Authority: HL 24 Jul 1986

A premature baby suffered injury after mistaken treatment by a hospital doctor. He had inserted a monitor into the umbilical vein. The claimant suggested the treatment should have been by a more senior doctor. The hospital appealed a finding that it had failed to prove that it had not caused the injury.
Held: The appeal succeeded. It was for the plaintiff to prove his case, and the court must allow that the Health Service will employ inexperienced doctors. The standard of care to be expected must be looked at relative to the experience of the doctor employed. However, the senior registrar was negligent in failing to recognise the error, and the damage was shown to be of the sort which might be expected to follow.
It was one thing to treat an increase of risk as equivalent to the making of a material contribution where one agent was involved, but quite another where any one of a number of events may equally probably have caused the damage.

Sir Nicolas Browne-Wilkinson V.-C., Mustill and Glidewell L.JJ.
[1988] AC 1074, [1988] 1 All ER 871, [1987] UKHL 11
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromWilsher v Essex Area Health Authority CA 1986
A prematurely-born baby was the subject of certain medical procedures, in the course of which a breach of duty occurred. to ensure that the correct amount was administered it was necessary to insert a catheter into an umbilical artery so that his . .
CitedBonnington Castings Ltd v Wardlaw HL 1-Mar-1956
The injury of which the employee complained came from two sources, a pneumatic hammer, in respect of which the employers were not in breach of the relevant Regulations; and swing grinders, in respect of which they were in breach.
Held: It had . .
CitedMcGhee v National Coal Board HL 1973
The claimant who was used to emptying pipe kilns at a brickworks was sent to empty brick kilns where the working conditions were much hotter and dustier. His employers failed, in breach of their duty, to provide him with washing facilities after his . .
CitedThompson v Smiths Shiprepairers (North Shields) Ltd QBD 1984
The test to be applied in determining the time at which an employer’s failure to provide protection constituted actionable negligence was what would have been done at any particular time by a reasonable and prudent employer who was properly but not . .
CitedClark v MacLennan 1983
The court considered the judment in McGhee: ‘It seems to me that it follows from McGhee that where there is a situation in which a general duty of care arises and there is a failure to take a precaution, and that very damage occurs against which the . .
CitedVyner v Waldenberg Brothers Ltd CA 1946
Vyner was working a circular saw when part of his thumb was cut off. The saw failed in several respects to comply with the Woodworking Machinery Regulations, and in particular the guard was not properly adjusted. The accident happened before the . .
CitedWakelin v London and South Western Railway Co HL 1886
The liability of a defendant in negligence must rest in the first place on there being, per Lord Watson) ‘some negligent act or omission on the part of the company or their servants which materially contributed to the injury or death complained of . . .
CitedCaswell v Powell Duffryn Associated Collieries HL 1939
An action was brought for injuries caused by a breach of statutory of duty.
Held: A breach of statutory duty is regarded as ‘akin to negligence’.
Lord Atkin said that a common sense rather than a philosophical or scientific approach to . .
Appeal fromWilsher v Essex Area Health Authority CA 1986
A prematurely-born baby was the subject of certain medical procedures, in the course of which a breach of duty occurred. to ensure that the correct amount was administered it was necessary to insert a catheter into an umbilical artery so that his . .

Cited by:
ApprovedFairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd and Others HL 20-Jun-2002
The claimants suffered mesothelioma after contact with asbestos while at work. Their employers pointed to several employments which might have given rise to the condition, saying it could not be clear which particular employment gave rise to the . .
CitedBolitho v City and Hackney Health Authority HL 24-Jul-1997
The plaintiff suffered catastrophic brain damage as a result of cardiac arrest induced by respiratory failure as a child whilst at the defendant hospital. A doctor was summoned but failed to attend, and the child suffered cardiac arrest and brain . .
Appealed toWilsher v Essex Area Health Authority CA 1986
A prematurely-born baby was the subject of certain medical procedures, in the course of which a breach of duty occurred. to ensure that the correct amount was administered it was necessary to insert a catheter into an umbilical artery so that his . .
CitedGregg v Scott HL 27-Jan-2005
The patient saw his doctor and complained about a lump under his arm. The doctor failed to diagnose cancer. It was nine months before treatment was begun. The claimant sought damages for the reduction in his prospects of disease-free survival for . .
CitedMcTear v Imperial Tobacco Ltd OHCS 31-May-2005
The pursuer sought damages after her husband’s death from lung cancer. She said that the defenders were negligent in having continued to sell him cigarettes knowing that they would cause this.
Held: The action failed. The plaintiff had not . .
CitedBarker v Corus (UK) Plc HL 3-May-2006
The claimants sought damages after contracting meselothemia working for the defendants. The defendants argued that the claimants had possibly contracted the disease at any one or more different places. The Fairchild case set up an exception to the . .
CitedNestle v National Westminster Bank CA 6-May-1992
The claimant said that the defendant bank as trustee of her late father’s estate had been negligent in its investment of trust assets.
Held: The claimant had failed to establish either a breach of trust or any loss flowing from it, though . .
CitedSt George v The Home Office CA 8-Oct-2008
The claimant was taken into prison. He was known to be subject to epilepsy, with high risks on withdrawal from drugs, but was allocated a high bunk. He had a seizure and fell, suffering head injuries. He sought damages in negligence. The defendant . .
CitedEnvironment Agency v Ellis CA 17-Oct-2008
The claimant was injured working for the appellants. The appellants now appealed the finding that they were responsible saying that other factors contributed to the injury, and in particular that he had fallen at home. The claimant said that that . .
CitedSanderson v Hull CA 5-Nov-2008
Insufficient proof of cause of infection
The claimant worked as a turkey plucker. She caught an infection (campylobacter enteritis) at work, and the employer now appealed against a finding of liability. The employer said that the only necessary protection was regular washing of hands. The . .
CitedSienkiewicz v Greif (UK) Ltd; Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Council v Willmore SC 9-Mar-2011
The Court considered appeals where defendants challenged the factual basis of findings that they had contributed to the causes of the claimant’s Mesothelioma, and in particular to what extent a court can satisfactorily base conclusions of fact on . .
CitedAlcock and Others v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire Police QBD 31-Jul-1990
Overcrowding at a football match lead to the deaths of 95 people. The defendant’s employees had charge of safety at the match, and admitted negligence vis-a-vis those who had died and been injured. The plaintiffs sought damages, some of them for . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Professional Negligence, Health Professions

