Excalibur Ventures Llc v Texas Keystone Inc and Others: ComC 10 Sep 2013

Excalibur claimed to be entitled to an interest in a number of oil fields in Kurdistan, which are potentially extremely profitable, and of which the Shaikan field is the most important. The claim was for specific performance of a ‘Collaboration Agreement’ pursuant to which Excalibur claimed its entitlement to an interest in the fields or to damages which, as finally put, were said to be of the order of US $ 1.6 billion.
Held: The claim failed on every point, whether put in contract, which was the primary claim, or in tort, where five causes of action were pursued: interference with contract, interference with business relations, breach of fiduciary duty, fraud by misrepresentation and fraud by concealment. The claim did not fail narrowly or on the basis of abstruse legal doctrine upon which two views might be possible. It failed because Excalibur had failed to establish any contract with Gulf.

Christopher Clarke LJ
[2013] EWHC 2767 (Comm)
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoExcalibur Ventures Llc v Texas Keystone Inc and Others ComC 28-Jun-2011
The court gave its reasons for the grant of an order restraining the claimant from also pursuing arbitration proceedings at the International Court of Arbitration.
Held: Gloster J was, found on the evidence then before her a strong arguable . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Torts – Other

Updated: 27 November 2021; Ref: scu.518979

Arnold v Britton and Others: ChD 3 Dec 2012

The parties disputed the effect of 5 versions of a clause in lease by the appellant to various lessees on a chalet park.

Morgan J
[2012] EWHC 3451 (Ch)
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
At ChDArnold v Britton and Others CA 22-Jul-2013
The court examined provisions in leases creating service charges. The disputed provision increased the service charge by 10% every year.
Held: Davis LJ discussed the thinking behind the clause: ‘Lack of correspondence between outlay and . .
At ChDArnold v Britton and Others SC 10-Jun-2015
Absurdity did not defeat a clear clause
A standard lease of plots on a caravan park, contained a provision which appeared to increase the rent by 10% in each year. The tenants argued that such a substantial increase could not have been intended.
Held: The tenants’ appeal failed . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Landlord and Tenant

Updated: 23 November 2021; Ref: scu.466447

Fielding and Platt Ltd v Selim Najjar: CA 17 Jan 1969

The plaintiff company had contracted to make and export to the defendant an aluminium extrusion press. The defendant re-assured the plaintiff that it would be lawful for him to import the plant, but asked that the plant be described falsely on the invoice as ‘parts for rolling mill’. Payment was made by promissory notes. After the first two promissory notes had not been met, the plaintiff ceased production, and sued on the notes and succeeded summarily. The defendant appealed.
Held: The plaintiff was entitled to payment under the first note, because it had performed its obligations under the contract, and there was no failure of consideration. However there was no such completed consideration for the second promissory note, and the defendant should be allowed to defend.
The request to mis-invoice the goods, if illegal, was severable, and did not undermine the contract as a whole. To succeed in their defence of illegality, the defendant had to show that the plaintiff was aware that performance by importing the plant would be illegal, and had agreed to go ahead notwithstanding that illegality. That had not been demonstrated in this case.
An innocent party who is ignorant of the facts or circumstances that would make performance of a contract illegal may be allowed to recover money paid by him under the illegal contract.
Only in exceptional circumstances should a court deprive a claimant of judgment on a claim based on a promissory note.
Lord Denning MR said: ‘The plaintiffs, Fielding and Platt Ltd are manufacturers of machinery. Their business is in Gloucester. In the middle of 1965 they entered into a contract with a Lebanese company called SCIALE Aluminium of Lebanon. They agreed to make and sell to the Lebanese company an aluminium extrusion press for a total sum of andpound;235,000. The plant and equipment was to be delivered free on board at a British port. The time for delivery was 10 1/2 months from 19 June 1965. Payment was to be made by six promissory notes given by the defendant, the managing director of the Lebanese company, Mr Selim Najjar, personally; and he deposited shares, of his own, as security for the due payment of the promissory notes. The promissory notes were payable at intervals during the progress of the work. The first four were payable whilst the plaintiffs were making the machinery in England. Thus the first note was payable on 4 October 1965, for andpound;23,500; the second on 4 December 1965, for andpound;47,000, the third on 4 February 1966, for andpound;47,000; and the fourth on 4 April 1966, for another andpound;47,000. The fifth note was payable on 4 June 1966, for andpound;47,000, which was just about the time when the machinery was to be delivered to the port. The sixth note, the final one, for andpound;23,500, was payable on 4 August 1966.
On 4 October 1965, the first promissory note, for andpound;23,500, fell due. It was not paid. The defendant apologised for not paying it. He asked for a few days’ grace. He said that had been agreed. So be it. He was given a few days-indeed more than a few days. Still he did not pay. When the note was a fortnight overdue he wrote on 18 October 1965: ‘It is my estimate that by the middle of next month all will be arranged and I will be able to proceed with the payments.’ He realised that his non-payment might result in delays on the English side, for he added: ‘Please remember that any delays on your part due to delayed payments will be acceptable.’ When the note was more than three weeks overdue, the plaintiffs decided to suspend work on the contract. On 27 October 1965, they cabled to the Lebanese company:
‘We have today suspended all work on your contract with us and this includes notification to all our material suppliers that they must do no further work on this contract. We have been forced to take this action to comply with the requirements of our authorities. Our current financial commitment to material and equipment suppliers plus design and stock material and labour charges, is extremely heavy. We trust you appreciate that this is your liability. As a result of suspending all work you will appreciate that our delivery date will be considerably extended and the amount of the delay will depend on the time taken for you to resolve your difficulties.’
The defendant never paid the first promissory note or any of the others. He never paid anything. In consequence, the plaintiffs suspended work on the contract, and it remained suspended. No further work was done on it. There were negotiations for a revival of the contract, but they came to nothing.
Stopping there, it is quite plain to me that the defendant was liable to pay the first of the promissory notes. We have repeatedly said in this court that a bill of exchange or a promissory note is to be treated as cash. It is to be honoured unless there is some good reason to the contrary. It is suggested that, on the first note, there was a failure of consideration. That suggestion is quite unfounded. The plaintiffs were getting on with their part of the contract. They were, they say, ordering goods from their suppliers and getting on with the work. At any rate, there is no evidence to the contrary; and, unless they were themselves in default, they were clearly entitled to payment of the first note. The position as to the second note is different. Before it fell due, the defendant said: ‘I cannot pay’; and the plaintiffs replied: ‘We, therefore, suspend work.’ Seeing that the plaintiffs had suspended work, they could not claim payment in full, but at most damages. They could not sue on each note as it fell due-each of the six-when they had suspended all work on the contract. So there is an available defence on the second note. But not on the first note.
This brings me to the second point. In answer to the claim in both notes, the defendant raises a defence of illegality. He says that it was his intention to break the laws of the Lebanon and that the plaintiffs were parties to it. In order to import the extrusion press into the Lebanon, he had to get an import licence from the Lebanon authorities. He had already got a licence to import a two million pound rolling mill, but he had not got a licence to bring in an extrusion press. His intention was to import it without a licence, and he says that the plaintiffs agreed to help him to do so. The plaintiffs agreed, he says, to put in a false invoice. He says: ‘I asked you to invoice the press as part of a rolling mill, and you agreed to it, and, therefore, you cannot recover anything.’ That defence does not commend itself to me. Here is a man who prays in aid his own illegality-he admits he was trying to evade the laws of his own country-and he seeks to implicate the plaintiffs in it.
In order for this to be any kind of defence, he must show first of all that the contract contained a term that the plaintiffs were to give a false invoice; so that it could not lawfully be performed. For if it would be lawfully performed (by giving a correct invoice) the plaintiffs can certainly sue on it. I do not think there was any such term. During the negotiations the Lebanese company did ask the plaintiffs to invoice the press as ‘parts for rolling mill’. But this request did not, as I read the correspondence, become a term of the contract. The contract was concluded on 13 July 1965. And the only subsequent reference was contained later in the confirmation which the plaintiffs sent to the Lebanese company. There was a long detailed description of the goods covering many pages and then, in brackets, were the words (‘to be invoiced as ‘parts for rolling mill”). That was a mere notification by the Lebanese company of the way they wanted an invoice made out. It was not a term of the contract itself. The plaintiffs would therefore quite justifiably refuse to give such invoice, and insist on the contract being lawfully performed.
In the second place, even if it were a term, the defendant would have to show that the plaintiffs were implicated in this illegality, that is that they had knowledge of it and were actively participating in it, see Foster v Driscoll, Lindsay v Attfield, Lindsay v Driscoll ([1929] 1 KB 470 at p 518; [1928] All ER Rep 130 at pp 146, 147) per Sankey LJ. I can see no evidence worthy of the name to suggest that the plaintiffs knew of this illegality. The only evidence is contained in a cable about the import licence. On 16 June 19658 the plaintiffs stated that they were agreeable to the proposed contract ‘subject to evidence of satisfactory importing licence arrangements’. The Lebanese company replied:
‘Concerning our import licence, we have a regular import licence for a total amount of two million sterling, for a complete aluminium plant. This licence is more than what we require for an extrusion press, and since we don’t want to lose our right for the remaining amount, we want the material to be invoiced as ‘parts for rolling mill’. This of course is for local consumption. We discussed these details with your representative here, and will make sure that you do the correct thing when the time comes. Please bear in mind that few items (just any thing) of the total order should be in Beirut the first week of October the latest, because our licence is valid until October 24, 1965, and before that date something should have arrived.’
I do not think that cable was enough to give the plaintiffs knowledge of the illegality. It only shows that the Lebanese company thought it convenient, for local consumption, to have the machines invoiced as parts for a rolling mill, instead of the more accurate description of an aluminium extrusion press.
I cannot help remarking that the defendant seems to have a special fondness for false invoices. At a later stage he suggested that the plaintiffs should give an invoice for only half the cost, instead of the whole; so as to save customs duties. He also suggested that the plaintiffs should write a false letter (which he drafted) to show the Lebanese customs authorities. The plaintiffs very properly did not agree to those suggestions. And when the matter finally came to a head, the plaintiffs firmly said: ‘We must invoice the goods correctly.’ I know there is a suggestion in the affidavit of the defendant that the plaintiffs were implicated, but, in the face of the documents, I see no substance in this suggestion.
There is another point: even if there was a term that these goods should be invoiced falsely in order to deceive the Lebanese authorities, I do not think it would render the whole contract void. That term would be void for illegality. But it can clearly be severed from the rest of the contract. It can be rejected, leaving the rest of the contract good and enforceable. The plaintiffs would be entitled, despite the illegal term, to deliver the goods FOB English port, and send a true and accurate invoice to the Lebanese buyer. The Lebanese buyer could not refuse the goods by saying ‘I stipulated for a false invoice’. He could not rely on his own iniquity so as to refuse payment.
In my opinion, therefore, the defence of illegality is clearly bad. I would allow judgment to be entered on the first note and for the interest thereon; and give leave to defend as to the second.’
Davies LJ said: ‘I agree with the result reached by Lord Denning MR and I do not propose to add anything.’
Widgery LJ said: ‘I also agree. I find each of the main issues in this case one of some difficulty and I am much indebted to counsel for the defendant for his argument; but in the end I have concluded that they are sufficiently determined to justify judgment under RSC, Ord 14 in respect of the amount of the earlier promissory note. So far as the allegation of illegality is concerned, there are I think two independent and sufficient answers to it. First, in order to succeed on this question, the defendant must show that the plaintiffs were aware of the illegal purpose in the falsification of the invoice and that they agreed actively to participate in that purpose so that goods could be illegally imported into the Lebanon which would not otherwise be allowed to enter. The only basis on which it is said that the plaintiffs at any material time had knowledge of that illegal purpose is the telex message of 18 June from the Lebanese company, to which Lord Denning MR has referred. If I may just repeat again the essential words, they were replying to an enquiry from the plaintiffs as to their import licence, and they stated:
‘We have a regular import licence for a total amount of two million sterling, and for a complete aluminium plant. This licence is more than what we require for an extrusion press and since we don’t want to lose our right for the remaining amount, we want the material to be invoiced as’ parts for rolling mill’. This, of course, is for local consumption . . ‘
When that was first read to us, for my part I found it quite incomprehensible, and it is not until one gets further in the correspondence that the real point of it becomes clear. The plaintiffs, of course, had to judge the legality or illegality of what was proposed, without the benefit of the correspondence which developed months later as to the terms of that telex message. I can see no reason whatever to suppose that the plaintiffs should see more in that message than that the invoice was to indicate that the goods were part of a larger matter, which in itself would not involve any illegality that I can see. It is only later that one appreciates that the character of the goods may be of some relevance, and if the plaintiffs did agree to invoice the goods as part of a larger whole, I cannot for my part see that that would involve them in any illegality sufficient to excuse the defendant from liability in this case. Alternatively, as Lord Denning MR has said, I am of the opinion that there was no term in this contract requiring the plaintiffs to invoice the goods as part of a rolling mill. The chief contractual document is a formal and lengthy quotation which the plaintiffs submitted to the defendant setting out details of the machine to be supplied; and on 13 July the Lebanese company accepted that quotation in these words:
‘please consider this letter as an official order based on your quotation of July 5, 1965 and our different telexes to which you have given your agreement.’
At that point there was nothing in the contractual documents to imply an obligation on the plaintiffs to invoice the goods as part of a rolling mill. Counsel for the defendant has referred to the telexes mentioned in that letter, but there was no agreement by the plaintiffs to any telex involving a special form of invoicing. When the plaintiffs received that acceptance of their offer, they sent a formal and detailed confirmation; and it is to be observed that under the terms of their agreement no contract was to be binding on them until that confirmation had been given. In my judgment, that was no more than a confirmation of that which was already agreed, and it would be quite unreal to regard it as a counter-offer containing a new term whereby the goods were to be invoiced as part of a rolling mill.
On the second issue, namely, the failure of consideration, for which the notes were given, my opinion is that these notes were given by the defendant in consideration of the plaintiffs entering into the agreement with the Lebanese company and carrying out that agreement. It is arguable that if counsel for the defendant can sustain his contention that the plaintiffs repudiated the contract in November and that that repudiation was accepted by the Lebanese company, then perhaps it can be shown that liability on bills maturing after the date of the repudiation had itself been determined; but, like Lord Denning MR I can see no possible ground on which it can be said that the consideration for the first bill, which would mature in October 1965, at a time when the plaintiffs were in no way in default, can have been rendered wholly ineffective by virtue of that which followed.
I also would accordingly allow the appeal to the extent that judgment should be entered only in respect of the amount of the first bill and interest thereon.’

Lord Denning MR, Davies, Widgery LJJ
(1969) 113 Sol Jo 160, [1969] 1 WLR 357, [1969] 2 All ER 150
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedScott v Gillmore 6-Jul-1810
A bill of exchange, part of the consideration for which is spirituous liquor sold in less quantities than of 20s. value, is totally void, though part of the consideration was money lent -The statute 24 G. 2, c. 40, s. 12, making illegal the sale of . .
CitedRegazzoni v KC Sethia (1994) Ltd CA 1956
The rule against enforcing foreign political laws did not require it to enforce a contract that violated Indian laws against export to South Africa. The court permitted recognition but not enforcement of foreign revenue laws.
Denning LJ said: . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Banking

Updated: 23 November 2021; Ref: scu.459793

Autoweld Systems Ltd v Kito Enterprises Llc: CA 17 Dec 2010

In the civil sphere a claim for security for costs is invariably made in a costs-follow-the-event regime. Black LJ stated: ‘it must be borne in mind that the design of the rules is to protect a defendant (or a claimant placed in a similar position by a counterclaim) who is forced into litigation at the election of someone else against adverse costs consequences of that litigation’

Sedley, Rimer, Black LLJ
[2010] EWCA Civ 1469
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedMG v AR FD 16-Nov-2021
Family Case: Costs Security depends on Case Merits
Application for security for costs in family cases.
Held: In contrast to civil cases generally, in a family case the merits of the application and the strength of the defence necessarily have to be carefully considered. It is only by . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Updated: 22 November 2021; Ref: scu.427267

Credit Suisse v Allerdale Borough Council: CA 20 May 1996

Builder’s Guarantee Ultra Vires LA

The council set out to provide a swimming pool using powers under s.19 of the 1976 Act. Purporting to use powers under s.111 of the 1972 Act, it set up a company to develop a site by building a leisure pool and time-share units, with a view to selling the time-share units to pay for the cost of building the pool. The council gave a guarantee to help the company to finance the project, and on the strength of this the company obtained a facility from the bank. The sale of the time-share units proved unsatisfactory and the company went into liquidation. The bank sued the council under the guarantee to recover the sums owed to it by the company.
Held: The guarantee was ultra vires where it had been given to a company when the authority was acting outside it’s proper powers. Where a statutory corporation purports to enter into a contract which it is not empowered by the relevant statute to enter into, the corporation lacks the capacity to make the supposed contract. This lack of capacity means that the document and the agreement it contains do not have effect as a legal contract. It exists in fact but not in law. It is a legal nullity. The purported contract which is in truth not a contract does not confer any legal rights on either party. Neither party can sue on it. Any third party dealing with a local authority should be aware of that fact [of limited capacity and competence] and of the potential legal risk.
Hobhouse LJ said: ‘The discretion of the court in deciding whether to grant any remedy is wide one. It can take into account many considerations, including the needs of good administration, delay, the effect on third parties, and the utility of granting the relevant remedy.’

