Areas of Law

Administrative

Law relating to Administration, and government. See also Judicial Review, and constitutional law.

Adoption

Law relating to Adoption and associated issues including procedure.

Agency

Law relating to Agency: Powers of Attorney, Enduring Powers of Attorney, Lasting Powers, Commercial Agency, Estate Agency, bailments

Agriculture

Law relating to Agriculture - tenancies etc. See also European Law, and Animals and Landlord & Tenant.

Animals

Law involving Animals. Includes liability for acts of animals, and offences against and involving animals.

Arbitration

Law relating to Arbitration, alternative dispute resolution (ADR), conciliation and mediation. Decisions making by independent experts.

Armed Forces

Law relating to the Armed Forces, Military Law, Courts Marshal. Army, Navy, Air Force.

Banking

Law relating to Banking, including Promissory notes and bills of Exchange. See also Financial Services.

Benefits

Law relating to Benefits; Income Support, Housing Benefit, Family Credit, National Assistance, Job-Seekers Allowance, Disability Living Allowance etc. See also Housing Law, and immigration (benefits for asylum seekers).

Capital Gains Tax

Law relating to Capital Gains Tax, Taxation of Chargeable Gains, CGT. See also Income Tax

Charity

Law relating to charities. See also Trusts, and Equity.

Child Support

Law relating to Child Support and Maintainance. See also Family Law, Adoption, and Children Law.

Children

Law relating to children in general. See also Child Support, Adoption, and Family Law.

Civil Procedure Rules

Cases and material dealing with the new Civil Procedure Rules.

Commercial

Law relating to commerce in general. Including competition law, fair trading, anti-dumping, agency. See also Company Law, Contract, Banking, and Financial Services.

Commonwealth

Commonwealth (and former members) cases. Cases (often in the Privy Council), from Hong Kong, New Zealand, Bermuda, Jamaica, Turks and Cacos etc

Company

Includes Company Partnership, Director Disqualification, Limited Liability Partnerships See also Insolvency.

Constitutional

Constitutional Law. See also Administrative Law, and Human Rights.

Construction

Law relating to construction, building law and industry. JCT contracts, etc

Consumer

Consumer Law, including consumer credit, price marking, sale of goods, product safety, and Trades Descriptions. See also Sale of Goods, and Contract.

Contempt of Court

Contempt of Court, in both civil and criminal proceedings. See also Media and Criminal Practice.

Contract

Contract Law of all forms. See also Consumer Law, sale of goods

Coroners

Law relating to Coroners, Inquests, Fatal Accident Inquiries.

Corporation Tax

Corporation Tax. See also Company law and Income Tax.

Costs

Costs. See also Litigation Practice, Legal Profession, Legal Aid.

County Court Rules

County Court Rules. See also Litigation practice. See now Civil Procedure Rules.

Crime

Criminal Law. Generally whether particular acts amount to a criminal offence.

Criminal Evidence

Criminal Evidence Law. Admissibility. Procedures for gathering, admitting and assessing evidence in criminal matters

Criminal Practice

Law relating to criminal practice. See also Criminal Law, Magistrates, Criminal Evidence, and Criminal Sentencing.

Criminal Sentencing

Criminal Sentencing. Including matters relating to the calculation of remission, the setting, service and operation of life sentences, and parole. See also Prisons

Customs and Excise

Law relating to Customs and Excise. See also VAT, European Law. Includes Customs and Excise offences, procedure and prosecutions.

Damages

Damages, or assessment of quantum. Generally post judgment

Defamation

Defamation, slander, libel. See also Media Law.

Discrimination

All forms of unlawful discrimination, including particularly, Sex discrimination (including equal pay. See also Employment law (for maternity dismissals etc.), European Law), Race discrimination including racial relations, and Disability discrimination.

Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Law. Principally, cases in the Ecclesiastical Courts of the Church of England, but also including other cases involving questions arising from other faiths and religious beliefs and issues generally.

Education

Law relating to Education. Typically these will include special educational needs issues etc.

Elections

Electoral/Election Law.

Employment

Employment Law. All matters relating to contracts between individuals and trade unions and employers, and procedural issues in the Industrial Tribunals system. See also Sex Discrimination and Race Relations Law, Health and Safety, and European Law.

Environment

Environmental Law. See also Planning Law, and Nuisance.

Equity

Equity. See also Trusts

Estoppel

Estoppel, in its various forms including proprietory and equitable estoppels

European

European Law. Law of the EU, and formerly EC and EEC. See also Commercial, VAT etc.

Evidence

All matters of law relating to evidence - see also Criminal Evidence

Extradition

Extradition Law. See also Immigration.

Family

Family Law - including law relating to divorce and financial provision. See also Children.

Financial Services

Financial Services Law. See also Banking. Includes accounting and related professions

Health

Health Law, including Mental Health, and anything to do with health provision.

Health and Safety

Health and Safety at work, worker's compensation. See also Personal Injuries, Damages.

Health Professions

Health Professions; anything to do with the professions includingnursing etcSee also Professional Negligence, Employment, and Health law.

Housing

Housing Law. See also Landlord and Tenant.