Leading Case

Updated: 31 October 2021; Ref: scu.177399

Darnley v Croydon Health Services NHS Trust: CA 23 Mar 2017

Claimant’s appeal in personal injury litigation based upon alleged negligence by the receptionist in a hospital’s accident and emergency department. The principal issue in the appeal is whether the receptionist (or the health trust acting by the receptionist) owed any tortious duty to provide accurate information to the claimant about waiting times.
Jackson, McCombe, Sales LJJ
[2017] EWCA Civ 151
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromDarnley v Croydon Health Services NHS Trust QBD 31-Jul-2015
The claimant sought damages, alleging that the defendant Trust had failed in its treatment of him when he attended Accident and Emergency after being assaulted. The court now considered the issue of liability. The claimant attended with a head . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromDarnley v Croydon Health Services NHS Trust SC 10-Oct-2018
The claimant had been assaulted. He presented at the defendant hospital with head injuries. Despite his complaints he said he was not treated properly, being told to wait five hours at reception, and went home. Later an ambulance was delayed and he . .
CitedDarnley v Croydon Health Services NHS Trust SC 10-Oct-2018
The claimant had been assaulted. He presented at the defendant hospital with head injuries. Despite his complaints he said he was not treated properly, being told to wait five hours at reception, and went home. Later an ambulance was delayed and he . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 27 September 2021; Ref: scu.581069

An NHS Trust and Others v Y and Another: SC 30 Jul 2018

The court was asked whether a court order must always be obtained before clinically assisted nutrition and hydration, which is keeping alive a person with a prolonged disorder of consciousness, can be withdrawn, or whether, in some circumstances, this can occur without court involvement. The Official Solicitor appealed from the grant of a declaration.
Held: The appeal failed. It was not established law that a court’s permission was required. The question facing anyone considering treatment of a patient not able to make his or her own decision is not whether it is lawful to withdraw treatment, but rather the legality of giving it. Treatment is lawful only if it is in the patient’s best interests. A doctor carrying out treatment in the reasonable belief that it will be in the patient’s best interests, is entitled to the protection from liability conferred by section 5 of the 2005 Act. Airedale v Bland did not impose such a requirement. Where the situation was not clear than a court application was appropriate.
Lady Hale, President, Lord Mance, Lord Wilson, Lord Hodge, Lady Black
[2018] UKSC 46, (2018) 21 CCL Rep 410, [2019] AC 978, (2018) 163 BMLR 1, [2018] WLR(D) 490, [2018] 3 WLR 751, UKSC 2017/0202
Bailii, Bailii Summary, WLRD, SC, SC Summary, SC Summary Video, SC 2018 Feb 26 am Video, SC 2018 Feb 26 pm Video, SC 2018 Feb 27 am Video
Mental Capacity Act 2005 42(1), European Convention on Human Rights
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromNHS Trust v Y and Another QBD 13-Nov-2017
Claim for a declaration under CPR Part 8 that it is not mandatory to bring before the Court the withdrawal of Clinically Assisted Nutrition and Hydration (‘CANH’) from a patient who has a prolonged disorder of consciousness in circumstances where . .
CitedIn re F (Mental Patient: Sterilisation) HL 4-May-1989
Where a patient lacks capacity, there is the power to provide him with whatever treatment or care is necessary in his own best interests. Medical treatment can be undertaken in an emergency even if, through a lack of capacity, no consent had been . .
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland HL 4-Feb-1993
Procedures on Withdrawal of Life Support Treatment
The patient had been severely injured in the Hillsborough disaster, and had come to be in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). The doctors sought permission to withdraw medical treatment. The Official Solicitor appealed against an order of the Court . .
CitedGlass v The United Kingdom ECHR 9-Mar-2004
The applicant’s adult son was disabled. There was a disagreement with the hospital about his care. The hospital considered that to alleviate his distress, he should not be resuscitated. The family wanted to take him home, fearing euthanasia. The . .
CitedBurke, Regina (on the Application of) v General Medical Council and others (Official Solicitor and others intervening) CA 28-Jul-2005
The claimant suffered a congenital degenerative brain condition inevitably resulting in a future need to receive nutrition and hydration by artificial means. He was concerned that a decision might be taken by medical practitioners responsible for . .
CitedAintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust v James SC 30-Oct-2013
The hospital where a gravely ill man had been treated had asked for a declaration that it would be in his best interests to withhold certain life-sustaining treatments from him. When can it be in the best interests of a living patient to withhold . .
CitedDirector of Legal Aid Casework and Others v Briggs CA 31-Jul-2017
Orse In re Briggs (Incapacitated Person) . .
CitedSCC v MSA and Another CoP 20-Sep-2017
Orse In re M (Incapacitated Person: Withdrawal of Treatment)
The court was concerned with the withdrawal of CANH from a woman who was suffering from Huntington’s disease and was in a minimally conscious state. Her family, her clinicians, and a . .
CitedW v M S and Others CoP 28-Sep-2011
Orse – In re M (Adult Patient) (Minimally Conscious State: Withdrawal of Treatment)
The case concerned a woman in a minimally conscious state, Baker J expressed the view that ‘all decisions about the proposed withholding or withdrawal of ANH . .
CitedLB (Plastics) Ltd v Swish Products Ltd ChD 1979
Whitford J said: ‘The cases since the Act of 1911 have, however, I think quite plainly established that no originality of thought is needed to sustain a claim to copyright. Under copyright ideas are not protected, only the skill and labour needed to . .
CitedIn re Briggs (Incapacitated Person) 2018
. .