Hobhouse LJ
Times 20-May-1996, [1997] QB 306
Local Government Act 1972 111, Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1976 819
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromCredit Suisse v Allerdale Borough Council QBD 17-Jun-1994
A Local Authority’s guarantee for its own company was void, having been given for impermissible reasons. . .
AppliedLondon and Clydeside Estates v Aberdeen District Council HL 8-Nov-1979
Identifying ‘maandatory’ and ‘regulatory’
The appellants had sought a Certificate of Alternative Development. The certificate provided was defective in that it did not notify the appellants, as required, of their right to appeal. Their appeal out of time was refused.
Held: The House . .

Cited by:
CitedStretch v The United Kingdom ECHR 24-Jun-2003
The claimant had taken a lease of property from a local authority. Relying upon an option for renewal, he invested substantially in the property, but it was then decided that the option was ultra vires.
Held: Property rights protected under . .
CitedRegina v Soneji and Bullen HL 21-Jul-2005
The defendants had had confiscation orders made against them. They had appealed on the basis that the orders were made more than six months after sentence. The prosecutor now appealed saying that the fact that the order were not timely did not . .
CitedKilby v Basildon District Council Admn 26-Jul-2006
Tenants complained that the authority landlord had purported to vary a clause in his secure tenancy agreement which gave certain management rights to tenants.
Held: The powers to let on secure tenancies were governed by statute. The clause . .
CitedBirmingham City Council v Qasim and Others CA 20-Oct-2009
The council argued that the defendant was not a tenant granted to him as a secure tenancy since he had not been granted the tenancy in accordance with its policies. An employee had manipulated the Council’s system to grant tenancies to bypass the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Local Government, Contract, Company, Banking

Updated: 20 November 2021; Ref: scu.79620

Wilson and Another v Burnett: CA 24 Oct 2007

Insufficient Evidence of Lottery Contract

The defendant won a large prize at bingo. The claimants said they had a binding oral agreement to pool each others winnings. They now appealed dismissal of their claim.
Held: The evidence had in all material respects conflicted. The ‘claimants’ bare bones account of what they say was agreed at their place of work, taken alone, scarcely stands as an agreement binding and enforceable in law. ‘ The appeal was dismissed.

[2007] EWCA Civ 1170
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedEnglish v Emery Reimbold and Strick Ltd; etc, (Practice Note) CA 30-Apr-2002
Judge’s Reasons Must Show How Reached
In each case appeals were made, following Flannery, complaining of a lack of reasons given by the judge for his decision.
Held: Human Rights jurisprudence required judges to put parties into a position where they could understand how the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Updated: 19 November 2021; Ref: scu.261447

Fiona Trust and Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others: CA 24 Jan 2007

The court was asked whether when contracts have been induced by bribery and have been rescinded on discovery of the bribery, that constitutes a dispute which can be determined by arbitration in the context of a common form of arbitration clause.
Held: a dispute whether the contract can be set aside or rescinded for alleged bribery does fall within the arbitration clause on its true construction. ‘If arbitrators can decide whether a contract is void for initial illegality, there is no reason why they should not decide whether a contract has been procured by bribery, just as much as they can decide whether a contract has been procured by misrepresentation or non-disclosure. Illegality is a stronger case than bribery which is not the same as non est factum or the sort of mistake which goes to the question whether there was any agreement ever reached. It is not enough to say that the bribery impeaches the whole contract unless there is some special reason for saying that the bribery impeaches the arbitration clause in particular. ‘ and ‘we see no reason why the charterers should be prevented from arbitrating these claims; if the arbitration tribunal decides that the charters were indeed procured by bribery they will be able to decide what consequence that conclusion has on any claims which the charterers might otherwise legitimately have. ‘

Tuckey, Arden and Longmore LJJ
Times 29-Jan-2007, [2007] EWCA Civ 20, [2007] Bus LR 686, [2007] 1 CLC 144, [2007] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 267, [2007] ArbLR 22, [2007] 1 All ER (Comm) 891
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedHeyman v Darwins Limited HL 1942
An arbitration clause will survive a repudiatory breach: ‘I agree with the Lord Chancellor in thinking that the true ground of the decision in Jureidini v National British and Irish Millers Insurance Co Ltd was the narrowness of the field of . .
CitedMackender v Feldia AG CA 1966
A clause provided that an insurance policy should be governed by Belgian law and that ‘any disputes arising thereunder shall be exclusively subject to Belgian jurisdiction.’ The underwriters avoided the contract for non-disclosure of material facts . .
CitedEmpresa Exportadora de Azucar v Industria Azucarera Nacional S.A, The Playa Larga CA 1983
There had been a theft by Cuban sellers of one cargo of sugar, property in which had already passed to the buyers, and non-delivery of a second combined with trickery whereby the intended buyers were nonetheless induced to pay its price. The first . .
CitedUnion of India v Aaby’s Rederi A/S, The Evje HL 1975
Lord Dilhorne said of the words ‘to be settled in London’: ‘At first sight those words appear to me to mean no more and no less than that the contributions to be made have to be determined in London and paid there, and that implies determined in . .
CitedSamick Lines Co Ltd v Owners of The Antonis P Lemos HL 2-Jan-1985
The House was asked as to the effect of the section.
Held: Since the provisions of the statute under consideration were designed to give domestic effect to an international convention, a broad and liberal construction should be given to them . .
CitedThe Eschersheim; The Jade HL 1976
The 1956 Act implemented as part of the domestic law the treaty obligations of the United Kingdom under the International Convention Relating to the Arrest of Seagoing Ships signed at Brussels on 10 May 1952 (the Arrest Convention).
Held: The . .
CitedFillite (Runcorn) Ltd v Aqua-Lift CA 1989
The court considered whether claims arising from misrepresentation or breach of a collateral contrat were claims arising ‘under’ the contract so as to be governed by the disputes provisions in it.
Held: The disputes did not arise ‘under the . .
CitedThe Ermoupolis 1990
A claim for the tort of conversion fell within the phrase ‘any dispute arising in any way whatsoever out of this bill of lading’. . .
CitedAggeliki Charis Compania Maritima SA v Pagnan SpA The Angelic Grace QBD 1994
The court considered whether a claim for a collision between two ships was governed by an arbitration clause which read ‘all disputes from time to time arising out of this contract shall . . be referred to the arbitrament of two arbitrators carrying . .
CitedHarbour Assurance Co (UK) Ltd v Kansa General International Insurance Co Ltd CA 7-Apr-1993
An action was brought by re-insurers for a declaration that reinsurance policies were void for illegality, and that the plaintiffs were not liable under them. The illegality alleged was that the defendants were not registered or approved to carry on . .
CitedOverseas Union v AA Mutual International Insurance Co Ltd 1988
Evans J said that there was a broad distinction between clauses which referred ‘only those disputes which may arise regarding the rights and obligations which are created by the contract itself’ and those which ‘show an intention to refer some wider . .
CitedEthiopian Oil Fields v Rio del Mar 1990
A dispute about rectification came within the words ‘any dispute arising out of or under this contract’. The phrase ‘out of’ must add something to ‘under’, even though the words ‘out of ‘ were in fact the words which appeared first in the clause. . .
CitedHarbour Assurance Co (Uk) Ltd v Kansa General International Insurance Co Ltd 1993
The Court said that older (pre Heyman v Darwins Ltd) authorities about the width of arbitration clauses had to be approached with some care and that the words ‘arising from the contract’ have almost invariably been treated as ‘words of very wide . .
CitedDelos, Owners of Cargo v Delos Shipping Ltd ComC 31-Jan-2001
Claims for breach of duty and bailment could be brought within the phrase ‘any disputes under’ the contract. . .
CitedChimimport Plc v G d’Alesio SAS 1994
The phrase ‘arising under’ in a clause referring matters to arbitration is narrower than ‘arising out of’ and the court doubted whether a tortious claim could easily give rise to a dispute ‘under the contract’. . .
CitedLogicrose Ltd v Southend United Football Club Ltd CA 5-Feb-1988
The agent required the contractual counterparty to pay a bribe of pounds 70,000 to an offshore account.
Held: The bribe was held to be recoverable by the principal whether the principal rescinded or affirmed the contract because it was a . .
CitedFrancesco Benincasa v Dentalkit Srl ECJ 3-Jul-1997
A contract which forms a part of the customer’s arrangements for pursuing his trade or profession is not a consumer contract and a choice of jurisdiction clause in a distribution agreement was valid.
Europa . .
CitedCredit Suisse First Boston (Europe) Ltd v Seagate Trading Co Ltd 1999
An oral contract for the sale of Russian Notes was followed by a Trade confirmation with an English jurisdiction clause. It was said that this document was fraudulently presented by Credit Suisse as a mere perfunctory confirmation (which it was not) . .
CitedLaw Debenture Trust Corporation Plc v Elektrim Finance Bv and others ChD 1-Jul-2005
A bond contained an arbitration clause subject to a further clause giving the claimant an ‘exclusive right at its option to apply to the courts of England to settle any disputes which may arise out of or in connection with these presents’. The . .
CitedAhmad Al-Naimi (T/a Buildmaster Construction Services) v Islamic Press Agency Incorporated CA 28-Jan-2000
The court has an inherent power to stay proceedings. The court could refer a matter to arbitration where there was an arbitration clause, but could also do so under its inherent discretion, where this was not quite clear, but it was clear that good . .
CitedBirse Construction Limited v St David Limited TCC 12-Feb-1999
There are four approaches to deciding whether an arbitration agreement exists to which section 9 applies:- (1) to determine on the evidence before the court that such an agreement does exist in which case (if the disputes fall within the terms of . .
Appeal fromFiona Trust and Holding Corp and others v Privalov and others ComC 20-Oct-2006
The parties disputed whether their claim should be arbitrated.
Held: A claim as to whether the contract itself had been made was not one which could be arbitrated by provisions in that contract. It does not arise ‘under’ the contract. The . .
See AlsoFiona Trust Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others ComC 19-Jan-2007
. .

Cited by:
See AlsoFiona Trust and Holding Corp and others v Privalov and others ComC 20-Oct-2006
The parties disputed whether their claim should be arbitrated.
Held: A claim as to whether the contract itself had been made was not one which could be arbitrated by provisions in that contract. It does not arise ‘under’ the contract. The . .
Appeal fromPremium Nafta Products Ltd (20th Defendant) and others v Fili Shipping Company Ltd and others; Fiona Trust and Holding Corporation v Privalov HL 17-Oct-2007
The owners of a ship sought to rescind charters saying that they had been procured by bribery.
Held: A claim to rescind a contract by reason of bribery fell within the scope of an arbitration clause under which the parties had agreed to refer . .
CitedScottish and Newcastle Plc v Raguz HL 29-Oct-2008
The lease had been assigned by the claimant to the defendant and on again to a tenant who became insolvent. The landlord had recovered sums said to be due from the claimant who now sought an indemnity from the defendant. The defendant said that the . .
See AlsoFiona Trust Holding Corp and others v Privalov and others ComC 21-May-2007
Allegations were made of different varieties of fraud. Applications were made for freezing orders. . .
See AlsoFiona Trust and Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others ComC 22-Jul-2008
. .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Arbitration

Updated: 19 November 2021; Ref: scu.248016

Verderame v Commercial Union Assurance Co Plc: CA 2 Apr 1992

The insurance brokers, acting to arrange insurance for a small private limited company did not owe a duty in tort to the directors of that company personally. Where an action was brought in a tort and in breach of contract, damages could not be awarded on the tort where they were not available in contract.

Balcombe LJ
[1992] BCLC 793, Times 02-Apr-1992
England and Wales
Citing:
FollowedWatts and Co v Morrow CA 30-Jul-1991
The plaintiff had bought a house on the faith of the defendant’s report that there were only limited defects requiring repair. In fact the defects were much more extensive. The defendant surveyor appealed against an award of damages after his . .

Cited by:
CitedJohnson v Gore Wood and Co (a Firm) CA 12-Nov-1998
The claimant had previously issued a claim against the defendant solicitors through his company. He now sought to pursue a claim in his own name. It was resisted as an abuse of process, and on the basis that no personal duty of care was owed to the . .
CitedHamilton Jones v David and Snape (a Firm) ChD 19-Dec-2003
The claimant was represented by the respondent firm of solicitors in an action for custody of her children. Through their negligence the children had been removed from the country. She sought damages for the distress of losing her children.
Agency, Insurance, Company, Contract, Negligence, Damages

Updated: 16 November 2021; Ref: scu.181818

Whitmar Publications Ltd v Gamage and Others: ChD 4 Jul 2013

Whitmar claimed damages for breach of contract; an account of profits; damages for breach of fiduciary duty and/or for infringement of its Database Rights under the Copyright and Rights in Database Regulations 1997; and for a permanent injunction restraining the Defendants from using and disclosing its confidential information obtained during their employment by Whitmar.
Held: The relief was given. The defendants had begun their acting in competition to their employers before leaving employment.
‘the critical distinction between the duty of good faith and fidelity owed by an employee and the fiduciary duties is that an employee is not in the position of a fiduciary, such as a director. It is trite law that a director owes fiduciary duties to the company of which he or she is a director, and is under a duty to act in good faith in what he or she considers to be the best interests of the company. An employee does not have such a wide- reaching obligation.’

Peter Leaver QC DHCJ
[2013] EWHC 1881 (Ch)
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedAmerican Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd HL 5-Feb-1975
Interim Injunctions in Patents Cases
The plaintiffs brought proceedings for infringement of their patent. The proceedings were defended. The plaintiffs obtained an interim injunction to prevent the defendants infringing their patent, but they now appealed its discharge by the Court of . .
CitedLawrence David Limited v Ashton CANI 1989
The American Cyanamid principles apply in cases of interlocutory injunctions in restraint of trade just as they do in other cases. . .
CitedLawrence David Limited v Ashton CANI 1989
The American Cyanamid principles apply in cases of interlocutory injunctions in restraint of trade just as they do in other cases. . .
CitedLansing Linde v Kerr CA 1991
Staughton LJ held that ‘trade secrets’ embrace information used in a trade, restricted in its dissemination, and the disclosure of which would be liable to cause real or significant harm to the party claiming confidentiality. He considered the . .
CitedWessex Dairies Limited v Smith CA 1935
A milk roundsman employed by a dairy who canvassed the dairy’s customers while in the employ of the dairy but to take effect after his employment had terminated.
Held: The question to be determined depended upon the term to be implied in the . .
CitedFaccenda Chicken Ltd v Fowler CA 1986
Nature of Confidentiality in Information
The appellant plaintiff company had employed the defendant as sales manager. The contract of employment made no provision restricting use of confidential information. He left to set up in competition. The company now sought to prevent him using . .
CitedFaccenda Chicken Ltd v Fowler CA 1986
Nature of Confidentiality in Information
The appellant plaintiff company had employed the defendant as sales manager. The contract of employment made no provision restricting use of confidential information. He left to set up in competition. The company now sought to prevent him using . .
CitedNottingham University v Fishel QBD 19-Jan-2000
When a university embryologist, the respondent, worked abroad he did not act in any breach of fiduciary duty. He remained under a specific duty to direct his fellow embryologists to work in the interests of the university and not in his own . .
CitedRanson v Customer Systems Plc CA 27-Jun-2012
Lewison LJ considered the contractual duty of fidelity within an employment contract:
‘It is not disputed that an employee has an obligation of fidelity towards his employer. If the obligation is not expressed, it will invariably be implied.
CitedLansing Linde v Kerr CA 1991
Staughton LJ held that ‘trade secrets’ embrace information used in a trade, restricted in its dissemination, and the disclosure of which would be liable to cause real or significant harm to the party claiming confidentiality. He considered the . .
CitedIn re H and R (Minors) (Child Sexual Abuse: Standard of Proof) HL 14-Dec-1995
Evidence allowed – Care Application after Abuse
Children had made allegations of serious sexual abuse against their step-father. He was acquitted at trial, but the local authority went ahead with care proceedings. The parents appealed against a finding that a likely risk to the children had still . .
CitedHelmet Integrated Systems Ltd v Tunnard and others CA 15-Dec-2006
Whilst employed by the claimants as a salesman, the defendant came to want to develop his idea for a modular helmet suitable for fire-fighters and others. He took certain steps including showing the proposal confidentially to a competitor, and then . .
CitedBrutt Trade Marks 2007
. .
CitedRanson v Customer Systems Plc CA 27-Jun-2012
Lewison LJ considered the contractual duty of fidelity within an employment contract:
‘It is not disputed that an employee has an obligation of fidelity towards his employer. If the obligation is not expressed, it will invariably be implied.
CitedImam-Sadeque v Bluebay Asset Management (Services) Ltd QBD 10-Dec-2012
Popplewell J said: ‘In general terms, it can be said that the duty of fidelity requires an employee not to engage in competitive activity. Nevertheless, it is legitimate for him to undertake competitive activity as soon as he ceases the employment . .
CitedBalston Ltd v Headline Filters Ltd and Another ChD 1990
The claimant, a manufacturer of filter tubes, employed the defendant as a director. He gave notice to leave, but during his notice period, he was contacted by a customer who informed him of a meeting between that customer and the company at which . .
CitedSun Valley Foods Limited v Vincent 2000
The court considered the grant of ‘springboard relief’. Jonathan Parker J said: ‘For reasons which I have already explained, there is no room for doubt that the defendants have made unlawful use of material in which Sun Valley/Fields has a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Intellectual Property