Human Rights

Human Rights Law. A rag bag of cases. See various other headings including natural justice, immigration, criminal practice, administrative law, and so on.

Immigration

Immigration law, including deportation, asylum, and nationality cases. See also Extradition.

Income Tax

Income Tax. See also Corporation Tax. Also general taxes management issues.

Information

Information Law, including Data Protection, Confidence and cinfidentiality, disclosure etc.

Inheritance Tax

Inheritance Taxes, formerly Capital Transfer Tax, and historic forms of Estate Duty

Insolvency

Insolvency Law. Bankruptcy and corporate insolvency.

Insurance

Insurance Law. Including Lloyds litigation.

Intellectual Property

Intellectual Property Law; Copyright, Designs, Patents, Passing Off, confidentialty and so on. See also Banking for confidentiality issues.

International

International Law. Cases involving the law of nations and other international issues rather than jurisdictional.

Ireland

Cases from Eire, the Republic of Ireland

Judicial Review

Judicial Review. See also Administrative Law, Local Goverment, and Litigation Practice.

Jurisdiction

Jurisdictional Law. Conflict of Laws, and the law relating to which country should try matters, or whether a court in one country has some jurisdiction over events or people in another. See also International law.

Jury

We put cases into the index as we find them. The more significant cases will be noted up fairly quickly, but many cases will always remain unanalysed. These are 'Jury' cases. We have a link, but no head note. See also 'Reference'.

Land

Land Law. Now includes Easements, Restrictive Covenants, occupier's liability. See also Land Charges, Registered Land, Landlord & Tenant, Housing

Landlord and Tenant

Landlord and Tenant: Commercial and Private L and T law, See also Housing law.

Legal Aid

Legal Aid. See also Costs, Litigation Practice, and Legal Profession.

Legal Professions

Legal Professions, solicitors, barristers, counsel, notaries public, licensed conveyancers, legal executives, judiciarly etc

Licensing

Licensing Law. All matters relating to licensing, gaming etc. Includes some licensing in matters of exports. See also Local Government Law, Planning Law, and Magistrates.

Limitation

Limitation law and prescription. See also damages, litigation practice and so on.

Litigation Practice

All matters relating to civil litigation practice. See also County Court Rules, Costs. More recent cases will also be found under the Civil Procedure Rules area.

Local Government

Local Govermnent law, including much ultra vires law. See also Licensing and Rating.

Magistrates

Magisterial Law. All matters relating to Magistrates and Magistrates Courts Administration. See also Criminal practice, and family law and licensing.

Media

All matters relating to Media Law. See also Defamation, Licensing, Contempt of Court.

Natural Justice

Natural Justice. In general, those cases concerned with the fundamental fairness of procedures adopted for judicial, and other disciplinary and regulatory decisions. See also Human Rights, administrative law, judicial review.

Negligence

General negligence. Also Professional Negligence, Torts - Other, Personal Injury

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland, or the law of Northern Ireland

Nuisance

Nuisance. See also Land, Torts General, and Environmental Law

Personal Injury

Personal Injury Law. See also Damages, and Torts General, Negligence, Professional Negligence, and Health and Safety Law. Damages for personal injury actions are normally included here.

Planning

Town and Country Planning.

Police

All matters relating to Police Law, pensions, discipline, crimes against officers. Employment

Prisons

All matters relating to Prisons and prisoners, including parole, and licence revocation, prison conditions, release.

Professional Negligence

Professional Negligence Law. See also under other headings for professional groups Legal professions and Health Professions.

Rating

Rating, including Community Charge and Council Tax, and formerly Inhabited-House Duty. See also Local Government.

Reference

Reference only. Cases where we have a reference to a paper source only, and no headnote. This will be used for cases cited in other later cases. There should be only very limited additions to this list, and the number of entries should diminish slowly ov.

Registered Land

Registered Land. See also Land.

Road Traffic

Road Traffic Law. See also Transport.

Scotland

Scotland. Many cases are heard in Scotland, but if they appear also to deal with the law in England, they are listed (perhaps unwisely) under that heading. To see full lists of cases heard in Scotland, see IHCS and OHCS (Inner and Outer Court of Session.

Stamp Duty

Stamp Duty. Stamp Duty is a tax imposed on documents.

Taxes - Other

Insurance Premium Tax, Council Tax, Community Charge etc

Taxes Management

The general law relating to the management of taxes. Newly added June 2000

Torts - Other

Torts General. Torts not otherwise specifically provided for. Malicious Prosecution, False Imprisonment, etc. See also Nuisance, Negligence, Professional Negligence, Personal Injury etc.

Transport

Transport Law. Including shipping, aviation law. See also Road Traffic.

Trusts

Trusts law. This also covers law relating to trustees and trusteeship. See also Equity.

Undue Influence

Undue Influence. See also Banking, land, and family law.

Utilities

The law relating to utilities, eg water, telecommunications, electricity, gas.

VAT

Value Added Tax. See also Customs and Excise.

Vicarious Liability

Vicarious Liability. All aspects of vicarious liability. See also Employment Law

Wales

Wales. Particularly Welsh law, constitution etc

Wills and Probate

Wills and Probate. Includes Inheritance Provision cases. See also Inheritance Tax, Equity and Trusts Law.