Cited by:
CitedN v ACCG and Others SC 22-Mar-2017
The local authority and a young man’s parents disputed his continued care, he having substantial incapacities. The parents wanted assistance caring for him on visits home. The LA declined to fund that support. The LA now argued that the CoP had not . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 05 September 2021; Ref: scu.620170

NHS Trust v Y and Another: QBD 13 Nov 2017

Claim for a declaration under CPR Part 8 that it is not mandatory to bring before the Court the withdrawal of Clinically Assisted Nutrition and Hydration (‘CANH’) from a patient who has a prolonged disorder of consciousness in circumstances where the clinical team and the patient’s family are agreed that it is not in the patient’s best interests that he continues to receive that treatment, and that no civil or criminal liability will result if CANH is withdrawn.
Held: The declaration was granted, but the transfer to the Court of Protection refused. It was not established that there was any common law principle that all cases concerning the withdrawal of CANH from a person who lacks capacity had to be sanctioned by the court: ‘where the clinicians have followed the Mental Capacity Act and good medical practice, there is no dispute with the family of the person who lacks capacity or others interested in his welfare, and no other doubts or concerns have been identified, there is no requirement to bring the matter before the court.’ Such was the situation in Mr Y’s case, she considered, and accordingly she granted the following declaration: ‘It is not mandatory to bring before the court the withdrawal of CANH from Mr Y who has a prolonged disorder of consciousness in circumstances where the clinical team and Mr Y’s family are agreed that it is not in his best interests that he continues to receive that treatment.’
O’Farrell J
[2017] EWHC 2866 (QB), [2017] 4 WLR 222, [2017] WLR(D) 771
Bailii, WLRD
Mental Capacity Act 2005, European Convention on Human Rights 2 6
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromAn NHS Trust and Others v Y and Another SC 30-Jul-2018
The court was asked whether a court order must always be obtained before clinically assisted nutrition and hydration, which is keeping alive a person with a prolonged disorder of consciousness, can be withdrawn, or whether, in some circumstances, . .
At First InstanceAn NHS Trust and Others v Y and Another SC 30-Jul-2018
The court was asked whether a court order must always be obtained before clinically assisted nutrition and hydration, which is keeping alive a person with a prolonged disorder of consciousness, can be withdrawn, or whether, in some circumstances, . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 01 September 2021; Ref: scu.601109

LG v The Independent Monitor: Admn 21 Dec 2017

The ECRC recorded the acquittal of a nurse on charges of theft from a patient, noting that her earlier admission of theft had been ruled inadmissible at trial, and the jury directed to acquit.
Held: The information had been properly included.
Lane J
[2017] EWHC 3327 (Admin)
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedAR, Regina (on The Application of) v Chief Constable of Greater Manchester Police and Another SC 30-Jul-2018
The appellant had been tried for and acquitted on a criminal charge. He now challenged the disclosure by the respondent of the charge in an Enhanced Criminal Record Certificate.
Held: His appeal failed. The critical question was whether the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 17 August 2021; Ref: scu.602591

Re D (A Child): CA 31 Oct 2017

The court considered an order effectively depriving child D of his liberty.
Sir James Munby P FD, David Richards, Irwin LJJ
[2017] EWCA Civ 1695, (2018) 160 BMLR 61, [2018] 2 FLR 13, [2018] COPLR 1, [2018] PTSR 1791
Bailii
Mental Capacity Act 2005, European Convention on Human Rights 8
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromBirmingham City Council v D CoP 21-Jan-2016
D was a young adult with several disorders presenting challenging behaviour. The Hospital sought arrangements allowing control over him for his care and eucation. . .
CitedIn Re K (A Child) (Secure Accommodation Order: Right to Liberty) CA 29-Nov-2000
An order providing that a child should stay in secure accommodation, was an order which restricted the child’s liberty. A justification for such a restriction had to be brought within the exceptions listed in article 5.
Held: Detention for . .