Updated: 15 November 2021; Ref: scu.512439

Hochster v De La Tour: QBD 25 Jun 1853

The plaintiff said that the defendant had given him a contract to travel with him and to act as the defendant’s courier, but then changed his mind. The plaintiff obtained another engagement to start before the proposed term. The defendant said there could be no breach.
Held: Lord Campbell CJ said: ‘On this motion in arrest of judgment, the question arises, whether, if there be an agreement between A. and B., whereby B. engages to employ A. on and from a future day for a given period of time, to travel with him into a foreign country as a courier, and to start with him in that capacity on that day, A. being to receive a monthly salary during the continuance of such service, B. may, before the day, refuse to perform the agreement and break and renounce it, so as to entitle A. before the day to commence an action against B. to recover damages for breach of the agreement; A. having been ready and willing to perform it, till it was broken and renounced by B. The defendant’s counsel very powerfully contended that, if the plaintiff was not contented to dissolve the contract, and to abandon all remedy upon it, he was bound to remain ready and willing to perform it till the day when the actual employment as courier in the service of the defendant was to begin; and that there could be no breach of the agreement, before that day, to give a right of action. But it cannot be laid down as a universal rule that, where by agreement an act is to be done on a future day, no action can be brought for a breach of the agreement till the day for doing the act has arrived. ‘

Lord Campbell CJ
[1853] EWHC QB J29, [1853] 2 E and B 678, [1853] EngR 760, (1853) 2 El and Bl 678, (1853) 118 ER 922, [1853] EWHC QB J72
Bailii, Commonlii, Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedSarker v South Tees Acute Hospitals NHS Trust EAT 25-Mar-1997
CS The appellant applied for a job with the respondent. Her offer was confirmed in writing. When the offer was withdrawn before she began to work, she claimed damages under s131.
Held: The employment . .
CitedSK Shipping (S) Pte Ltd v Petroexport Ltd ComC 24-Nov-2009
The parties disputed the termination of a charterparty for anticipatory repudiatory breach.
Held: To the extent that the dispute relied on disputes of fact, the court preferred the evidence of the claimant. The defendant had displayed an . .
CitedBunge Sa v Nidera Bv SC 1-Jul-2015
The court considered the effect of the default clause in a standard form of contract which is widely used in the grain trade. On 10 June 2010 the respondents, Nidera BV, whom I shall call ‘the buyers’, entered into a contract with the appellants, . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Employment, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 12 November 2021; Ref: scu.241588

Commission for the New Towns v Cooper (Great Britain) Ltd, (Formerly Coopind UK Ltd): CA 4 Mar 1995

The trial judge had dismissed a claim for rectification on the basis that the defendant hoped and suspected, but did not know, of the relevant mistake by the plaintiff.
Held: Rectification was ordered because the defendant had sought to mislead the plaintiff into making the relevant mistake, the plaintiff had in fact made it, and this was sufficiently unconscionable conduct on the part of the defendant to render it liable to rectification. The deliberate attempt to hide the other’s mistake made the contract unenforceable. An offer and acceptance of a land contract may not be by letter. Rectification may in certain circumstances be ordered, where there has been no common mistake, but one party has proceeded on a base which the other knew to be mistaken. Where A intends B to be mistaken as to the construction of a contract and diverts B’s attention from discovering the mistake by making false and misleading statements and B makes the mistake which A intends, then suspicion and not actual knowledge of the mistake is enough for rectification to be granted.
Stuart-Smith LJ said: ‘[W]here a false representation is made for the purpose of inducing the other party to adopt a certain course of conduct and the representation is such as to influence a person behaving reasonably to adopt that course of conduct, the court should infer, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, that the representation did have that effect.’ and
‘In the case of unilateral mistake, that is to say where only one party is mistaken as to the meaning of the contract, rectification is not ordinarily appropriate. This follows from the ordinary rule that it is the objective intention of the parties which determines the construction of the contract and not the subjective intention of one of them. Also, it would generally be inequitable to compel the other party to execute a contract, which he had no intention of making, simply to accord with the mistaken interpretation of the other party: see Olympia Sauna Shipping Co SA v Shinwa Kaiun Kaisha Ltd [1985] 2 Lloyds Rep. 364, 371 per Bingham J. But the court will intervene if there are ‘additional circumstances that render unconscionable reliance on the document by the party who has intended that it should have effect according to its terms:’ Spry, Equitable Remedies, 4th ed. (1990), p.599. The debate in this case turns on what amounts to unconscionable conduct.’

Stuart-Smith LJ, Evans LJ, Farquharson LJ
Times 04-Mar-1995, Independent 15-Mar-1995, [1995] 2 All ER 929, [1995] Ch 259, [1995] 26 EG 129
Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989 2
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedWell Barn Shoot Limited and Well Barn Farming Limited v Shackleton and Another CA 22-Jan-2003
The defendants had been tenant farmers of the plaintiff company which retained shooting rights over the land when part was sold to the defendants. The defendant object to the use of a roadway by the plaintiff. The plaintiff sought to repurchase the . .
CitedGeorge Wimpey UK Ltd v VI Construction Ltd CA 3-Feb-2005
A land purchase contract had been rectified by the judge for unilateral mistake. A factor had been dropped from a formula for calculating the price.
Held: The judge’s conclusion that the circumstances existed to allow a rectification was . .
CitedRoyal Bank of Scotland v Etridge (No 2); Barclays Bank plc v Harris; Midland Bank plc v Wallace, etc HL 11-Oct-2001
Wives had charged the family homes to secure their husband’s business borrowings, and now resisted possession orders, claiming undue influence.
Held: Undue influence is an equitable protection created to undo the effect of excess influence of . .
CitedColes and Others v William Hill Organisation Ltd ChD 18-Mar-1998
When agreeing an extension of an existing lease, the new lease by mistake included a break clause which had been intended by neither party. The tenant’s solicitors noticed the error in their client’s favour but did not mention it. The landlord only . .
CitedNorth Eastern Properties Ltd v Coleman and Another CA 19-Mar-2010
The appellants challenged specific performance orders obliging them to complete the purchase of apartments, saying that the contracts had not complied with the 1989 Act, and that their repudiation of the contracts had been accepted. The contracts . .
CitedDaventry District Council v Daventry and District Housing Ltd CA 13-Oct-2011
The appellant challenged refusal of rectification of its agreement with the defendant. They asserted either mutual or unilateral mistake. The parties had agreed for the transfer of housing stock and management staff to the respondents. The claimant . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Land, Contract, Equity

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.79287

Banco Santander Totta Sa v Companhia De Carris De Ferro De Lisboa Sa and Others: ComC 4 Mar 2016

The parties, both Portuguese had entered into now disputed interest rate swap agreements which provided for them to be subject to English law and jurisdiction. The bank claimant sought to enforce the agreements, and the defendant argued that, neither party having a connection with England, the matter should be heard in Portugal.
Held: The request for the matter to be dealth with in Portugal failed. Not every aspect of the contract had Portuguese only elements, and article 3 could only be applied if all were.

Blair J
[2016] EWHC 465 (Comm), [2016] WLR(D) 125, [2016] 4 WLR 49
Bailii, WLRD
Convention 80/934/EEC 3(3)

Contract, International, Financial Services

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.560753

Eastwood v Kenyon: 1840

eastwood_kenyon1840

Defendant may shew, under non assumpsit, that the promise was within stat. 29 Car. 2, c. 3, 8, 4, and was not in writing. Section 4 of that statute, as to promises to pay the debt of another, contemplates only promises made to the person to whom another is liabIe; therefore a promise by defendant to plaintiff to pay A. B, a debt due from plaintiff to A. B. is not within the statute. A pecuniary benefit, voluntarily conferred by plaintiff and accepted by defendant, is not such a consideration as will support an action of assumpsit on a subsequent express promise by defendant to reimburse plaintiff. There where the declaration in assumpsit stated that plaintiff was executor of the father of defendant’s wife, who died intestate as to his land, leaving defendant’s wife, an infant, his only child and heir ; that plaintiff acted as her guardian and agent during infancy, and in that capacity expended money on her maintenance and education, in the management and improvement of the land, and in paying the interest of a mortgage on it; that the estate was benefitted thereby to the full amount of such expenditure ; that plaintiff, being unable to repay himself out of the personal assets, borrowed money of A, B, on his promissory note; that defendant’s wife, when of age and before marriage, assented to the loan and the note, and requested plaintiff to give up the maniagement of the property to her, and promised to pay the note, and did in fact pay one year’s interest on it; that plaintiff thereupon gave up the management accordingly ; that defendant, after his marriage, assented to the plaintiff’s accounts, and upon such accounting a certain sum was found due to plaintiff for monies so spent and borrowed ; that defendant, in right of his wife, received all the benefit of plaintiff’s said services and expenditure, and thereupon in consideration of the premises, promised plaintiff to pay and discharge the note : Held, on motion in arrest of judgment, that the declaration was bad as not disclosing a sufficient consideratjon for defendant’s promise.

[1840] EngR 80, (1840) 11 Ad and E 438, (1840) 113 ER 482
Commonlii
Cited by:
CitedShadwell v Shadwell and Another CCP 11-Jan-1860
. .
CitedShadwell v Shadwell And Another 1858
. .
CitedJayawickreme and Another v Amarasuriya Since Deceased PC 4-Jun-1918
(Ceylon) . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.309506

Zouch, Ex Dimiss Abbot And Hallet v Parsons: 23 Nov 1765

Contract by Children for Necessities

Lord Mansfield said that: ‘miserable must the condition of minors be; excluded from the society and commerce of the world; deprived of necessaries, education, employment, and many advantages; if they could do no binding acts. Great inconvenience must arise to others, if they were bound by no act. The law, therefore, at the same time that it protects their imbecility and indiscretion from injury through their own imprudence, enables them to do binding acts, for their own benefit; and, without prejudice to themselves, for the benefit of others.’

Lord Mansfield
[1765] EngR 89, (1765) 3 Burr 1794, (1765) 97 ER 1103
Commonlii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedFisher v Brooker and Others HL 30-Jul-2009
The claimant sought a share in the royalties from the song ‘A whiter shade of pale’ but had delayed his claim for 38 years. He had contributed the organ solo which had contributed significantly to the song’s success. He now sought a share of future . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Children

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.373850

Banque Keyser Ullmann SA v Skandia (UK) Insurance Co Ltd: CA 1990

A loan was to be made. An agent of the borrower came to know of the fraudulent nature of the loan, but said nothing.
Held: A failure to disclose a known fraud may itself amount to a misrepresentation, but nondisclosure (whether dishonest or otherwise) does not as such give rise to a claim in damages: ‘without a misrepresentation there can be no fraud in the sense of giving rise to a claim for damages in tort’ but ‘We can see no sufficient reason on principle or authority why a failure to speak should not be capable of giving rise to liability in negligence under Hedley Byrne principles, provided that the two essential conditions are satisfied.’ The two essential conditions were ‘that there has been on the facts a voluntary assumption of responsibility in the relevant sense and reliance on that assumption.’ and ‘These features may be much more difficult to infer in a case of mere silence than in a case of misrepresentation.’

Slade LJ
[1990] 1 QB 665
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromBanque Keyser Ullmann SA v Skandia (UK) Insurance Co Ltd HL 1991
Banks had made loans against property which the borrower had said was valuable, and, also insurance policies against any shortfall on the realisation of the property. The borrower was a swindler and the property worthless. The insurers relied upon a . .
CitedHIH Casualty and General Insurance Limited and others v Chase Manhattan Bank and others HL 20-Feb-2003
The insurance company had paid claims on policies used to underwrite the production of TV films. The re-insurers resisted the claims against them by the insurers on the grounds of non-disclosure by the insured, or in the alternative damages for . .
CitedHamilton and others v Allied Domecq Plc (Scotland) HL 11-Jul-2007
The pursuers had been shareholders in a company which sold spring water. The defenders took shares in the company in return for promises as to the promotion and distribution of the bottled water. The pursuers said that they had failed to promote it . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Torts – Other

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.219300

Krell v Henry: CA 1903

Mr Henry contracted to rent a flat located on Pall Mall from the plaintiff, Paul Krell for the daytime and on the days of the forthcoming cornation procession.. He was told that he would have an excellent view of, but this was not written down. He paid a deposit of andpound;25 but when the procession did not take place refused to pay the balance. Krell claimed the balance, and Henry sought repayment of his deposit.
Held: The court asked whether there was an implied condition that the contract was void if the procession did not take place. Such a condition could be inferred from the surounding circumstances. The parol evidence rule was inapplicable. He examined the substance of the contract, and then determined whether the contract was founded on the assumption of the existence of a particular state of affairs. Krell had only granted Henry a license to use the rooms for a particular purpose (watching the coronation). The court compared the contract to the hire of a cab to get to a race. If the race did not occur on the particular day the passenger had thought, he would not be discharged from paying the driver; but in this case the room here had a special quality. Cancellation of the coronation could not reasonably have been anticipated by the parties at the time the contract was made.
Williams LJ said: ‘I do not think that the principle of the civil law as introduced into the English law is limited to cases in which the event causing the impossibility of performance is the destruction or non-existence of some thing which is the subject matter of the contract or of some condition or state of things expressly specified as a condition of it. I think that you first have to ascertain, not necessarily from the terms of the contract, but, if required, from necessary inferences, drawn from surrounding circumstances recognised by both contracting parties, what is the substance of the contract, and then to ask the question whether that substantial contract needs for its foundation the assumption of the existence of a particular state of things. If it does, this will limit the operation of the general words, and in such a case, if the contract becomes impossible of performance by reason of the non-existence of the state of things assumed by both contracting parties as the foundation of the contract, there will be no breach of the contract thus limited.’

Williams LJ, Romer, Stirling J
(1903) 2 KB 740
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedTaylor and Another v Caldwell and Another QBD 6-May-1863
The defendants had agreed to hire a hall to give four concerts, but it burned down before they were to start.
Held: Blackburn J said: ‘where, from the nature of the contract, it appears that the parties must from the beginning have known that . .

Cited by:
CitedGraves v Graves and others CA 3-Jul-2007
The parties had divorced and settled financial provision, but the former wife and her children came to need a house and one of the claimant’s properties became vacant, and she was allowed to occupy it as a tenant, with the majority of the rent being . .
CitedMaritime National Fish Ltd v Ocean Trawlers Ltd PC 12-Apr-1935
(Nova Scotia En Banco) The parties contracted for a charter of a fishing ship. It then became unlawful for a ship to use otter trawl, the only equipment available to the ship, without a licence, but the number of licences was restricted and did not . .
CitedGold Group Properties Ltd v BDW Trading Ltd TCC 3-Mar-2010
The parties had contracted for the construction of an estate of houses and flats to be followed by the interim purchase by the defendants. The defendants argued that the slump in land prices frustrated the contract and that they should not be called . .
CitedGamerco Sa v ICM Fair Warning (Agency) Ltd and Another QBD 31-Mar-1995
The plaintiff Spanish concert promoter, and the defendant rock group, Guns ‘n’ Roses, agreed to provide a concert at the stadium of Atetico Madrid, but shortly before it was due to take place, the stadium was deemed unfit, and its licence withdrawn. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.251178

Armour v Thyssen Edelstahlwerke AG: OHCS 1986

1986 SLT 452
Scotland
Cited by:
Appeal from OHCSArmour v Thyssen Edelstahlwerke AG 1989
. .
At OHCSArmour v Thyssen Edelstahlwerke AG HL 1990
The defendant supplied steel to a manufacturing company under a contract which contained a retention of title clause. The contract was governed by German law. The plaintiffs, who had been appointed as receivers, brought proceedings against the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.617941

Adams v Lindsell: KBD 5 Jun 1818

No Contract by Post until Acceptance Received

The defendant sent his offer of wool for sale to the plaintiff by post. The plaintiff’s acceptance was at first misdirected. Before receiving the reply the defendant had sold the wool elsewhere, but this was only after he would have received the acceptance in the normal course of post. The buyer claimed he had accepted the offer.
Held: The offer had not been accepted, and there was no contract.
Lord Ellenborough said: ‘the defendants who have proposed by letter to sell this wool, are not to be held liable, even though it be now admitted that the answer did not come back in due course of post. Till the plaintiffs’ answer was actually received, there could be no binding contract between the parties; and before then, the defendants had retracted their offer, by selling the wool to other persons.’

Lord Ellenborough
(1818) 1 B and Ald 681, [1818] EngR 497, (1818) 106 ER 250
Bailii, Commonlii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedWilson v Truelove ChD 25-Mar-2003
The claimants requested a declaration that an option to repurchase land was void under the 1964 Act.
Held: The option to repurchase land was prima facie void. The right arose on the coming into existence of the agreement, or at the latest on . .
CitedFour Seasons Holdings Incorporated v Brownlie SC 19-Dec-2017
The claimant and her family were in a car crash while on holiday in Egypt. The claimant’s husband and his daughter died. The holiday had been booked in England and the car excursion booked in advance from England. The hotel operator was incorporated . .
CitedEntores Ltd v Miles Far East Corporation CA 1955
The plaintiff traded from London, and telexed an offer to purchase cathodes to a company in Holland, who signified their acceptance by return, again by telex. Entores later wanted to sue the defendant, the parent company of the Dutch party. It was . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.194832

Heath v Kelly and Another: ChD 24 Jul 2009

The defendant and the deceased had purchased a house as joint tenants in equity. The claimant sought to enforce an agreement for the sale of the defendant’s half share. Payment having been made. The defendant argued that the agreement was uncertain and unenforceable.
Held: The agreement appeared to have been made under a misapprehension as to the legal position. The mistake appeared to have been created by the party seeking to rely on it, and equity could refuse specific performance of the contract. The claimant had also delayed her action. Specific performance was refused. Declaration as to interests accordingly.