Cited by:
Appeal FromIn re D (A Child) SC 26-Sep-2019
D, a young adult had a mild learning disability and other more serious conditions. He was taken into a hospital providing mental health services. The external door was locked, and a declaration was sought to permit this deprivation of his liberty, . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 14 August 2021; Ref: scu.598462

BAPIO Action Ltd and Another, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department and Another: QBD 9 Feb 2007

The claimants said that changes to the Highy Skilled Migrant Programme were unfairly introduced, that they had effectively barred non-EU doctors from applying for first tier doctor appointments, and that the guidance could properly be derived only from powers under the 1971 Act. The respondent denied that the rules came under the 1971 Act, being rather a matter of employment guidance only.
Held: The guidance was not universal in effect and the claim was rejected. An important evidential element in the demonstration of the discharge of the duty is the recording of the steps taken by the decision maker in seeking to meet the statutory requirements
Stanley Burnton J
[2007] EWHC 199 (QB)
Bailii
Immigration Act 1971
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoBAPIO Action Ltd and Another, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department and Another Admn 9-Feb-2007
. .

Cited by:
Appeal fromBAPIO Action Ltd and Another, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department and Another CA 9-Nov-2007
The action group appealed against refusal of a judicial review of guidelines as to the employment of non-EU doctors, saying that they were in effect immigration rules and issuable only under the 1971 Act. The court had said that since the guidance . .
At First InstanceBAPIO Action Ltd and Another, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department and Another HL 30-Apr-2008
The House considered whether the Secretary of State for Health acted lawfully in issuing guidance as to the employment of foreign doctors to employing bodies within the National Health Service in April 2006.
Held: The secretary of state’s . .
CitedJewish Rights Watch (T/A Jewish Human Rights Watch), Regina (on The Application of) v Leicester City Council Admn 28-Jun-2016
The claimant challenged the legaity of resolutions passed by three local authorities which were critical of the State of Israel. They said that the resolultions infringed the Public Sector Equality Duty under section 149 of the 2010 Act, and also . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 24 July 2021; Ref: scu.248444

Newcastle Upon Tyne NHS Foundation Trust v Haywood: CA 17 Mar 2017

The Trust had sent to the respondent a letter terminating her employment. The parties disputed when the notice took effect.
Held: Proudman J held that ‘the contents of the letter had to be communicated to the employee’.
Arden LJ held that the letter had to be ‘received’; where it has been delivered to the party’s address, there is a rebuttable presumption that it has been received; but that presumption had been rebutted by the judge’s finding that Mrs Haywood did not receive the letter until 27 April – there was no need for her to have read the letter but she had to have received it.
Lewison LJ dissented: ‘notice is validly given under the contract when a letter containing the notice actually arrives at the correct destination, whether the recipient is there to open it or not’
Arden DBE, Lewison LJJ, Proudman DBE J
[2017] EWCA Civ 153, [2018] 1 WLR 2073, [2018] ICR 882, [2018] 4 All ER 467, [2018] WLR(D) 265, [2018] IRLR 644
Bailii, WLRD
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromNewcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust v Haywood SC 25-Apr-2018
Notice of dismissal begins when received by worker
The court was asked: ‘If an employee is dismissed on written notice posted to his home address, when does the notice period begin to run? Is it when the letter would have been delivered in the ordinary course of post? Or when it was in fact . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 19 July 2021; Ref: scu.581074

Regina v Yorkshire Regional Health Authority Ex Parte Suri, Regina v Same Ex Parte Gompels Etc: CA 5 Dec 1995

Effect of move of pharmacy is one of fact and degree for Health Authority to decide. Move of pharmacy question of geography not topography – effect on other pharmacies.
Times 05-Dec-1995, Ind Summary 18-Dec-1995
National Health Service (Pharmaceutical Services) Regulations 1992
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromRegina v Yorkshire Health Authourity ex parte Suri; Regina v Same ex parte Gompels (D and M) QBD 18-Jul-1994
Pharmacists list membership was dependant on the effect on the entire population, and not the patient population. A relocation within same neighbourhood was a question of fact not by ‘patient populations’. . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 02 June 2021; Ref: scu.88359

In Re A (A Minor) (Disclosure of Medical Records to GMC): FD 21 Aug 1998

Applications by the General Medical Council for court records in order to pursue professional misconduct proceeding, should follow new routine of having two court hearings, ex parte appointment and on notice rather than previous three stages system.
Times 21-Aug-1998, [1998] 2 FLR 641
England and Wales
Citing:
DisapprovedRe AB (Child Abuse: Expert Witnesses) FD 1995
. .

Cited by:
CitedKent County Council v The Mother, The Father, B (By Her Children’s Guardian); Re B (A Child) (Disclosure) FD 19-Mar-2004
The council had taken the applicant’s children into care alleging that the mother had harmed them. In the light of the subsequent cases casting doubt on such findings, the mother sought the return of her children. She applied now that the hearings . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 01 June 2021; Ref: scu.81623

Michalak v General Medical Council and Others: SC 1 Nov 2017

Dr M had successfully challenged her dismissal and recovered damages for unfair dismissal and race discrimination. In the interim, Her employer HA had reported the dismissal to the respondent who continued their proceedings despite the decision in her favour. The GMC now said that the availability of judicial review excluded her right to commence proceedings before the Employment Tribunal by virtue of section 120 of the 2010 Act.
Held: The GMC’s appeal failed. Judicial review in the context of the present case is not in the nature of an appeal. Nor is it a remedy provided by reason of an enactment.
Baroness Hale of Richmond PSC, Lord Mance DPSC, Lord Kerr of Tonaghmore;, Lord Wilson, Lord Hughes JJSC
[2017] UKSC 71, [2017] 1 WLR 4193, (2018) 159 BMLR 1, [2018] 1 All ER 463, [2018] ICR 49, [2018] IRLR 60, [2017] WLR(D) 734, UKSC 2016/0084
Bailii, WLRD, SC, SC Summary, SC Summary Video, SC 2017 07 04 am Video, SC 2017 07 04 pm Video, Bailii Summary
Equality Act 2010 120(7), Senior Courts Act 1981 31(1)
England and Wales
Citing:
At EATThe General Medical Council v Dickson, Haywood, Dr Michalak EAT 25-Nov-2014
The Claimant complained to an Employment Tribunal that she had been discriminated against by the GMC (a qualifications body). The GMC contended that section 120(7) Equality Act precluded jurisdiction, since judicial review afforded an appeal for the . .
See AlsoMichalak, Regina (on The Application of) v General Medical Council Admn 22-Jul-2011
Dr M sought judicial review of a decision by the respondent to continue its investigation of her by the Fitness to Practice panel. That panel, after hearing substantial evidence had to restart on the panel medical member was unable to continue with . .
CitedKennedy v The Charity Commission SC 26-Mar-2014
The claimant journalist sought disclosure of papers acquired by the respondent in its conduct of enquiries into the charitable Mariam appeal. The Commission referred to an absolute exemption under section 32(2) of the 2000 Act, saying that the . .
CitedPham v Secretary of State for The Home Department SC 25-Mar-2015
The court was asked: ‘whether the Secretary of State was precluded under the British Nationality Act 1981 from making an order depriving the appellant of British citizenship because to do so would render him stateless. This turns on whether (within . .
CitedKeyu and Others v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and Another SC 25-Nov-2015
The Court was asked whether the respondents should be required to hold a public inquiry into a controversial series of events in 1948, when a Scots Guards patrol was alleged to shot and killed 24 unarmed civilians in a village called Batang Kali, in . .
Appeal fromMichalak v The General Medical Council and Others CA 23-Mar-2016
The court considered the remedies and routes of appeal available to individuals who claim to have suffered from discrimination, victimisation, harassment or detriment in the treatment that they have received from a qualifications body. In . .
CitedKhan v General Medical Council CA 11-Apr-1994
The appellant’s application for full registration as a qualified medical practitioner had been refused by the GMC after a five-year maximum period of limited registration. His application for full registration in accordance with section 25 of the . .
CitedTariquez-Zaman v General Medical Council EAT 20-Dec-2006
EAT Race Discrimination – Discrimination by other bodies
Practice and Procedure – Amendment
(a) The Employment Tribunal correctly held it had no jurisdiction to hear Claimant’s case brought under the . .
Dictum disapprovedJooste v General Medical Council and Others EAT 4-Jul-2012
EAT RACE DISCRIMINATION – Indirect
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE
Appellate jurisdiction/reasons/Burns-Barke
Costs
The Employment Judge correctly struck out the Claimant’s claims as having no . .
CitedThe Secretary of State for Health, Dorset County Council v The Personal Representative of Christopher Beeson CA 18-Dec-2002
The deceased had been adjudged by his local authority to have deprived himself of his house under the Regulations. Complaint was made that the procedure did not allow an appeal and therefore deprived him of his rights under article 6.
Held: . .
CitedCart v The Upper Tribunal SC 21-Jun-2011
Limitations to Judicial Reviw of Upper Tribunal
Three claimants sought to challenge decisions of various Upper Tribunals by way of judicial review. In each case the request for judicial review had been first refused on the basis that having been explicitly designated as higher courts, the proper . .
CitedAssicurazioni Generali Spa v Arab Insurance Group (BSC) CA 13-Nov-2002
Rehearing/Review – Little Difference on Appeal
The appellant asked the Court to reverse a decision on the facts reached in the lower court.
Held: The appeal failed (Majority decision). The court’s approach should be the same whether the case was dealt with as a rehearing or as a review. . .
CitedDatec Electronics Holdings Ltd and others v United Parcels Services Ltd HL 16-May-2007
The defendants had taken on the delivery of a quantity of the claimant’s computers. The equipment reached one depot, but then was lost or stolen. The parties disputed whether the Convention rules applied. UPS said that the claimant had agreed that . .
CitedIn re P and Others, (Adoption: Unmarried couple) (Northern Ireland); In re G HL 18-Jun-2008
The applicants complained that as an unmarried couple they had been excluded from consideration as adopters.
Held: Northern Ireland legislation had not moved in the same way as it had for other jurisdictions within the UK. The greater . .

Cited by:
CitedHaralambous, Regina (on The Application of) v Crown Court at St Albans and Another SC 24-Jan-2018
The appellant challenged by review the use of closed material first in the issue of a search warrant, and subsequently to justify the retention of materials removed during the search.
Held: The appeal failed. No express statutory justification . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 16 May 2021; Ref: scu.598455