Purle QC J
[2009] EWHC 1908 (Ch), [2009] Fam Law 1044, [2010] 1 FLR 610, [2009] 2 P and CR DG21
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedGreat Peace Shipping Ltd v Tsavliris (International) Ltd CA 14-Oct-2002
The parties contracted for the hire of a ship. They were each under a mistaken impression as to its position, and a penalty became payable. The hirer claimed that the equitable doctrine of mutual mistake should forgive him liability.
Held: . .
CitedMilward v Earl Thanet CA 1801
Lord Alvanley MR said: ‘a party cannot call upon a Court of Equity for specific performance, unless he has shewn himself ready, desirous, prompt, and eager.’ . .
CitedP and O Nedlloyd Bv v Arab Metals Co and others CA 13-Dec-2006
An order for specific performance had been refused in a disputed contract for carriage. The claimant argued that normal limitation periods should not be applied by analogy.
Held: Because there was no corresponding legal remedy the remedy in . .
CitedWilliams v Greatrex CA 1956
A purchaser agreed to buy land to be laid out in building plots. On payment of a deposit and giving notice, the purchaser was to be entitled to enter onto a particular plot in order to build on it. The arrangement met with difficulties, with the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Land, Contract, Equity

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.361469

Balfour Beatty Regional Construction Ltd v Grove Developments Ltd: CA 13 Oct 2016

Contractor’s responsibility for stage payments

Appeal by a building contractor against a decision that there is no entitlement to interim payments in the period after the contractual date for practical completion. The principal issues are (i) how some rather unusual amendments to the standard form building contract should be construed and (ii) how section 109 of the 1996 Act applies in the circumstances of this case.

Longmore, Jackson, Vos LJJ
[2016] EWCA Civ 990, [2016] WLR(D) 522
Bailii, WLRD
Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 109
England and Wales

Construction, Contract

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.570174

Force India Formula One Team Ltd v Etihad Airways PJSC and Another: QBD 4 Nov 2009

force_india_etihadQBD2009

The parties had entered into a sponsorship agreement, with the claimants undertaking to display the name of the defendants on their car. After the agreement, the claimant company had been taken over by parties with interests competing with those of the defendants, and the defendants said that they had terminated the agreement and their obligations. The claimants denied any breach by them allowing the termination of the contract.
Held: E/A by their course of conduct over the months detailed above had, prior to the sending of the letter of termination, elected not to exercise any right they might otherwise have had to terminate the contract. By parity of reasoning the various breaches of contract now relied on were waived by E/A or alternatively acquiesced in by their conduct over that period.
Damages were assessed accordingly.

Sir Charles Gray
[2009] EWHC 2768 (QB), [2010] ETMR 14
Bailii
Citing:
CitedVitol Sa v Norelf Ltd HL 10-Jul-1996
(The Santa Clara) The seller was to deliver propane by a ship set to leave on a certain date. The market was falling. The buyer, when it was clear that the ship would be unable to leave on the day fixed, sent a telex to say that the contract was . .
CitedStocznia Gdynia Sa v Gearbulk Holdings Ltd CA 13-Feb-2009
Orders were placed for the construction of ships. They were not delivered. The buyer, the defendant, cancelled the orders. The defendants sought the loss of profit. The claimants said they were entitled only to the repayment of instalments. The . .
CitedWoodar Investment Development Ltd v Wimpey Construction UK Ltd HL 14-Feb-1980
Wimpey agreed to buy land from Woodar for a sum of andpound;850,000 of which andpound;150,000 was to be paid to Transworld. A month later Wimpey sent a letter purporting to rescind the contract and Woodar sued for damages including the . .
CitedGlencore Grain Rotterdam BV v Lebanese Organisation for International Commerce CA 25-Jun-1997
The court was asked: ‘(1) What approach should the Court adopt on seeking to ascertain, by a process of implication, what terms of a letter of credit are contractual under an FOB sale which provides for payment to be made by an irrevocable and . .
CitedTele2 International Card Company Sa and others v Post Office Ltd CA 21-Jan-2009
Appeal against rejection of claim for novation of contract.
Held: Aikens LJ summarised the analysis by Lord Goff of the principles of affirmation by election in Kanchenjunga as follows: ‘i) If a contract gives a party a right to terminate upon . .
CitedConcord Trust v Law Debenture Trust Corporation Plc HL 28-Apr-2005
The House was called on to construe the terms of a Eurobond. The question was as to the entitlement to require the trustees to issue a notice of default which would accelerate payment under the bond, and the ability of the Trustees to call for an . .
CitedF L Schuler AG v Wickman Machine Tools Sales Limited HL 4-Apr-1973
The parties entered an agreement to distribute and sell goods in the UK. They disagreed as to the meaning of a term governing the termination of the distributorship.
Held: The court can not take into account the post-contractual conduct or . .
CitedExpert Clothing Service and Sales Ltd v Hillgate House Ltd CA 1985
Landlords took possession after a successful, at first instance, forfeiture claim. The tenant succeeded on appeal and then brought a claim for the wrong of breach of the covenant for quiet enjoyment.
Held: The lease had been in existence all . .
CitedThe Fanis CA 1994
Mance LJ said: ‘The general issue is in my view appropriately stated as being whether any profit or loss arose out of or was sufficiently closely connected with the breach to require to be brought into account in assessing damages. Resolution of . .
CitedGolden Strait Corporation v Nippon Yusen Kubishka Kaisha (‘The Golden Victory’) HL 28-Mar-2007
The claimant sought damages for repudiation of a charterparty. The charterpary had been intended to continue until 2005. The charterer repudiated the contract and that repudiation was accepted, but before the arbitrator could set his award, the Iraq . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromForce India Formula One Team Ltd v Etihad Airways PJSC and Another CA 6-Oct-2010
The claimant complained of the failure to honour its sponsorship agreement of its Formula 1 racing team. The court at first instance had found the breaches to have been waived.
Held: Rix LJ discussed the consequences of a breach, saying: ‘this . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.377861

North Eastern Properties Ltd v Coleman and Another: CA 19 Mar 2010

The appellants challenged specific performance orders obliging them to complete the purchase of apartments, saying that the contracts had not complied with the 1989 Act, and that their repudiation of the contracts had been accepted. The contracts had omitted an agreement for the payment of a 2% finders fee on exchange. The appellants intended to sell on the flats to buyers as they found them, by the assignment of the contracts, and the terms had been omitted at the appellants’ request to avoid its benefit being assigned to the sub-purchasers.
Held: The buyers’ appeals failed. It had not been the intention of the 1989 Act to make it easier for purchasers to escape from contractual liability, though ‘because of the rigorous discipline which it imposes upon parties to land contracts, it does indeed enable persons who have genuinely contracted to do just that.’ It was legitimate to interpret the 1989 Act so as to avoid the creation of an injustice, and ‘there is nothing contrary to common sense in construing such a clause as having the alternative meaning that the parties have agreed that the terms of some other part of the composite transaction are not to be conditions for the performance of the land contract.’
In this case the notices to complete gave an unreasonably short time period for completion of the construction works, and the purchaser could not rely on them.
Briggs J set out the principles: ‘A party seeking to avoid a land contract under section 2 must identify a term which the parties have expressly agreed, which is not to be found in the single, or exchanged, signed document. It is not sufficient merely to show that the land contract formed part of a larger transaction which was subject to other expressly agreed terms which are absent from the land contract. The expressly agreed term must, if it is required by section 2 to be included in the single document, be a term of the sale of the land, rather than a term of some simultaneous contract (whether for the sale of a chattel or the provision of a service) which happens to take place at the same time as the land contract, and to form part of one commercial transaction. Section 2(1) does not prohibit parties from structuring a transaction, for example, for the sale of the whole of a company’s assets, in such a way that the land sale is dealt with in a different document from the sale of stock, work in progress or goodwill, unless the sale of the land is conditional upon the sale of the other assets. For an illustration of this point, see Grossman v. Hooper [2001] 2 EGLR 82, paras 19-22, per Chadwick LJ.
. . In my judgment, the apparent disharmony constituted by the dicta on this point may be reconciled as follows: (i) Nothing in section 2 of the 1989 Act is designed to prevent parties to a composite transaction which includes a land contract from structuring their bargain so that the land contract is genuinely separated from the rest of the transaction in the sense that its performance is not made conditional upon the performance of some other expressly agreed part of the bargain. Thus, in Chadwick LJ’s example in Grossman v. Hooper [2001] 2 EGLR 82, parties may agree to the sale and purchase both of a house and of its curtains and carpets in a single composite transaction. None the less it is open to them to agree either (a) that completion of the purchase of the house is dependent upon the sale of the carpets and curtains, or (b) that it is not. They are free to separate the terms of a transaction of type (b) into two separate documents (one for the house and the other for the carpets and curtains) without falling foul of section 2. They may also agree to structure a transaction which includes the sale of two or more parcels of land by way of separate contracts for each, so that none of the land contracts is conditional upon the performance of any of the others. (ii) By contrast, the parties to a composite transaction are not free to separate into a separate document expressly agreed terms, for example as to the sale of chattels or the provision of services, if upon the true construction of the whole of the agreement, performance of the land sale is conditional upon the chattel sale or service provision. That would, albeit for reasons which seem to me to frustrate rather than serve the purposes for which the 1989 Act was passed, fall foul of section 2(1), however purposively construed. So would a series of separate contracts for the sale of separate parcels of land, if each was conditional upon the performance of the other. (iii) Since the splitting into separate contracts of parts of a composite transaction is inherently likely to give rise to uncertainties as to whether performance of the one is conditional upon performance of the other, the parties are free, and in my opinion should be positively encouraged, to make plain by express terms whether or not that conditionality exists. To do so serves rather than evades or frustrates the purposes of section 2, an important part of which is to encourage clarity rather than uncertainty in land transactions.’

Longmore, Smith LJJ, Briggs J
[2010] EWCA Civ 277, [2010] 2 EGLR 161, [2010] 12 EG 97 (CS), [2010] BLR 579, [2010] 3 All ER 528, [2010] NPC 39, [2010] TCLR 4, [2010] 1 WLR 2715, [2010] 2 All ER (Comm) 494
Bailii
Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989 2
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedTiverton Estates Ltd v Wearwell Ltd CA 1975
“Subject to Contract” not to be diluted
‘subject to contract’ proposals remain in negotiation until a formal contract is executed. Lord Denning MR said: ‘for over a hundred years, the courts have held that the effect of the words ‘subject to contract’ is that the matter remains in . .
CitedCommission for the New Towns v Cooper (Great Britain) Ltd, (Formerly Coopind UK Ltd) CA 4-Mar-1995
The trial judge had dismissed a claim for rectification on the basis that the defendant hoped and suspected, but did not know, of the relevant mistake by the plaintiff.
Held: Rectification was ordered because the defendant had sought to . .
CitedTootal Clothing Ltd v Guinea Properties Ltd CA 1992
By a single commercial transaction the parties agreed to the grant of a lease, on terms that Tootal (the intending lessee), would carry out shop-fitting works, have the benefit of a three months rent-free period during the which the works were to be . .
CitedGrossman v Hooper CA 11-Apr-2001
The parties had lived together in the house, each contributing but held in the name of one only. The parties disputed the effect under the 1989 Act of a letter signed by each of them setting out their agreement as to the basis on which it was held. . .
CitedStickney v Keeble HL 1917
The purchaser had made repeated complaints about the seller’s delay in completing construction.
Held: The repeated complaints formed a principal ground for justification of the short specified notice period.
Lord Parker of Waddington set . .
CitedBritish Commonwealth Holdings plc v Quadrex Holdings Inc 1989
In considering the reasonableness of a time set in a notice to complete for construction works, the time it would actually take to complete the work is not the only consideration. . .
CitedOun v Ahmad ChD 19-Mar-2008
The parties agreed in writing for the sale of leasehold property to the claimant. One document had been signed, but later one said that it had not included an aportionment. Another document then set out the apportionment. When the defendant refused . .
CitedBusiness Environment Bow Lane Ltd v Deanwater Estates Ltd CA 27-Jun-2007
Enforcement of repairing obligations in lease after assignments, and the use of collateral contracts. Sir Andrew Morritt C said: ‘The law relating to collateral contracts is well-established but in connection with sales or leases of land needs to be . .
CitedGodden v Merthyr Tydfil Housing Association CA 15-Jan-1997
The Plaintiff was a building contractor; the Defendant a housing association engaged in developing suitable sites for residential accommodation for letting to tenants. Before the contract the parties had successfully completed what was been called . .
CitedInntrepreneur Pub Co v East Crown Ltd 2000
The ‘entire agreement’ clause contained in a lease not only had the effect of rendering evidence of an alleged collateral warranty inadmissible, but also deprived the warranty of all legal effect. It did not collapse the lease in on itself. Lightman . .
Appeal fromNorth Eastern Properties Ltd v Coleman and Another ChD 20-Aug-2009
The parties agreed for the developer to build and the defendants to purchase several apartments. The properties were not completed after a notice to complete and the purchasers purported to rescind the contract. The claimant completed the flats and . .

Cited by:
CitedKeay and Another v Morris Homes (West Midlands) Ltd CA 11-Jul-2012
The claimants sought damages alleging breach of contract. The defendants argued that the contract related to land, and since it was an oral agreement it was unenforceable under the 1989 Act.
Held: It was not possible for a contract which was . .
CitedRock Advertising Ltd v MWB Business Exchange Centres Ltd SC 16-May-2018
The parties disputed whether a contract (licence to occupy an office) had been varied by an oral agreement, where the terms prohibited such.
Held: The ‘no oral variation’ clause applied. Such clauses were in common commercial use and served a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Land, Contract

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.403471

Barclays Bank v WJ Simms and Cooke (Southern) Ltd: QBD 1979

The customer made out a cheque to pay his builder, but countermanded it. The bank paid the cheque when it was presented by mistake, and now sought repayment from the builder.
Held: The bank succeeded. The court discussed the extent of a banker’s obligations to its customers.
Robert Goff J set out the defences to a claim in restitution: ‘(1) If a person pays money to another under a mistake of fact which causes him to make the payment, he is prima facie entitled to recover it as money paid under a mistake of fact. (2) His claim may however fail if (a) the payer intends that the payee shall have the money at all events, whether the fact be true or false, or is deemed in law so to intend; or (b) the payment is made for good consideration, in particular if the money is paid to discharge and does discharge a debt owed to the payee (or a principal on whose behalf he is authorised to receive the payment) by the payer or by a third party by whom he is authorised to discharge the debt; or (c) the payee has changed his position in good faith or is deemed in law to have done so.’
‘It is a basic obligation owed by a bank to its customers that it will honour on presentation cheques drawn by the customer on the bank, provided that there are sufficient funds in the customer’s account to meet the cheque, or the bank has agreed to provide the customer with overdraft facilities sufficient to meet the cheque. Where the bank honours such a cheque, it acts within its mandate, with the result that the bank is entitled to debit the customer’s account with the amount of the cheque, and further that the bank’s payment is effective to discharge the obligation of the customer to the payee on the cheque, because the bank has paid the cheque with the authority of the customer.
In other circumstances, the bank is under no obligation to honour its customer’s cheques. If however a customer draws a cheque on the bank without funds in his account or agreed overdraft facilities sufficient to meet it, the cheque on presentation constitutes a request to the bank to provide overdraft facilities sufficient to meet the cheque. The bank has an option whether or not to comply with that request. If it declines to do so, it acts entirely within its rights and no legal consequences follow as between the bank and its customer. If however the bank pays the cheque, it accepts the request and the payment has the same legal consequences as if the payment had been made pursuant to previously agreed overdraft facilities; the payment is made within the bank’s mandate, and in particular the bank is entitled to debit the customer’s account, and the bank’s payment discharges the customer’s obligation to the payee on the cheque.
In other cases, however, a bank which pays a cheque drawn or purported to be drawn by its customer pays without mandate. A bank does so if, for example, it overlooks or ignores notice of its customer’s death, or if it pays a cheque bearing the forged signature of its customer as drawer, but, more important for present purposes, a bank will pay without mandate if it overlooks or ignores notice of countermand of the customer who has drawn the cheque. In such cases the bank, if it pays the cheque, pays without mandate from its customer; and unless the customer is able to and does ratify the payment, the bank cannot debit the customer’s account, nor will its payment be effective to discharge the obligation (if any) of the customer on the cheque, because the bank had no authority to discharge such obligation.
It is against the background of these principles, which were not in dispute before me, that I have to consider the position of a bank which pays a cheque under a mistake of fact. In such a case, the crucial question is, in my judgment, whether the payment was with or without mandate. The two typical situations, which exemplify payment with or without mandate, arise first where the bank pays in the mistaken belief that there are sufficient funds or overdraft facilities to meet the cheque, and second where the bank overlooks notice of countermand given by the customer. In each case there is a mistake by the bank which causes the bank to make the payment. But in the first case, the effect of the bank’s payment is to accept the customer’s request for overdraft facilities; the payment is therefore within the bank’s mandate, with the result that not only is the bank entitled to have recourse to its customer, but the customer’s obligation to the payee is discharged. It follows that the payee has given consideration for the payment; with the consequence that, although the payment has been caused by the bank’s mistake, the money is irrecoverable from the payee unless the transaction of payment is itself set aside. Although the bank is unable to recover the money, it has a right of recourse to its customer. In the second case, however, the bank’s payment is without mandate. The bank has no recourse to its customer; and the debt of the customer to the payee on the cheque is not discharged. Prima facie, the bank is entitled to recover the money from the payee, unless the payee has changed his position in good faith, or is deemed in law to have done so.’

Robert Goff J
[1979] 3 All ER 522, [1980] QB 677
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedSandra Estelle Fielding v The Royal Bank of Scotland Plc CA 11-Feb-2004
The husband and wife had signed a bank mandate allowing the bank to act upon the authorisation of either of them. The wife complained that the bank should not be able to recover from her any sums expended by the husband.
Held: The mandate . .
CitedLloyds Bank Plc v Independent Insurance Co Ltd CA 26-Nov-1998
The bank had made an electronic transfer of funds for a customer in satisfaction of that customer’s proper debt, but it was done under a mistake of fact as to the cleared status of funds received.
Held: The appeal was turned down. The bank was . .
CitedOffice of Fair Trading v Abbey National Plc and seven Others ComC 24-Apr-2008
The Office sought a declaration that the respondent and other banks were subject to the provisions of the Regulations in their imposition of bank charges to customer accounts, and in particular as to the imposition of penalties or charges for the . .
CitedPortman Building Society v Hamlyn Taylor Neck (a Firm) CA 22-Apr-1998
The mortgage advance had been against an express requirement that the client use the property as his private residence. After the client defaulted, the appellant lender discovered that the solicitors acting for themselves and the lay client had . .
CitedMarine Trade Sa v Pioneer Freight Futures Co Ltd Bvi and Another ComC 29-Oct-2009
The parties stood to make substantial losses against each other under contracts for differences after the dramatic fall in the freight market in the financial turmoil of late 2008. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Banking, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.194776

Foakes v Beer: HL 16 May 1884

Mrs Beer had obtained judgment against Dr Foakes for andpound;2,090 19s. He asked for time to pay and they agreed with him, acknowledging the debt, and paying part immediately and undertaking to pay the balance over a period of time. In consideration of the part payment and Dr Foakes’s undertaking to pay the balance in instalments Mrs Beer agreed not to take any proceedings on the judgment. After the whole sum had been paid, however, she sought to take proceedings on the judgment to recover interest.
Held: A promise to pay part of a debt is not good consideration in law. The House applied the rule in Pinnel’s Case that since the obligations undertaken by Dr Foakes under the agreement added nothing to his existing obligation under the judgment, he had provided no consideration for Mrs Beer’s promise not to take action on the judgment which was therefore unenforceable.
Lord Blackburn argued for the abolition of the rule in Pinnel’s case: ‘What principally weighs with me in thinking that Lord Coke made a mistake of fact is my conviction that all men of business, whether merchants or tradesmen, do every day recognize and act on the ground that prompt payment of a part of their demand may be more beneficial to them than it would be to insist on their rights and enforce payment of the whole. Even where the debtor is perfectly solvent, and sure to pay at last, this often is so. Where the credit of the debtor is doubtful it must be more so.’

Lord Blackburn
(1884) 9 App Cas 605, [1884] UKHL 1
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
AppliedPinnel’s Case, Penny v Core CCP 1602
Payment of Lesser Sum Not Satisfaction
(Court of Common Pleas) The payment of a lesser sum on the day in satisfaction of a greater, cannot be any satisfaction for the whole. The gift of a horse, hawk, robe, etc., in satisfaction, is good. Payment of part before the day and acceptance may . .

Cited by:
CitedBradford and Bingley Plc v Rashid HL 12-Jul-2006
Disapplication of Without Prejudice Rules
The House was asked whether a letter sent during without prejudice negotiations which acknowledged a debt was admissible to restart the limitation period. An advice centre, acting for the borrower had written, in answer to a claim by the lender for . .
CitedCollier v P and M J Wright (Holdings) Ltd CA 14-Dec-2007
Agreement for payment by joint debtor not contract
The claimant appealed against refusal of an order to set aside a statutory demand. He said that he had compromised a claim by the creditors. He argued for an extension to the Rule in Pinnel’s case, so that where a debtor agrees to pay part of a . .
AppliedIn Re Selectmove Ltd CA 21-Dec-1993
Promisse to Pay Tax due is not Consideration
The company appealed against an order for its winding up, saying that the debt was disputed, an accomodation having been reached with the Revenue.
Held: The court declined to regard a promise to the Revenue by a company to pay its existing . .
CitedHirachand Punamchand v Temple CA 1911
The defendant, a British army officer in India, had given a promissory note to the plaintiff moneylenders. Unable to pay, he suggested they apply to his father, Sir Richard Temple. In reply, Sir Richard Temple’s solicitors wrote saying they were . .
For Examination laterRock Advertising Ltd v MWB Business Exchange Centres Ltd SC 16-May-2018
The parties disputed whether a contract (licence to occupy an office) had been varied by an oral agreement, where the terms prohibited such.
Held: The ‘no oral variation’ clause applied. Such clauses were in common commercial use and served a . .
CitedWilliams v Roffey Brothers and Nicholls (Contractors) Ltd CA 23-Nov-1989
The defendant subcontracted some of its work under a building contract to the plaintiff at a price which left him in financial difficulty and there was a risk that the work would not be completed by the plaintiff. The defendant agreed to make . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Litigation Practice, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.243134

Henthorn v Fraser: 1892

Definition of postal acceptance of offer

The parties had discussed the sale of properties to the plaintiff. The defendant wrote out an offer to sell and handed it to the buyer, who took it away to consider it. A new buyer turned up and a contract was concluded, the defendant writing to the buyer to withdraw the offer. Before that letter was received, the defendant had, through his solicitor written back to accept the first offer. The plaintiff sought specific performance.
Held: The contract had been made.
Lord Herschell set out the postal rule in contract situations: ‘It strikes me as somewhat artificial to speak of the person to whom the offer is made as having the implied authority of the other party to send his acceptance by post. He needs no authority to transmit the acceptance through any particular channel; he may select what means he pleases, the Post Office no less than any other. The only effect of the supposed authority is to make the acceptance complete so soon as it is posted, and authority will obviously be implied only when the tribunal considers that it is a case in which this result ought to be reached. I should prefer to state the rule thus: Where the circumstances are such that it must have been within the contemplation of the parties that, according to the ordinary usages of mankind, the post might be used as a means of communicating the acceptance of an offer, the acceptance is complete as soon as it is posted.’

Lord Herschell, Lindley LJ, Kay LJ
[1892] 2 Ch 27
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedHolwell Securities Ltd v Hughes CA 5-Nov-1973
An option was to be exercised ‘by notice in writing’ before a certain date. The solicitors’ letter doing so was addressed to the defendant at his residence and place of work, the house which was the subject of the option to purchase, was posted by . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.276453

Parkin v Thorold: CA 1 May 1852

Time Not of Essence in Standard Land Contract

The parties had exchanged contracts to complete on a day. The vendor requested a postponment and the buyer agreed. On the new day fixed, the title was still complete. The vendor now appealed against refusal of his request for an order for specific performance.
Held: The appeal succeeded. On a contract for the sale of land, the time originally set for completion is not, in equity, of the essence. Either party may however give notice to the other insisting on completion within a reasonable time.

Lord Romilly MR
(1852) 22 LJ Ch 170, [1852] EngR 535, (1852) 16 Beav 59, (1852) 51 ER 698
Commonlii
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromParkin v Thorold 2-Jun-1851
A purchase was to be completed on the 25th October. Before that, day arrived the purchaser, at the vendor’s request, extended the time to the 5th of November. The title, however was not completed on that day. Held, that the purchaser was at liberty . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Land

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.295658

Partridge v Crittenden: QBD 1968

The defendant advertised for sale ‘Bramblefinch cocks, Bramblefinch hens, 25s each’. It would be an offence unlawfully to offer a wild live bird for sale.
Held: The advert was an invitation to treat, not an offer for sale, and he was not guilty.

[1968] 2 All ER 421, [1968] 1 WLR 1204
Protection of Birds Act 1954 6(1) Sch 4
England and Wales

Contract, Animals, Crime

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.252547

North Western Salt Co Ltd v Electrolytic Alkali Co Ltd: HL 1914

Appeal allowed. The onus of demonstrating that a restraint is reasonable as between the interested parties is on the party alleging it to be so. The Court should be slow to strike down clauses freely negotiated between parties of equal bargaining power, recognising that parties are often the best judges of what is reasonable as between themselves.
Lord Haldane observed: ‘when the question is one of the validity of a commercial agreement for regulating their trade relations, entered into between two firms or companies, the law adopts a somewhat different attitude – it still looks carefully to the interest of the public, but it regards the parties as the best judges of what is reasonable as between themselves.’

Lord Haldane
[1914] AC 461
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromNorth Western Salt Co Ltd v Electrolytic Alkali Co Ltd CA 1913
A restrictive agreement was challenged. Held (majority): the agreement was in restraint of trade, and so unenforceable, despite the defendants’ failure to plead this defence. Farwell LJ said: ‘In the present case, no circumstances in my opinion . .

Cited by:
MentionedNorris v United States of America and others HL 12-Mar-2008
The detainee appealed an order for extradition to the USA, saying that the offence (price-fixing) was not one known to English common law. The USA sought his extradition under the provisions of the Sherman Act.
Held: It was not, and it would . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.270735

The Moorcock: CA 1889

Unless restricted by something else, an employer ought to find work to enable a workman to perform his part of the bargain, namely, to do his work. A term will be implied into a contract only to the extent required to give the contract efficacy: ‘if it is necessary, in the business sense, to give efficacy to the contract.’ A term will not be implied in order to give business efficacy to a contract unless it is necessary to prevent such failure of consideration as cannot have been within the contemplation of either side.
Bowen LJ said: ‘In business transactions such as this, what the law desires to effect by the implication is to give such business efficacy to the transaction as must have been intended at all events by both parties who are business men . . to make each party promise in law as much, at all events, as it must have been in the contemplation of both parties that he should be responsible for.’ and
‘Now, an implied warranty, or, as it is called, a covenant in law, as distinguished from an express contract or an express warranty, really is in all cases founded upon the presumed intention of the parties, and upon reason. The implication which the law draws upon from what must obviously have been the intention of the parties, the law draws with the object of giving efficacy to the transaction and preventing such a failure of consideration as cannot have been within the contemplation of either side; and I believe that if one were to take all the cases . . of implied warranties or covenants in law, it will be found that in all of them the law is raising an implication from the presumed intention of the parties with the object of giving to the transaction such efficacy as both parties must have intended that at all events it should have.’

Bowen LJ
(1889) 14 PD 64, [1886-90] All ER 530, (1889) 5 TLR 316, (1870) LR 5
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedWright v The Jockey Club QBD 15-May-1995
A jockey had been refused a jockey’s licence for medical reasons. He sought damages for his loss of earnings. The club applied to strike out the claim as showing no arguable cause of action.
Held: The duties of a body exercising a licensing . .
CitedDymocks Franchise Systems (NSW) Pty Limited v John Todd and Alicia B Todd Bilgola Enterprises Ltd and Lambton Quay Books Ltd PC 7-Oct-2002
PC (New Zealand) The claimants asserted that the respondents had wrongly terminated their franchise licence. The agreement was subject to the New South Wales law requiring good faith, but the court had not had . .
CitedJohn Roberts Architects Ltd v Parkcare Homes (No. 2) Ltd TCC 25-Jul-2005
The defendant had taken a dispute to adjudication, but then abandoned those proceedings, upon which the adjudicator awarded costs against the defendant which the claimant now sought to enforce. The defendant argued that the award was outside the . .
CitedLegal and General Assurance Society Ltd v Expeditors International (Uk) Ltd CA 24-Jan-2007
Leases contained break clauses which the tenant purported to exercise. The landlord replied that they were ineffective because the tenant had not complied with his repair covenants. The dispute appeared settled after negotiations, and the settlement . .
CitedThe County Homesearch Company (Thames and Chilterns) Ltd v Cowham CA 31-Jan-2008
The defendants contracted to pay estate agents to find them a house. They completed the purchase of a property mentioned to them three times by the agent, but now appealed from a finding that they were obliged to pay his commission. The judge found . .
CitedStrydom v Vendside Ltd QBD 18-Aug-2009
The claimant sought recovery of a sum paid to the defendant as a commission by his union during his claim for personal injuries at work, relying on a term he sought to have implied into his contract, that the costs position should not be . .
CitedAttorney General of Belize and others v Belize Telecom Ltd and Another PC 18-Mar-2009
(Belize) A company had been formed to manage telecommunications in Belize. The parties disputed the interpretation of its articles. Shares had been sold, but the company was structured so as to leave a degree of control with the government. It was . .
CitedMarks and Spencer Plc v BNP Paribas Securities Services Trust Company (Jersey) Ltd and Another SC 2-Dec-2015
The Court considered whether, on exercising a break clause in a lease, the tenant was entitled to recover rent paid in advance.
Held: The appeal failed. The Court of Appeal had imposed what was established law. The test for whether a clause . .
CitedLehman Brothers International (Europe) v Exotix Partners Llp ChD 9-Sep-2019
The parties had contracted to trade global depository notes issued by the Peruvian government. Each made mistakes as to their true value, thinking them scraps worth a few thousand dollars, whereas their true value was over $8m. On the defendant . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.197905

Bell v Lever Brothers Ltd: HL 15 Dec 1931

Bell was director and chairman of Niger, a subsidiary of Lever Brothers Ltd who dismissed him, offering and paying andpound;30,000 compensation. Lever then discovered that Mr Bell had made secret profits at the expense of Niger for which he could have been summarily dismissed. Lever sought repayment of the andpound;30,000 and claimed rescission of the agreement for fraud. The jury found that there was no fraud, but if Lever had known of the dealings giving rise to the secret profits, it would not have paid compensation. Before the trial, Bell admitted his liability to account to Niger for his secret profits, and made a payment into court.
Held: The court laid down the test for identifying a mutual mistake in contract allowing the contract to be declared void.
The mistake must render the subject matter of the contract essentially and radically different from the subject matter which the parties believed to exist. Was it the common assumption or pre-condition upon which the compromise agreement was made? The House asked whether there was a positive duty on the part of Bell and Snelling to disclose the breaches of contract they made. Lord Atkin concluded they had no such duty, saying of Healey: ‘It will be notice that Bell was not a director of Levers and with respect I cannot accept the view of Greer LJ that if he was in a fiduciary relationship with the Niger Company he was in a similar fiduciary relationship with the share holders’.
Lord Thankerton: ‘in the absence of fraud . . I am of the opinion that neither a servant nor a director of a company is legally bound forthwith to disclose any breach of the obligations arising out of the relationship so as to give the master or the company the opportunity of dismissal . . ‘ However, he also said, ‘there may well be case where the concealment of the misconduct amounts to a fraud on the master or company . . ‘
Lord Atkin considered the possible duty of disclosure of an intending partner: ‘Fraudulent concealment has been negatived by the jury; this claim is based upon the contention that Bell owed a duty to Levers to disclose his misconduct, and that in default of disclosure the contract was voidable. Ordinarily the failure to disclose a material fact which might influence the mind of a prudent contractor does not give the right to avoid the contract. The principle of caveat emptor applies outside contracts of sale. There are certain contracts expressed by the law to be contracts of the utmost good faith, where material facts must be disclosed; if not, the contract is voidable. Apart from special fiduciary relationships, contracts for partnership and contracts of insurance are the leading instances. In such cases the duty does not arise out of contract; the duty of a person proposing an insurance arises before a contract is made, so of an intending purchaser.’

Atkin L, Lord Thankerton, Lord Blanesburgh
[1932] AC 161, [1931] UKHL 2
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
Dictum approvedHealey v Societe Anonyme Francais Rubastic 1917
A director of the company claimed arrears of salary for work done notwithstanding that he had been summarily dismissed for misconduct. There was no question of a claim for damages for breach of duty. . .
Appeal fromBell v Lever Brothers Ltd CA 1931
The court was asked as to the duties of a company director: ‘It does not seem to me open to question that the directors of a company occupy a fiduciary position towards the company, with the result that they cannot retain a benefit they have . .
ApprovedLondon and Mashonaland Exploration Co Ltd v New Mashonaland Exploration Co Ltd 1891
There is nothing inherently objectionable in the position of a company director (and chairman) who, without breaching any express restrictive agreement or disclosing any confidential information, becomes engaged, whether personally or as a director . .