Harford v The Nursing and Midwifery Council: Admn 10 Apr 2013

The appellant challenged a finding that her fitness to practice had been impaired by misconduct and the attachment of a conditions of practice order effective for six months.
Held: The Panel had applied the correct test.
Wyn Williams J
[2013] EWHC 696 (Admin)
Bailii
Nursing and Midwifery Order 2001 21
Citing:
CitedRoylance v The General Medical Council (No 2) PC 24-Mar-1999
(Medical Act 1983) Dr Roylance was the chief executive of a hospital in which there had been excessive mortality rates of children who underwent cardiac surgery and had failed to take steps to deal with the problem.
Held: A doctor who carried . .
CitedCohen v General Medical Council Admn 19-Mar-2008
The appellant consultant anaesthetist appealed against the decision of the respondent’s Fitness to Practice Panel to impose conditions on his registration.
Held: The appeal succeeded: ‘Any approach to the issue of whether a doctor’s fitness to . .
CitedGeneral Medical Council v Professor Sir Roy Meadow, Attorney General CA 26-Oct-2006
The GMC appealed against the dismissal of its proceedings for professional misconduct against the respondent doctor, whose expert evidence to a criminal court was the subject of complaint. The doctor said that the evidence given by him was . .
CitedSpencer v General Osteopathic Council Admn 8-Nov-2012
Irwin J was asked to elucidate the meaning of the phrase ‘unacceptable professional conduct’ within the 1993 Act. No authority was cited to the learned judge dealing, specifically, with that phrase in that Act but Counsel for the Appellant placed . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 02 May 2021; Ref: scu.472510

Khan v General Pharmaceutical Council: SC 14 Dec 2016

The pharmacist had been removed from register the for a year after findings of domestic abuse. The court now considered what inquiry was required on an application for a continuation of that suspension.
Held: The different appeals of both the GPC and the practitioner were allowed. The review committee’s powers were set out within the Order, but how they should be exercised was not set down. From the Indicative Sanctions Guidance however, it was clear that the focus of the review was on the current fitness to resume practice, judged in the light of what the practitioner has, or has not, achieved since the date of suspension. The Extra Division was too ingenious. There was no middle way. It was wrong to remit the case to the committee for disposal on that basis.
Lord Neuberger, President, Lord Wilson, Lord Reed, Lord Carnwath, Lord Hodge
[2016] UKSC 64, UKSC 2014/0214, [2017] 3 All ER 873, (2017) 153 BMLR 1, [2017] Med LR 49, 153 BMLR 1, [2017] ICR 223, [2017] 1 WLR 169
Bailii, Bailii Summary, SC, SC Summary, SC Video Summary, SC Hearing ideo
General Pharmaceutical Council (Fitness to Practise and Disqualification etc) Rules 2010
Scotland
Citing:
Appeal fromHK v General Pharmaceutical Council SCS 11-Jul-2014
Appeal from Fitness to Practice Committee of the General Pharmaceutical Council. The practitioner had been suspended, but the penalty was imposed without apparent consideration of the committee’s power to make an alternative order . .
CitedTaylor v The General Medical Council PC 30-Apr-1990
(The Professional Committee of The General Medical Council) Successive periods of suspension of a practitioner’s registration.
The doctor, who had previously received a suspended sentence of imprisonment for making false statements in order to . .
CitedObukofe v General Medical Council Admn 2014
medical practitioner appealed against the direction of a Fitness to Practise Panel of the GMC to extend for one year the period, also of one year, for which he had originally been suspended from practice. He had received suspended sentences of . .
CitedDad v The General Dental Council PC 13-Apr-2000
A dentist was convicted of traffic offences including driving whilst disqualified. He was suspended from practising as a dentist for 12 months. He appealed, and the court substituted a suspension from practice itself suspended for two years. That . .
CitedDr Marinovich v The General Medical Council PC 24-Jun-2002
PC Professional Conduct Committee of the GMC. The applicant had been suspended from practice. He had been struck off in Australia, and moved to the UK to practice. The GMC sought to suspend him because of the . .
CitedDr Ghosh v The General Medical Council PC 25-Jun-2001
(Professional Conduct Committee of the GMC) The Board of the Privy Council, when acting to hear an appeal from the disciplinary committee of the General Medical Council would in future deal with the case by way of a rehearing. Given the nature of . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 15 April 2021; Ref: scu.572398

Waghorn v Care Quality Commission: Admn 11 Jul 2012

W, a registered medical practitioner, appealed by way of case stated against the decision that he had carried on an independent hospital without being registered in respect of it under Part II of the Care Standards Act 2000, contrary to section 11 (1) of that Act.
Cox DBE J
[2012] EWHC 1816 (Admin)
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 15 April 2021; Ref: scu.462911

Chhabra v West London Mental Health NHS: QBD 1 Jun 2012

The claimant, a consultant forensic psychiatrist sought to restrain the defendants from going ahead with disciplinary proceedings as to alleged breaches of patient confidentiality.
Held: The application succeeded. The complaint was properly as to misconduct, and not capacity, and the proposed method of investigation was inappropriate.
McMullen QC J
[2012] EWHC 1735 (QB)
Bailii
Citing:
CitedSarkar v West London Mental Health NHS Trust CA 19-Mar-2010
The doctor had been summarily dismissed for gross misconduct. He now appealed against the EAT’s reversal of the finding of unfair dismissal. The original procedure adopted was appropriate to a lesser level of misconduct, but the employer had later . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromWest London Mental Health NHS Trust v Chhabra CA 25-Jan-2013
The Trust appealed against a decision that its procedures in seeking to discipline the respondent consultant forensic psychiatrist were wrongly applied and the associated injunction.
Held: The appeal succeeded. The conduct complained of was of . .
At first instanceWest London Mental Health NHS Trust v Chhabra SC 18-Dec-2013
The trust sought to begin disciplinary proceedings against the claimant, a consultant forensic psychologist alleging gross misconduct. She was said to have left confidential patient records on a train.
Held: Gross misconduct should be conduct . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 14 April 2021; Ref: scu.461888