Cited by:
ConfirmedGreat Peace Shipping Ltd v Tsavliris (International) Ltd CA 14-Oct-2002
The parties contracted for the hire of a ship. They were each under a mistaken impression as to its position, and a penalty became payable. The hirer claimed that the equitable doctrine of mutual mistake should forgive him liability.
Held: . .
CitedWilliam Sindall Plc v Cambridgeshire County Council CA 21-May-1993
Land was bought for development, but the purchaser later discovered a sewage pipe which very substantially limited its development potential. The existence of the pipe had not been disclosed on the sale, being unknown to the seller.
Held: . .
CitedAssociated Japanese Bank (International) Ltd v Credit du Nord SA 1988
A contract of guarantee was made, but based upon a term of fundamental importance which was mistaken as to the existence of certain machines.
Held: The court must first look to the nature of the purported agreement. Steyn J said: ‘Logically, . .
DistinguishedHorcal Ltd v Gatland ChD 1983
Directors have a positive duty to disclose breaches of fiduciary duty. A failure by a director of a company, as opposed to an employee, to disclose an earlier breach of fiduciary duty would render an agreement terminating his contract of service (on . .
CitedHorcal Ltd v Gatland CA 1984
The court considered the arguments presented as to the duty of a director of a company to disclose his own breach of fiduciary duty: ‘Counsel . . submitted, as a general proposition, that, putting fraud on one side, there is no general duty on . .
CitedEIC Services Ltd European Internet Capital Ltd v Phipps, Paul, Barber CA 30-Jul-2004
Whether issue of additional shares had been properly authorised . .
CitedItem Software (UK) Ltd v Fassihi and Others ChD 5-Dec-2002
Enforcement of confidentiality clause in contract of employment on termination. . .
CitedFassihim, Liddiardrams, International Ltd, Isograph Ltd v Item Software (UK) Ltd CA 30-Sep-2004
The first defendant (F) had been employed by a company involved in a distribution agreement. He had sought to set up a competing arrangement whilst a director of the claimant, and diverted a contract to his new company.
Held: A company . .
MentionedUltraframe (UK) Ltd v Fielding and others ChD 27-Jul-2005
The parties had engaged in a bitter 95 day trial in which allegations of forgery, theft, false accounting, blackmail and arson. A company owning patents and other rights had become insolvent, and the real concern was the destination and ownership of . .
CitedHalpern and Another v Halpern and others ComC 24-Mar-2006
The deceased parents, being orthodox Jews, had first made standard wills and then made provision accoding to Jewish law. A dispute after the second death was referred to a Beth Din arbitration. After an initial resolution, various distributions were . .
mentionedIslington v Uckac and Another CA 30-Mar-2006
The council’s tenant had unlawfully secured assignment of a secure tenancy to the defendant. The council sought possession.
Held: A secure tenancy granted by an authority pursuant to a misrepresentation by the tenant is nonetheless valid. The . .
CitedSimms v Conlon and Another CA 20-Dec-2006
Solicitors within a practice sued each other, and one wished to plead the fact of a finding of professional misconduct.
Held: The defendant’s appeal succeeded. It was not an abuse for the appellant to continue to assert his innocence, and the . .
CitedGraves v Graves and others CA 3-Jul-2007
The parties had divorced and settled financial provision, but the former wife and her children came to need a house and one of the claimant’s properties became vacant, and she was allowed to occupy it as a tenant, with the majority of the rent being . .
CitedButters and Others v BBC Worldwide Ltd and Others ChD 20-Aug-2009
In the insolvency of Woolworths plc, a subsidiary sought to have valued its shareholding in a company in which the defendants were co-shareholders. It was argued that an earlier agreement between them had not be fully superceded by a subsequent one. . .
CitedHelmet Integrated Systems Ltd v Tunnard and others CA 15-Dec-2006
Whilst employed by the claimants as a salesman, the defendant came to want to develop his idea for a modular helmet suitable for fire-fighters and others. He took certain steps including showing the proposal confidentially to a competitor, and then . .
CitedBalston Ltd v Headline Filters Ltd and Another ChD 1990
The claimant, a manufacturer of filter tubes, employed the defendant as a director. He gave notice to leave, but during his notice period, he was contacted by a customer who informed him of a meeting between that customer and the company at which . .
CitedLehman Brothers International (Europe) v Exotix Partners Llp ChD 9-Sep-2019
The parties had contracted to trade global depository notes issued by the Peruvian government. Each made mistakes as to their true value, thinking them scraps worth a few thousand dollars, whereas their true value was over $8m. On the defendant . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Company

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.181343

Spencer v Harding: 1870

Willes J considered what promise had been made where parties had bid in response to an advertisement, and the bidder sought to enforce the contract: ‘In the advertisement cases, there never was any doubt that the advertisement amounted to a promise to pay the money to the person who first gave information. The difficulty suggested was that it was a contract with all the world. But that,of course, was soon overruled. It was an offer to become liable to any person who before the offer should be retracted should happen to be the person to fulfil the contract, of which the advertisement was an offer or tender. That is not the sort of difficulty which presents itself here. If the circular had gone on, ‘and we undertake to sell to the highest bidder,’the reward cases would have applied, and there would have been a good contract in respect of the persons.’

Willes J
(1870) LR 5 CP 561
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedCarlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co CA 7-Dec-1892
Unilateral Contract Liability
The defendants advertised ‘The Carbolic Smoke Ball,’ in the Pall Mall Gazette, saying ‘pounds 100 reward will be paid by the Carbolic Smoke Ball Company to any person who contracts the increasing epidemic influenza, colds, or any disease caused by . .
CitedBlackpool and Fylde Aero Club Ltd v Blackpool Borough Council CA 25-May-1990
The club had enjoyed a concession from the council to operate pleasure flights from the airport operated by the council. They were invited to bid for a new concession subject to strict tender rules. They submitted the highest bid on time, but the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.267727

G and C Kreglinger v The New Patagonian Meat and Cold Storage Company: HL 20 Nov 1913

Mortgagor’s collateral dvantage is not a clog

The appellant woolbrokers had lent the respondent andpound;10,000 with a floating charge over its undertaking. The loan agreement provided that, for five years, the appellants would have first refusal over all sheepskins sold by the company. The company paid off the loan, but the appellants claimed that they were entitled to continue to exercise their right of first refusal.
Held: The right of first refusal not part of the mortgage transaction; but was a collateral contract entered into as a condition of the company obtaining the loan. The appellants could therefore entitled to enforce it. Whilst courts are loathe to interfere with freedom of contract, they will intervene where evidence showed that terms imposed by a mortgagee are unconscientious. To do so, the courts will consider both the form and substance of the transaction.
Lord Parker of Waddington discussed the survival of the rule against a clog on an equity of redemption, saying that it was not objectionable for a mortgage to confer a collateral advantage upon a mortgagee: ‘The last of the usury laws was repealed in 1854, and thenceforward there was, in my opinion, no intelligent reason why mortgages to secure loans should be on any different footing from other mortgages. In particular, there was no reason why the old rule against a mortgagee being able to stipulate for a collateral advantage should be maintained in any form or with any modification. Borrowers of money were fully protected from oppression by the pains always taken by the Court of Chancery to see that the bargain between borrower and lender was not unconscionable. Unfortunately, at the time when the last of the usury laws was repealed, the origin of the rule appears to have been more or less forgotten, and the cases decided since such repeal exhibit an extraordinary diversity of judicial opinion on the subject. It is little wonder that, with the existence in the authorities of so many contradictory theories, persons desiring to repudiate a fair and reasonable bargain have attempted to obtain the assistance of the Court in that behalf. My Lords, to one who, like myself, has always admired the way in which the Court of Chancery succeeded in supplementing our common law system in accordance with the exigencies of a growing civilization, it is satisfactory to find, as I have found on analysing the cases in question, that no such attempt has yet been successful. In every case in which a stipulation by a mortgagee for a collateral advantage has, since the repeal of the usury laws, been held invalid, the stipulation has been open to objection, either (1) because it was unconscionable, or (2) because it was in the nature of a penal clause clogging the equity arising on failure to exercise a contractual right to redeem, or (3) because it was in the nature of a condition repugnant as well to the contractual as to the equitable right.’ and
‘The nature of the equitable right [to redeem] is so well known that, upon a mortgage in the usual form to secure a money payment on a certain day, it must be taken to be a term of the real bargain between the parties that the property shall remain redeemable in equity after failure to exercise the contractual right. Any fetter or clog imposed by the instrument of mortgage on this equitable right may properly be regarded as a repugnant condition and as such invalid. There are, however, repugnant conditions which cannot be regarded as mere penalties intended to deter the exercise of the equitable right which arises when the time for the exercise of the contractual right has gone by, but which are repugnant to the contractual right itself. A condition to the effect that if the contractual right is not exercised by the time specified the mortgagee shall have the option of purchasing the mortgaged property may properly be regarded as a penal clause. It is repugnant only to the equity and not to the contractual right itself. But a condition that the mortgagee is to have such an option for a period which begins before the time for the exercise of the equitable right has arrived, or which reserves to the mortgagee any interest in the property after the exercise of the contractual right, is inconsistent not only with the equity but with the contractual right itself, and might, I think, be held invalid for repugnancy even in a Court of Law.’
As to the doctrine of precedent: ‘To follow previous authorities, so far as they lay down principles, is essential if the law is to be preserved from becoming unsettled and vague. In this respect previous decisions of a court of co-ordinate jurisdiction are more binding in a system of jurisprudence such as ours than in systems where the paramount authority is that of a code. When a previous case has not laid down any principle, but has merely decided that a particular set of facts illustrates an existing rule, there are few more fertile sources of fallacy than to search in it for what is simply resemblances in circumstances, and to erect a previous decision into a governing precedent merely on this account. To look for anything except the principle established or recognized by previous decisions is really to weaken and not to strengthen the importance of precedent. The consideration of cases which turn on particular facts may often be useful for edification, but it can rarely yield authoritative guidance.’ The evolving nature of the equitable jurisdiction is ‘to mould the rules which they apply in accordance with the exigencies at the time’.
Lord Parker explained the decision in Bradley v Carritt: ‘The real question, in my opinion, was whether it [the clause in question] was inconsistent with or repugnant to the contractual right of the mortgagee [quaere, mortgagor] to have his property restored unfettered if he paid the money secured with interest as provided in the agreement, and the consequential equitable right to have the property so restored if he paid his money with interest and costs at any time. On this point there was room for a difference of opinion . . There is really no difficulty in the decision itself. It is merely to the effect that the case was within the principles of Noakes v Rice. Lords Macnaghten, Davey, and Robertson all thought that if the stipulations in question were binding after redemption the mortgagor would not get back his property intact; in other words, that the stipulation was repugnant both to the contractual right and the equity.’
Lord Mersey agreeing, said that the equitable doctrine prohibiting the imposition of a clog on the mortgagor’s right to redeem is ‘like an unruly dog, which, if not securely chained to its own kennel, is prone to wander into places where it ought not to be’.
Viscount Haldane, Lord Chancellor, said: ‘the other and wider principle remains unshaken, that it is the essence of a mortgage that in the eye of a Court of Equity it should be a mere security for money, and that no bargain can be validly made which will prevent the mortgagor from redeeming on payment of what is due, including principal, interest and costs. He may stipulate that he will not pay off his debt, and so redeem the mortgage, for a fixed period. But whenever the right to redeem arises out of the doctrine of equity, he is precluded from fettering it. This principle has become an integral part of our system of jurisprudence and must be faithfully adhered to.’
The issue for decision was: ‘What was the true character of the transaction? Did the appellants make a bargain such that the right to redeem was cut down, or did they simply stipulate for a collateral undertaking, outside and clear of the mortgage, which would give them an exclusive option of purchase of the sheepskins of the respondents. The question is in my opinion not whether the two contracts were made at the same moment and evidenced by the same instrument, but whether they were in substance a single and undivided contract or two distinct contracts.’ The agreement for a right to purchase the respondent’s sheepskins was a collateral bargain ‘the entering into which was a preliminary and separable condition of the loan’.

Viscount Haldane, Lord Parker
[1914] AC 25, [1913] UKHL 1
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedNoakes and Co Ltd v Rice HL 17-Dec-1901
Rule Against Clog on equity of Redemption
A mortgage of a leasehold public house contained a covenant with the mortgagee, a brewery, that the mortgagor and his successors in title would not, during the continuance of the leasehold term and whether or not any money should be owing on the . .
ExplainedBradley v Carritt HL 11-May-1903
Shares in a tea company had been mortgaged to secure a loan from a broker on terms that the mortgagor would seek to ensure that the mortgagee should thereafter have sale of the company’s teas. The mortgage contained a covenant that, if the company . .

Cited by:
CitedRegina v Naviede CACD 21-Mar-1997
The defendant appealed from his conviction for dishonesty. He said that he should have allowed hi to represent himself as to certain aspect of his case, but to have legal representation for others.
Held: The judge was right to reject such a . .
AppliedCityland and Property (Holdings) Ltd v Dabrah 1968
The mortgage secured a debt of pounds 2,900 owing by the mortgagor to the mortgagee. The mortgagor covenanted to pay the mortgagee pounds 4,553 by monthly instalments over a six year period. The return to the mortgagee was in the form of a premium . .
CitedBrighton and Hove City Council v Audus ChD 26-Feb-2009
The claimant was the proprietor of a fourth legal charge on a title. It sought a declaration that a second charge in favour of the defendant was void as a clog on the proprietor’s equity of redemption. An advance secured by a first charge, also in . .
CitedWarnborough Ltd v Garmite Ltd CA 5-Nov-2003
Warnborough (W) sold real property to Garmite (G), leaving the purchase price outstanding but secured by a mortgage in favour of W. G also granted W an option to repurchase the property. The issue was whether the option to repurchase was ‘a clog on . .
CitedWarnborough Ltd v Garmite Ltd ChD 12-Jan-2006
The claimant sought specific performance under a contract for sale of two leasehold properties. The defendant claimed inter alia that the agreement worked as a clog on the equity of the properties. . .
CitedJones v Morgan CA 28-Jun-2001
The claimant appealed against an order refusing him enforcement an agreement for the purchase of a one half share in a property. The judge had found the agreement to be unconscionable.
Held: The appeal was dismissed. The judge had wrongly . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Constitutional, Contract, Equity

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.189952

Banif Plus Bank Zrt v Csipai: ECJ 21 Feb 2013

barif_csipaoECJ2013

ECJ Directive 93/13/EEC – Unfair terms in consumer contracts – Examination by the national court, of its own motion, as to whether a term is unfair – Obligation on the national court, once it has found, of its own motion, that a term is unfair, to invite the parties to submit their observations before drawing conclusions from that finding – Contractual terms to be taken into account in the assessment of that unfairness

A. Tizzano, P
C-472/11, [2013] EUECJ C-472/11
Bailii
Directive 93/13/EEC

European, Contract, Consumer

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.471210

Paal Wilson and Co v Partenreederei Hannah Blumenthal (The Hannah Blumenthal): HL 1983

The House was asked whether a contract to abandon an arbitration might be implied from conduct, or a lack of conduct.
Held: The abandonment of a contract can be effected by the entry of the parties, expressly or by necessary inference from conduct, into a fresh contract for mutual release from their obligations under the contract said to be abandoned. An argument that mere inactivity of the parties could be construed as an implied agreement to rescind the agreement to arbitrate, failed.
Lord Brandon of Oakbrook considered that an actual abandonment, as opposed to an estoppel precluding an assertion of continuance, required proof of conduct of each party, as evinced to the other party and acted on by him, as ‘leads necessarily to the inference of an implied agreement’ between them to abandon the contract. Lord Roskill referred to ‘the only possible inference [being] that the agreement to arbitrate has been rescinded by mutual consent’. Though Lord Diplock made no similar observation both Lords Keith of Kinkel and Brightman agreed with Lords Brandon and Roskill.
Lord Brandon said: ‘there are two essential factors which must be present in order to frustrate a contract. The first essential factor is that there must be some outside event or extraneous change of situation, not foreseen or provided for by the parties at the time of contracting, which either makes it impossible for the contract to be performed at all, or at least renders its performance something radically different from what the parties contemplated when they entered into it. The second essential factor is that the outside event or extraneous change of situation concerned, and the consequences of either in relation to the performance of the contract, must have occurred without either the fault or the default of either party to the contract.’