Le Compte, Van Leuven And De Meyere v Belgium: ECHR 18 Oct 1982

Even where ‘jurisdictional organs of professional associations’ are set up: ‘Nonetheless, in such circumstances the Convention calls at least for one of the two following systems: either the jurisdictional organs themselves comply with the requirements of article 6(1), or they do not so comply but are subject to subsequent control by a judicial body which has full jurisdiction and does provide the guarantees of article 6(1).’
(1983) 5 EHRR 533, 7238/75, 6878/75, [1982] ECHR 7
Worldlii, Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 6(1)
Human Rights
Citing:
See AlsoLe Compte, Van Leuven And De Meyere v Belgium ECHR 23-Jun-1981
Hudoc The Court was faced with a disciplinary sanction imposed on doctors which resulted in their suspension for periods between 6 weeks and 3 months: ‘Unlike certain other disciplinary sanctions that might have . .
See AlsoLe Compte, Van Leuven And De Meyere v Belgium ECHR 23-Jun-1981
The applicants were suspended from practising medicine for three months by the Provincial Council of the Ordre des medecins. They appealed unsuccessfully to the Appeal Council and again unsuccessfully to the Court de Cassation. Dr Le Compte . .

Cited by:
See alsoAlbert And Le Compte v Belgium ECHR 10-Feb-1983
Hudoc Violation of Art. 6-1; Just satisfaction reserved . .
See AlsoAlbert And Le Compte v Belgium ECHR 24-Oct-1983
ECHR Judgment (Just Satisfaction) – Non-pecuniary damage – finding of violation sufficient; Costs and expenses award – domestic proceedings; Costs and expenses award – Convention proceedings. . .
See AlsoAlbert And Le Compte v Belgium (Article 50) ECHR 24-Oct-1983
The applicants were Belgian nationals and medical practitioners. Dr Le Compte was suspended from practising medicine for two years for an offence against professional discipline. He appealed to the Appeals Council, alleging violations of Article 6. . .
CitedRegina (Holding and Barnes plc) v Secretary of State for Environment Transport and the Regions; Regina (Alconbury Developments Ltd and Others) v Same and Others HL 9-May-2001
Power to call in is administrative in nature
The powers of the Secretary of State to call in a planning application for his decision, and certain other planning powers, were essentially an administrative power, and not a judicial one, and therefore it was not a breach of the applicants’ rights . .
CitedThe British Medical Association, Regina (on the Application of) v The General Medical Council and Another Admn 4-May-2016
The BMA sought to challenge the validity of the rules governing the procedure of Fitness to Practice panels. In particular the BMA challenged the new absence of a requirement that the panel’s legal advice and assistance be available to the parties. . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 11 April 2021; Ref: scu.227211

Regina v Mid Glamorgan Family Health Services Authority, ex parte Martin: CA 7 Sep 1994

A doctor may deny a patient access to his health records if it is in the patient’s best interests to do so. There is no common law right for a patient to see his own medical records, and the Act is not retrospective.
Gazette 19-Oct-1994, Independent 07-Sep-1994, Times 16-Aug-1994, [1995] 1 All ER 357
Access to Health Records Act 1990
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromRegina v Mid Glamorgan Family Health Services and Another, ex parte Martin QBD 2-Jun-1993
The Access to Health Records Act 1990 did not give retrospective rights of access to records which had been created before it was brought into effect. . .

Cited by:
CitedMersey Care NHS Trust v Ackroyd QBD 7-Feb-2006
The trust, operators of Ashworth Secure Hospital sought from the defendant journalist disclosure of the name of their employee who had revealed to the defendant matters about the holding of Ian Brady, the Moors Murderer, and in particular medical . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.87336

Martine v South East Kent Health Authority: CA 22 Mar 1993

The authority applied ex parte under the 1984 to the magistrate for the revocation of the plaitiff’s nursing home licence. It was supported by a written statement of the reasons for making the order made by the health authority’s chief nursing officer. The order cancelling the registration was made by the magistrate and the nursing home was perforce closed with financial loss to its proprietor. The licence was later re-instated. The proprietor sought damages.
Held: There was no cause of action in negligence for the alleged careless investigation by an area health authority towards a registered nursing home leading to an urgent application under section 30 for cancellation of the registration. The authority had no duty of care was not owed.
Dillon LJ said: ‘it was not just or reasonable . . that there should be a duty of care because the adversarial system of litigation has its own rules and requirements, which operate as checks and balances’ and that if in any circumstances the checks and balances should fail ‘negligence as a tort could not be, and should not be, invoked as the remedy.’
Leggatt LJ said: ‘The prescribed procedure is fast, and interposes only a sole justice of the peace between a health authority in pursuit of an order under the Act and the owner of a nursing home. But the fact that the safeguard is slight does not entitle a litigant to make good a supposed deficiency in the statutory procedure by recourse to the tort of negligence.’
Dillon LJ, Leggatt LJ
Ind Summary 22-Mar-1993, (1993) 20 BMLR 51, Times 08-Mar-1993
Registered Homes Act 1984 30
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedJain and Another v Trent Strategic Health Authority CA 22-Nov-2007
The claimant argued that the defendant owed him a duty of care as proprietor of a registered nursing home in cancelling the registration of the home under the 1984 Act. The authority appealed a finding that it owed such a duty.
Held: The . .
CitedBowden and Another v Lancashire County Council CA 16-Apr-2002
The claimant had succeeded in her appeal against the cancellation of her registration as a child minder, and now sought damages for negligence in using unnecessarily the emergency procedure leading to damage to the claimant’s reputation and . .
CitedTrent Strategic Health Authority v Jain and Another HL 21-Jan-2009
The claimants’ nursing home business had been effectively destroyed by the actions of the Authority which had applied to revoke their licence without them being given notice and opportunity to reply. They succeeded on appeal, but the business was by . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.83452