Lord Brandon, Lord Diplock
[1983] 1 AC 854, [1983] Com LR 20, [1983] 1 All ER 34, [1983] 1 Lloyds Rep 103, [1982] 3 WLR 1149
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedMartin v Medina Housing Association Ltd CA 31-Mar-2006
The former tenant had set out to buy the council house, but had written to say that she did not intend to go ahead. Her son who had taken over the tenancy after her death now sought, twelve years later, to require the authority to proceed at that . .
CitedMote v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and Another CA 14-Dec-2007
The appellant was accused of having received income benefits to which he was not entitled. A prosecution was commenced and at the same time he appealed to the tribunal against the decision that there had been an overpayment. The authorities . .
CitedSG and R Valuation Service Co v Boudrais and others QBD 12-May-2008
The claimant sought to require the defendants not to work during their notice period to achieve the equivalent of garden leave despite there being no provision for garden leave in the contracts. It was said that the defendants had conspired together . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Arbitration

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.242430

Wallis v Smith: CA 1882

Jessel MR said: ‘You may depart from the literal meaning of words, if reading the words literally leads to an absurdity.’ and ‘It has always appeared to me that the doctrine of the English law as to non-payment of money – the general rule being that you cannot recover damages because it is not paid by a certain day, is not quite consistent with reason. A man may be utterly ruined by the non-payment of a sum of money on a given day, the damages may be enormous, and the other party may be wealthy.’
He dealt with the question of whether a sum of money was a penalty or liquidated damages, saying: ‘I now come to the last class of cases. There is a class of cases relating to deposits. Where a deposit is to be forfeited for the breach of a number of stipulations, some of which may be trifling, some of which may be for the payment of money on a given day, in all those cases the Judges have held that this rule does not apply, and that the bargain of the parties is to be carried out. I think that exhausts the substance of the cases.’ However, he also observed that ‘The ground of that doctrine I do not know’

Sir George Jessel MR
(1882) 21 Ch D 243
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedDunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company Ltd v New Garage and Motor Company Ltd HL 1-Jul-1914
The appellants contracted through an agent to supply tyres. The respondents contracted not to do certain things, and in case of breach concluded: ‘We agree to pay to the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company, Ltd. the sum of 5 l. for each and every tyre, . .
CitedCavendish Square Holding Bv v Talal El Makdessi; ParkingEye Ltd v Beavis SC 4-Nov-2015
The court reconsidered the law relating to penalty clauses in contracts. The first appeal, Cavendish Square Holding BV v Talal El Makdessi, raised the issue in relation to two clauses in a substantial commercial contract. The second appeal, . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Damages

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.440840

Pagnan SpA v Feed Products Ltd: CA 2 Jan 1987

Contractually Bound – but Further Terms to Agree

The parties had gone ahead with performance of the arrangement between them, but without a formal agreement being in place.
Held: Parties may intend to be bound forthwith even though there are further terms still to be agreed. If they then failed to reach agreement on the further terms, the existing contract is not invalidated unless the failure to reach agreement renders the contract as a whole ‘unworkable’ or void for uncertainty.
The court was asked how it could establish whether the essential terms of a contract had been agreed so as to create a binding agreement. Lloyd LJ identified six applicable principles: ‘(1) In order to determine whether a contract has been concluded in the course of correspondence, one must first look to the correspondence as a whole.
(2) Even if the parties have reached agreement on all the terms of the proposed contract, nevertheless they may intend that the contract shall not become binding until some further condition has been fulfilled. This is the ordinary ‘subject to contract’ case.
(3) Alternatively, they may intend that the contract shall not become binding until some further term or terms have been agreed;
(4) Conversely, the parties may intend to be bound forthwith even though there are further terms still to be agreed or some further formality to be fulfilled.
(5) If the parties fail to reach agreement on such further terms, the existing contract is not invalidated unless the failure to reach agreement on such further terms renders the contract as a whole unworkable or void for uncertainty.
(6) It is sometimes said that the parties must agree on the essential terms and that it is only matters of detail that can be left over. This may be misleading, since the word ‘essential’ in that context is ambiguous. If by ‘essential’ one means a term without which the contract cannot be enforced then the statement is true; the law cannot enforce an incomplete contract. If by ‘essential’ one means a term which the parties have agreed to be essential for the formation of a binding contract, then the statement is tautologous. If by ‘essential’ one means only a term which the Court regards as important as opposed to a term which the Court regards as less important or a matter of detail, the statement is untrue. It is for the parties to decide whether they wish to be bound and, if so, by what terms, whether important or unimportant. It is the parties who are, in the memorable phrase coined by the Judge, ‘the masters of their contractual fate’. Of course, the more important the term is the less likely it is that the parties will have left it for future decision. But there is no legal obstacle which stands in the way of the parties agreeing to be bound now while deferring important matters to be agreed later. It happens everyday when parties enter into so-called ‘heads of agreement’.’

Lloyd LJ, Stocker LJ, O’Connor LJ
[1987] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 615
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromPagnan SpA v Feed Products Ltd ChD 1987
An agreement can be enforceable as an agreement on main terms only, with the detailed terms to be agreed later. Bingham J said: ‘The Court’s task is to review what the parties said and did and from that material to infer whether the parties’ . .
CitedHussey v Horne-Payne HL 1879
An exchange of letters which together constituted a binding agreement would satisfy the requirements of Section 4 as it applied to contracts for the sale of land.
Lord Selborne said: ‘The observation has often been made, that a contract . .
CitedLove and Stewart Ltd v S Instone and Co Ltd HL 1917
A statement by one party in negotiation for a contract to the other party to the negotiation that there was now a contract was not of any real assistance in answering the question whether there was in fact a contract, for the statement could simply . .

Cited by:
CitedCox v Cox and Skan Dansk Design Limited ChD 27-Apr-2006
Mrs Cox sought to declarations as to the effect of arrangements made on her divorce in an attempt to avoid contentious proceedings. The couple held equal shares in the family business, but the company registers were missing or had never existed. The . .
CitedTullis Russell and Co Ltd v Eadie Industries Ltd SCS 31-Aug-2001
The pursuers and defenders disagreed over which of their respective terms and conditions controlled the sale of equipment, under which the pursuers sought damages for faults in the goods. Both quotation, and order purported to include the respective . .
CitedGiad Hamdo Pipes Complex Company Limited v Wilson Byard Limited (In Receivership) MacLennan for Interdict and Interdict Ad Interim OHCS 30-Dec-2003
. .
CitedSpectra International Plc v Tiscali UK Ltd and Another ComC 15-Oct-2002
. .
CitedXydhias v Xydhias CA 21-Dec-1998
The principles of contract law are of little use when looking at the course of negotiations in divorce ancillary proceedings. In the case of a dispute the court must use its own discretion to determine whether agreement had been reached. Thorpe LJ . .
CitedXydhias v Xydhias CA 21-Dec-1998
The principles of contract law are of little use when looking at the course of negotiations in divorce ancillary proceedings. In the case of a dispute the court must use its own discretion to determine whether agreement had been reached. Thorpe LJ . .
CitedAitken v Standard Life Assurance Ltd SCS 3-Dec-2008
The pursuer averred that the defendant, his pension provider, had wrongfully reduced its final bonus by ten per cent without notifying him. He sought to imply a term into the contract to provide such an effect, saying that the contract promised an . .
CitedRTS Flexible Systems Ltd v Molkerei Alois Muller Gmbh and Company Kg (UK Production) SC 10-Mar-2010
The parties had reached agreement in outline and sought to have the contract formalised, but went ahead anyway. They now disputed whether an agreement had been created and as to its terms if so.
Held: It was unrealistic to suggest that no . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.242129

CIA Barca de Panama SA v George Wimpey and Co Ltd: CA 1980

Claim to Legal Professional Privilege Lost

Barca and Wimpey had been 50/50 joint venturers through the medium of a company called DLW which had provided services to oil companies in the Middle East, including the Aramco Group. Wimpey agreed to buy out Barca’s interest in DLW on terms which included detailed provision for the further conduct of claims against Aramco, including the provision as between Barca and Wimpey of mutual assistance, information, documents and evidence. Acting on DLW’s behalf, Wimpey settled a claim in litigation between DLW and Aramco, and Barca challenged the reasonableness of Wimpey’s settlement. In litigation between Barka and Wimpey, Wimpey claimed legal professional privilege as an answer to the production of documents about the negotiation of the settlement with Aramco.
Held: The claim for privilege was rejected. The terms of the buy-out and cooperation agreement between Barka and Wimpey created such a common interest between those parties in relation to the conduct of the DLW v Aramco proceedings that there could be no confidence or privilege between Wimpey and Barka in relation to the settlement negotiations.
Bridge LJ discussed the position of a solicitor and claims to legal privilege where he had multiple clients: ‘As regards the claim for legal professional privilege, it seems to me that the general principle underlying several authorities to which our attention has been called by Mr Lincoln, can be accurately stated in quite broad terms, and I would put it in this way. If A and B have a common interest in litigation against C and if at that point there is no dispute between A and B then if subsequently A and B fall out and litigate between themselves and the litigation against C is relevant to the disputes between A and B then in the litigation between A and B neither A nor B can claim legal professional privilege for documents which came into existence in relation to the earlier litigation against C.’
Stephenson LJ said: ‘So here, it seems to me, however you define the relationship which their joint interest creates, it is enough to entitle the plaintiffs . . whether as beneficiaries, cestui que trust, or as partners in a joint venture or as principals, to the same inspection of documents relating to the Aramco claims as the defendants themselves had.’

Bridge LJ
[1980] 1 Lloyds Rep 598
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedPortsmouth City Football Club v Sellar Properties (Portsmouth) Limited, Singer and Friedlander Properties Plc ChD 17-Sep-2003
Various contracts were entered into for the sale of land, with compensation being paid in certain circumstances. One contract required a calculation of consideration as a set figure less a sum to be calculated as the cost of acquiring land. The sum . .
CitedWinters v Mishcon De Reya ChD 15-Oct-2008
The claimant sought an injunction to prevent the defendant firm of solicitors acting for his employers against him. He said that they possessed information confidential to him having acted for him in a similar matter previously. The solicitors . .
CitedHellenic Mutual War Risks Association (Bermuda) Ltd v Harrison (‘The Sagheera’) ChD 1997
The dominant purpose test applies in relation to legal advice privilege in a different way from the way it applies in relation to litigation privilege. In legal advice privilege the practical emphasis is upon the purpose of the retainer. If the . .
CitedFord, Regina (on The Application of) v The Financial Services Authority Admn 11-Oct-2011
The claimant sought, through judicial review, control over 8 emails sent by them to their lawyers. They claimed legal advice privilege, but the emails contained advice sent by their chartered accountants. The defendant had sought to use them in the . .
CitedSingla v Stockler and Another ChD 10-May-2012
The claimant appealed against the striking out of his action for an injunction against the defendant solicitors to restrain them for action for a person, saying that whilst there had been no formal retainer, they had informally advised him. The . .
CitedJames-Bowen and Others v Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis SC 25-Jul-2018
The Court was asked whether the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis (‘the Commissioner’) owes a duty to her officers, in the conduct of proceedings against her based on their alleged misconduct, to take reasonable care to protect them from . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Damages, Contract, Legal Professions

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.186486

Country and Metropolitan Homes Surrey Ltd v Topclaim Ltd: 1996

The issue was the proper construction and effect of condition 6.8 of the Standard Conditions of Sale, 2nd edition, in relation to the giving of a notice to complete a contract for the sale of land.
Held: The condition provided exclusively for the circumstances in which a notice to complete could be given in respect of a contract which incorporated the terms of the Standard Conditions of Sale, 2nd edition, and that any right at common law to serve a notice to complete was thereby excluded.

The contract also purported to exclude section 49(2). The vendor failed to complete, but sought not to return the deposit. The judge said: ‘It is a startling proposition that, by excluding that section in relation to the contract, the purchaser has prevented itself from obtaining repayment of the deposit even if the vendor has been flagrantly in breach of the contract and the purchaser has not. It also seems curious, in relation to that submission, that under the contract in this case the vendor’s solicitors hold the deposit as stakeholder, since that clearly implies that there could be circumstances in which they would have to pay the deposit back to the purchaser rather than account for it to their client the vendor.
The answer to this contention is to be found in the judgment of Mr. Gerald Godfrey Q.C. in Dimsdale Developments (South East) Ltd. v. De Haan, 47 P. and C.R. 1. He held that the vendor’s notice to complete was validly served but, despite that, the purchaser sought the return of the deposit under section 49(2). He therefore had to consider the ambit of the subsection in the light of a number of decided cases. Before doing that he made the following observations of general relevance: ‘It is to be observed that a purchaser has no need to pray this subsection in aid when it is not he but the vendor who is the defaulter. The subsection is needed only to enable a purchaser who is himself in default to recover his deposit.’
He consideralso circumstances in which the court might conclude that even though the purchaser was in default the justice of the case might require that the deposit be repaid to the purchaser. It is that jurisdiction which, it seems to me, is excluded by the special condition in this contract.’

Timothy Lloyd QC
[1996] Ch 307
Law of Property Act 1925 49(2)
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRightside Properties Ltd v Gray ChD 1975
The vendor had served an invalid notice to complete on the purchaser. When the purchaser did not comply with the notice the vendor purported to terminate the contract by accepting the purchaser’s alleged repudiation. Walton J held that it was in . .
CitedDimsdale Developments (South East) Ltd v De Haan 1983
The court considered the interpretation of clauses allowing a notice to complete a contract for the sale of land. Godfrey QC said: ‘In my judgment this notice, served as it was under cover of the letter of November 10, 1981, referring to the . .

Cited by:
CitedAstea (UK) Ltd v Time Group Ltd TCC 9-Apr-2003
The question of whether a reasonable time has been exceeded in performance of a contract is ‘a broad consideration, with the benefit of hindsight, and viewed from the time at which one party contends that a reasonable time for performance has been . .
CitedAribisala v St James Homes (Grosvenor Dock) Ltd ChD 12-Jun-2007
The parties had agreed in a contract for the sale and purchase of land to exclude the application of section 49(2). The buyer had failed to comply with a notice to complete.
Held: The parties cannot contract out of section 49(2). The . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Land

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.223519

Heaton and Others v AXA Equity and Law Life Assurance Society plc and Another: HL 25 Apr 2002

The claimant had settled one claim in full and final satisfaction against one party, but then sought further damages from the defendant, for issues related to a second but linked contract. The defendant claimed the benefit of the settlement.
Held: The question of whether such a settlement would prevent any further action depended upon the particular document sought to be applied. Where the remedy wanted properly fell outside the scope of the agreement, a further action was possible. A claim for damages became liquidated by a judgement which assessed it, but a compromise agreement might not be. The agreement in this case was not to be construed so as to oust the later action.
Lord Bingham of Cornhill said in his analysis of the effect of a settlement of a claim against some, but not all, concurrent tortfeasors: ‘the agreement must be construed in its appropriate factual context. In construing it various significant points must in my opinion be borne clearly in mind: 1) The release of one concurrent tortfeasor does not have the effect in law of releasing another concurrent tortfeasor . . ‘

Lord Bingham of Cornhill, Lord Mackay of Clashfern, Lord Steyn, Lord Hope of Craighead and Lord Rodger of Earlsferry
Times 15-May-2002, [2002] UKHL 15, [2002] CPLR 475, [2002] CP Rep 52, [2003] 1 CLC 37, [2002] 2 AC 329, [2002] 2 WLR 1081, [2002] 2 All ER 961
House of Lords, Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
ExplainedJameson and Another v Central Electricity Generating Board and others HL 16-Dec-1998
A joint tortfeasor’s concurrent liability was discharged entirely by a full and final settlement and compromise of the claim against the other tortfeasor if in respect of the same harm. A dependency claim made by the claimant’s executors could not . .
Appeal fromHeaton and others v AXA Equity and Law Life Assurance Society Plc and Another CA 19-May-2000
Where a claimant had settled one claim with one of two joint tortfeasors on an issue which also concerned the action against the second, it was a matter for interpretation of that settlement as to whether or not the claimant could continue the . .
CitedSteven v Broady Norman and Co 1928
. .
CitedCrawford v Springfield Steel Co Ltd 18-Jul-1958
The pursuer, a steelworker, had been diagnosed with pneumoconiosis. He had worked for a previous company, and had claimed damages from them
Held: In an exceptional case such as this, a judgment may not conclusively decide the full measure of . .
CitedAllison v KPMG Peat Marwick 2000
(New Zealand Court of Appeal) If one tortfeasor settles the victim’s claim by paying him a sum which fully satisfies his right to damages for loss and injury, the victim cannot then sue any concurrent tortfeasor for damages for the same loss and . .
CitedPersonal Representatives of Tang Man Sit v Capacious Investments Ltd PC 18-Dec-1995
The claimant, Capacious Investments Ltd, brought proceedings against Tang’s estate for damages for the loss of use and occupation, and also an account of profits and damages for loss and damage incurred, for example by encumbering the property with . .
CitedBalfour v Archibald Baird and Sons Ltd SCS 1959
Lord Justice-Clerk Thomson said that if the pursuer ‘has invited a competent court to give him full satisfaction for the loss sustained by him and if he is awarded damages on that footing that is an end of it. He has got all he is entitled to.’ . .
CitedBryce v Swan Hunter Group plc 1987
The court considered the difficulties of establishing liability in negligence or breach of statutory duty against an employer for exposure to asbestos giving rise to mesothelioma. . .

Cited by:
CitedCape and Dalgleish v Fitzgerald and others HL 25-Apr-2002
The employee was dismissed. After a compromise of the claims and counter claims, the employers sought damages from their accountants for failing to spot the losses. The accountants then sought to recover the damages awarded from the employee, not . .
CitedBarrett v Universal-Island Records Ltd and others ChD 15-May-2006
The claimant was entitled to share in the copyright royalties of Bob Marley and the Wailers, and claimed payment from the defendants. The defendants said that the matters had already been settled and that the claim was an abuse of process, and also . .
CitedL’Oreal Sa and others v eBay International Ag and others ChD 15-Jul-2008
In interlouctory proceedings, Ebay sought disclosure of a Tomlin settlement reached by the claimants with a co-defendant. The claimant resisted, saying that the Tomlin order was confidential.
Held: Master Gragg said: ‘on balance it must be . .
CitedGladman Commercial Properties v Fisher Hargreaves Proctor and Others CA 14-Nov-2013
The claimant appealed against the striking out of his claims for fraudulent or negligent misrepresentation as to the suitability for deveopment of two former fire service properties. The court had said that a settlement with co-tortfeasors operated . .
CitedMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Sinclair and Others ComC 21-Sep-2012
The claimant company alleged that the defendants had variously received assests (shares and cash) acquired by a former partner in the claimant company and held on his behalf, in breach of his obligations to the caimant partnership. The defendants . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Damages, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.170285

Czarnikow (C ) Ltd v Koufos; The Heron II: HL 17 Oct 1967

The vessel had arrived late at Basrah in breach of the terms of the charterparty. The House was asked as to the measure of damages. The charterers had intended to sell the cargo of sugar promptly upon arrival, and now claimed for the fall in the market price of the sugar during the period of delay. The owners did not know what the charterers intended to do with the sugar. But they did know that there was a market in sugar at Basrah and, if they had thought about it, must have realised that, at the least, it was ‘not unlikely’ that the sugar would be sold in the market at its market price on arrival.
Held: The House explained the rule in Hadley v Baxendale: ‘I do not think that it was intended that there were to be two rules or that two different standards or tests were to be applied.’ and ‘The crucial question is whether, on the information available to the defendant when the contract was made, he should, or the reasonable man in his position would, have realised that such loss was sufficiently likely to result from the breach of contract to make it proper to hold that the loss flowed naturally from the breach or that loss of that kind should have been within his contemplation.’
Lord Upjohn: ‘If parties enter into the contract with knowledge of some special circumstances, and it is reasonable to infer a particular loss as a result of those circumstances that is something which both must contemplate as a result of a breach. It is quite unnecessary that it should be a term of the contract’.