Dr Ghosh v The General Medical Council: PC 25 Jun 2001

(Professional Conduct Committee of the GMC) The Board of the Privy Council, when acting to hear an appeal from the disciplinary committee of the General Medical Council would in future deal with the case by way of a rehearing. Given the nature of the threat to those appearing before the committee, their human rights to a fair trial could be protected by the additional jurisdiction. Exercising that jurisdiction in this case, the board decided that the remedy imposed had been appropriate and proportionate.
Lord Millett said: ‘The board will afford an appropriate measure of respect to the judgment in the committee whether the practitioner’s failing amount to serious professional misconduct and on the measures necessary to maintain professional standards and provide adequate protection to the public. But the board will not defer to the committee’s judgment more than is warranted by the circumstances.’
Lord Millett
Times 25-Jun-2001, [2001] 1 WLR 1915, [2001] UKPC 29, Appeal No 69 of 2000
Bailii, PC, PC, PC
Human Rights Act 1998
Commonwealth
Citing:
FollowedEvans v General Medical Council PC 19-Nov-1984
‘The principles upon which this Board acts in reviewing sentences passed by the Professional Conduct Committee are well settled. It has been said time and again that a disciplinary committee are the best possible people for weighing the seriousness . .

Cited by:
CitedGupta v The General Medical Council PC 18-Dec-2001
(The Health Committee of the GMC) A doctor had been found guilty of serious professional misconduct by the Professional Conduct Committee of the General Medical Council. She appealed on the basis that they had not given reasons for the factual basis . .
CitedDr Thomas Amadeus Keiran Norton v The General Medical Council PC 11-Feb-2002
The appellant doctor had practised in plastic and related surgery, particularly liposuction. The complaints against him related to a failure to supervise his staff, wrongful delegation, and lack of care. His name had been erased from the register, . .
CitedMubarak v General Medical Council Admn 20-Nov-2008
The doctor appealed against a finding against him of professional misconduct in the form of a sexualised examination of a female patient.
Held: The reasons given were adequate, and the response of erasure from the register was the only one . .
CitedKhan v General Pharmaceutical Council SC 14-Dec-2016
The pharmacist had been removed from register the for a year after findings of domestic abuse. The court now considered what inquiry was required on an application for a continuation of that suspension.
Held: The different appeals of both the . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 08 April 2021; Ref: scu.80807

Jooste v General Medical Council: Admn 19 Oct 2010

Nicola Davies J DBE
[2010] EWHC 2558 (Admin)
Bailii
Medical Act 1983 41A(10)
England and Wales
Cited by:
See AlsoJooste v General Medical Council and Others EAT 4-Jul-2012
EAT RACE DISCRIMINATION – Indirect
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE
Appellate jurisdiction/reasons/Burns-Barke
Costs
The Employment Judge correctly struck out the Claimant’s claims as having no . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 21 March 2021; Ref: scu.425343

A B and others v Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust: QBD 9 May 2003

The claimants were involved in a group litigation with regard to the removal of organs without consent from deceased children. The defendant sought an order capping the costs which might be claimed.
Held: In GLO cases the desirability of ensuring that costs are kept within bounds makes it unnecessary for the court to require exceptional circumstances before exercising its discretion to make a costs cap order. Any costs cap should only relate to the costs incurred in relation to generic issues. An order was made identifying limits to the separate areas. The court’s general powers of case management were sufficiently wide to encompass the making of a costs capping order both in group litigation and in other actions.
Gage J
[2003] EWHC 1034 (QB), Gazette 22-Apr-2004
Bailii
Supreme Court Act 1981 51
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedDavies v Eli Lilly and Co (Opren Litigation) CA 1987
The powers in the section together with the power to make orders for costs under Order 62 of the Rules of the Supreme Court included the power to make a pre-emptive order for costs.
Lord Donaldson MR said: ‘In these circumstances the judge . .
CitedSolutia UK Limited v Griffiths CA 26-Apr-2001
The court considered issues relating to the appropriateness of the claimants instructing London solicitors in a case in which those solicitors had submitted a bill of costs totalling pounds 220,000 in connection with a claim in which their clients . .
CitedThe Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament v The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Others QBD 17-Dec-2002
The applicant sought an advisory order from the court to interpret the meaning of United Nations Security Council resolution no 1441 with regard to steps to be taken under the resolution in the event of the failure of Iraq to comply.
Held: A . .
CitedHome Office v Lownds (Practice Note) CA 21-Mar-2002
The respondent had been ordered to pay costs of over pounds 16,000 in an action for clinical negligence where the final award was only pounds 4,000. The Secretary of State appealed claiming that the costs were disproportionate.
Held: In such . .

Cited by:
CitedKing v Telegraph Group Ltd CA 18-May-2004
The defendant appealed against interim costs orders made in the claim against it for defamation.
Held: The general power of cost capping measures available to courts were available also in defamation proceedings. The claimant was being . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 17 March 2021; Ref: scu.184639