Lord Reid, Lord Upjohn, Lord Morris of Both-y-Gest, Lord Hodson, Lord Pearce
[1967] 3 All ER 686, [1969] 1 AC 350, [1967] 3 WLR 1491, [1967] UKHL 4
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedHadley v Baxendale Exc 23-Feb-1854
Contract Damages; What follows the Breach Naturaly
The plaintiffs had sent a part of their milling machinery for repair. The defendants contracted to carry it, but delayed in breach of contract. The plaintiffs claimed damages for the earnings lost through the delay. The defendants appealed, saying . .

Cited by:
CitedG and K Ladenbau (UK) Ltd v Crawley and De Reya QBD 25-Apr-1977
The defendant solicitors acted for the plaintiff in the purchase of land, but failed to undertake a commons search which would have revealed an entry which would prevent the client pursuing his development. The defect was discovered only when . .
CitedJackson and Another v Royal Bank of Scotland HL 27-Jan-2005
The claimants sought damages, alleging that a breach of contract by the defendant had resulted in their being unable to earn further profits elsewhere. The defendant said the damages claimed were too remote. The bank had, by error, disclosed to one . .
CitedHone v Six Continents Retail Ltd CA 29-Jun-2005
The employer appealed a finding that it was liable in damages for negligence to the claimant, and employee who suffered psychiatric injury cause by stress at work. He said he had been left to work very excessive hours, between 89 and 92 hours a . .
CitedWiseman v Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd QBD 29-Jun-2006
The claimant said that he was refused permission to board a flight by the defendants representative without paying a bribe, and was publicly humiliated for not doing so.
Held: Whilst the claimant could recover for his own additional expenses, . .
CitedThe ‘Pegase’ 1981
The court considered the measure of damages for breach of contract in the light of the cases in the Heron II and Victoria Laundry: ‘the principle in Hadley v Baxendale is now no longer stated in terms of two rules, but rather in terms of a single . .
CitedTransfield Shipping Inc of Panama v Mercator Shipping Inc of Monrovia ComC 1-Dec-2006
The owners made substantial losses after the charterers breached the contract by failing to redliver the ship on time as agreed.
Held: On the facts found the Owners’ primary claim is not too remote. To the knowledge of the Charterers, it was . .
CitedTransfield Shipping Inc v Mercator Shipping Inc (The Achilleas) HL 9-Jul-2008
The parties contracted to charter the Achileas. The charterer gave notice to terminate the hire, and the owner found a new charterer. Until the termination the charterers sub-chartered. That charter was not completed, delaying the ship for the . .
CitedBorealis Ab v Geogas Trading Sa ComC 9-Nov-2010
The parties had contracted for sale and purchase of butane for processing. It was said to have been contaminated. The parties now disputed the effect on damages for breach including on causation, remoteness, mitigation and quantum.
Held: The . .
CitedKpohraror v Woolwich Building Society CA 1996
The Society, acting as a bank, had at first failed to pay its customer’s cheque for andpound;4,550, even though there were sufficient funds. The bank said that it had been reported lost. The customer sought damages to his business reputation.
Contract, Damages, Negligence

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.180940

Planche v Colburn and Another: KBD 14 Jun 1831

Future Losses Under Contract

The plaintiff had contracted with defendants to write a work for ‘The Juvenile Library;’ and he was held to be entitled to recover on their discontinuing the publication; yet the time for the completion of the contract, that is for the work being published in ‘The Juvenile Library,’ had not arrived, for that would not be till a reasonable time after the author had completed the work.

[1831] EWHC KB J56, [1831] 172 ER 876, (1831) 8 Bing 14
Bailii
England and Wales

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.264573

Motor Oil Hellas (Corinth) Refineries SA v Shipping Corporation of India (The Kanchenjunga): HL 1990

A ship was caught in harbour when an air raid broke out. The master took the ship to sea where it suffered damage.
Held: The shipowners were protected by a war risks clause in the charterparty agreement. As to waiver by election, Lord Goff of Chieveley said: ‘In the present case, we are concerned with an election which may arise in the context of a binding contract, when a state of affairs comes into existence in which one party becomes entitled, either under the terms of the contract or by the general law, to exercise a right, and he has to decide whether or not to do so. His decision, being a matter of choice for him, is called in law an election. Characteristically, this state of affairs arises where the other party has repudiated the contract or has otherwise committed a breach of the contract which entitles the innocent party to bring it to an end, or has made a tender of performance which does not conform to the terms of the contract. .
In all cases, he has in the end to make his election, not as a matter of obligation, but in the sense that, if he does not do so, the time may come when the law takes the decision out of his hands, either by holding him to have elected not to exercise the right which has become available to him, or sometimes by holding him to have elected to exercise it. Instances of this phenomenon are to be found in s. 35 of the Sale of Goods Act 1979. In particular, where with knowledge of the relevant facts a party has acted in a manner which is consistent only with his having chosen one of the two alternative and inconsistent courses of action then open to him – for example, to determine a contract or alternatively to affirm it – he is held to have made his election accordingly . . perhaps because a party who elects not to exercise a right which has become available to him is abandoning that right, he will only be held to have done so if he has so communicated his election to the other party in clear and unequivocal terms Moreover, it does not require consideration to support it, and so it is to be distinguished from an express or implied agreement, such as a variation of the relevant contract, which traditionally requires consideration to render it binding in English Law.’

Lord Goff of Chieveley
Times 19-Feb-1990, [1990] CLY 4077, [1990] 1 Lloyds Rep 391
Sale of Goods Act 1979 35
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedOliver Ashworth (Holdings) Limited v Ballard (Kent) Limited CA 18-Mar-1999
In order for the landlord to claim double rent where a tenant held over unlawfully after the tenancy was determined, the landlord must not do anything to indicate that the lease might be continuing, for example by denying the validity of break . .
CitedPeregrine Systems Ltd v Steria Ltd CA 14-Mar-2005
The claimant provided computer software to the defendants. The defendants appealed dismissal of their defences arguing that the system had failed.
Held: No repudiatory breach was established, and moreover Steria had elected to affirm the . .
CitedStocznia Gdynia Sa v Gearbulk Holdings Ltd CA 13-Feb-2009
Orders were placed for the construction of ships. They were not delivered. The buyer, the defendant, cancelled the orders. The defendants sought the loss of profit. The claimants said they were entitled only to the repayment of instalments. The . .
CitedWheatley, Smith As Executors of Henry Thomas Cadbury-Brown v King LRA 30-Nov-2011
LRA Estoppel – Exercise of options – whether defect waived – ‘The Kanchenjunga’ [1990] Lloyds Law Reports 391 – Peyman v Lanjani [1985] 1 Ch 457, HIH Casualty and General Insurance Ltd v AXA Corporate Solutions . .
ExplainedTele2 International Card Company Sa and others v Post Office Ltd CA 21-Jan-2009
Appeal against rejection of claim for novation of contract.
Held: Aikens LJ summarised the analysis by Lord Goff of the principles of affirmation by election in Kanchenjunga as follows: ‘i) If a contract gives a party a right to terminate upon . .
CitedForce India Formula One Team Ltd v 1 Malaysia Racing Team Sdn Bhd and Others ChD 21-Mar-2012
The claimants alleged misuse by the defendants of confidential information.
Held: Arnold J said: ‘Confidential information is not property, however, even though businessmen often deal with confidential information as if it were property and . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Insurance, Contract, Equity

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.188152

Fisher v Bell: QBD 10 Nov 1960

Fisher_BellQBD1960

A shopkeeper displayed a flick-knife in his window for sale. A price was also displayed. He was charged with offering it for sale, an offence under the Act. The words ‘offer for sale’ were not defined in the Act, and therefore the magistrates construed them as under the general law of contract, in which case the shopkeeper had merely issued an invitation to treat.
Held: The display of the knife in the window was indeed only an invitation to treat, and the knife had not been offered for sale. In the Keating and Wiles cases the Acts in question allowed a conviction where an item was exposed for sale. That did not apply here. The appeal was dismissed.
Lord Justice Parker said: ‘It is perfectly clear that according to the ordinary law of contract the display of an article with a price on it in a shop window is merely an invitation to treat. It is in no sense an offer for sale the acceptance of which constitutes a contract.’

Parker LJ CJ, Ashworth Elwes JJ
[1961] 1 QB 394
Citing:
DistinguishedWiles v Maddison 1943
It was proved that the defendant had the intention to commit an offence. Viscount Caldecote CJ said ‘A person might, for instance, be convicted of making an offer of an article at too high a price by putting it in his shop window to be sold at an . .
CitedMagor and St Mellons Rural District Council v Newport Corporaion HL 1951
The Court of Appeal had tried to fill in the gaps in a statute where parliament had intended an effect.
Held: Rights to compensation are well capable of falling within the definition of ‘property of a company’ in the relevant provisions of the . .
DistinguishedKeating v Horwood QBD 1926
A baker’s van was doing its rounds, delivering bread which had already been ordered but the van also contained bread which could be bought as required. The bread was underweight The Order prohibited the offering or exposing for sale of food . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Crime, Consumer, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.185104

Highland Railway Co v A and G Paterson Ltd: HL 3 Dec 1926

The pursuer, a firm of timber merchants, sought repayment of sums overpaid for the carriage of timber.
Held: The House declined to introduce the English law of consideration into Scottish law.
Viscount Dunedin said: ‘if I offer my property to a certain person at a certain price, and go on to say: ‘This offer is to be open up to a certain date,’ I cannot withdraw that offer before that date, if the person to whom I made the offer chooses to accept it. It would be different in England, for in the case supposed there would be no consideration for the promise to keep the offer open. But what is the reason of this? It is because the offer as made contained two distinct promises: (1) to sell at a certain price, and (2) to keep the offer open. It seems to me that (2) is completely wanting in the present case. It is just as if a tradesman put up a notice: ‘My price for such-and-such goods during November will be so-and-so.’ That offer may at any time be converted into a contract by a person tendering the price for the goods, but there is no contract that the tradesman may not change his mind and withdraw his offer. Therefore, upon the simple question of contract, I think the argument for the respondents breaks down, and that in my mind disposes of the case.’

Viscount Dunedin, Lord Sumner
[1926] UKHL 1, (1926) 26 Ll L Rep 172, 1927 SC (HL) 32
Bailii
Scotland

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.279688

Goody v Baring: CA 1956

The plaintiff asked the defendant solicitor to act for him in the purchase of a leasehold house. The solicitor was also asked to act for the vendor. The replies he gave, innocently, on behalf of the vendor were inaccurate as to the conditions of the tenancies. The buyer eventually had to repay overcharged rents to the tenants.
Held: The defendant was liable in that he had not questioned the vendor’s answers, but had simply relayed them. In a contract for the sale of land the buyer’s solicitor has a duty to make appropriate enquiries, and where these reveal some encumbrance, to pursue those enquiries. Once contracts have been exchanged, he remains under a duty to request confirmation of the replies given.

[1956] 1 WLR 448, [1956] 2 All ER 11, [1956] Sol Jo 320
England and Wales

Land, Contract, Professional Negligence

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.219178

Jones v Padavatton: CA 29 Nov 1968

A mother had persuaded her daughter to come to England to study for the Bar, promising to allow her to stay in her house Several years later, the daughter had still not passed any Bar examinations. They fell out, and the mother sought possession of the house. The daughter said that there had been a contract.
Held: There was a presumption that cohabitants would not intend to create enforceable contractual obligations between themselves. Fenton Atkinson LJ said: ‘At the time when the first arrangement was made, the mother and daughter were ‘very close’. I am satisfied that neither party at that time intended to enter into a legally binding contract.’ The daughter was unable to establish that the mother had contracted to let her to stay in the house until she finished her Bar studies.

Fenton Atkinson, Danckwerts, Salmon J
LJJ
[1969] 1 WLR 328, [1969] 2 All ER 616, [1968] EWCA Civ 4
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedBalfour v Balfour CA 1919
Mr Balfour had set out in an apparently formal legal way, an agreement to give his wife pounds 30 a month by way of maintenance while he was away in Ceylon. Mrs Balfour sought to enforce the agreement.
Held: Within a family there is a . .

Cited by:
CitedMerritt v Merritt CA 1970
H and W owned their house jointly. When H left for another woman, he signed an agreement to pay Mrs Merritt a monthly sum, and eventually to transfer the house to her if Mrs M kept up the monthly mortgage payments. When the mortgage was paid off Mr . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Family, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.251174

Foster v McNicol and Another: QBD 28 Jul 2016

Incumbent Labour leader did not need nominations

The claimant challenged a decision of the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party to allow its present Leader to stand in the leadership election challenging his position without the need for him to submit first the otherwise standard nominations from a certain percentage of the party.
Held: The challenge failed. Properly read, the rules required nominations from a challenger only. As the incumbent, he was not a challenger, and was not to be required to go through the procedure requiring nomination.
Foskett J summarised the effect of the rules: ‘(a) where there is a vacancy for Leader, anyone who wishes to be considered for the position would require nominations from 15% of the combined Commons members of the PLP and EPLP in order to be a candidate in the election;
(b) where there is no vacancy (because the Leader is still in place), anyone who wishes to challenge the Leader’s right to continue as Leader would need nominations from 20% of the combined Commons members of the PLP and EPLP in order to mount such a challenge;
(c) the Leader would not in that situation (where there is no vacancy) be someone who was a ‘challenger’ for the leadership and, accordingly, would require no nominations in order to compete in the ballot to retain his/her position as Leader.’
It was argued that in attempting to oust the jurisdiction of the court, that part f the rules were void.
Held: Since the question was not directly in issue, a proper resolution must await a case raising it more directly: ‘ because of the court’s reluctance to be drawn into any kind of political debate, I do accept unreservedly that where a decision, certainly about the application of any rule that is ambiguous, requires consideration of background material beyond the precise words used in the rule that has significant political connotations, the NEC may well be better placed than the court to consider those implications and to decide accordingly. In this case, had it been necessary to consider the competing contentions about what were said by each side to be the ‘absurd’ and ‘obviously unintended’ consequences arising from the acceptance of the other side’s view of the meaning of Clause II.B.2(ii), the court would have found itself in the midst of what Mr Henderson correctly characterised as ‘intensely political’ considerations. Because the problem has not arisen, it is not necessary to speculate on what might have been the result, but I highlight the issue because it brings clearly and vividly into focus the importance of recognising the vital dividing line between the world of politics and the world of the law.’

Foskett J
[2016] EWHC 1966 (QB)
Bailii, Judiciary Summmary, Judiciary
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedChoudry and others v Triesman ChD 31-Mar-2003
The applicants sought an order requiring the respondent general secretary of the Labour Party to allow them to stand as candidates for the party in the forthcoming local elections. After allegations about the way in which selection had been carried . .
CitedInvestors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society HL 19-Jun-1997
Account taken of circumstances wihout ambiguity
The respondent gave advice on home income plans. The individual claimants had assigned their initial claims to the scheme, but later sought also to have their mortgages in favour of the respondent set aside.
Held: Investors having once . .
CitedBank of Credit and Commerce International SA v Ali, Khan and others (No 1); BCCI v Ali HL 1-Mar-2001
Cere Needed Releasing Future Claims
A compromise agreement which appeared to claim to settle all outstanding claims between the employee and employer, did not prevent the employee later claiming for stigma losses where, at the time of the agreement, the circumstances which might lead . .
CitedArnold v Britton and Others SC 10-Jun-2015
Absurdity did not defeat a clear clause
A standard lease of plots on a caravan park, contained a provision which appeared to increase the rent by 10% in each year. The tenants argued that such a substantial increase could not have been intended.
Held: The tenants’ appeal failed . .
CitedLee v Showmens Guild of Great Britain CA 1952
Decisions of inferior tribunals, including arbitrators, were reviewable on the basis of general error of law on record for which certiorari might issue. A decision may be reviewable where there was no evidence supporting particular conclusions.
CitedBaker v Jones 1954
There was a dispute within an unincorporated weightlifting association about an alleged misuse of its funds.
Held: Words in an agreement are void to the extent that they seek to oust the jurisdiction of the court.
Lynsey J said: ‘The . .
CitedLeigh v National Union of Railwaymen 1970
. .
CitedJacques v Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers 1986
The rules of a Trades Union are not to be construed as if they were a statute but are ‘to be given a reasonable interpretation which accords with their intended meaning; bearing in mind their authorship, their purpose and the readership to which . .
CitedBritish Equity v Goring CA 1997
Roskill LJ considered the ‘inelegant draftsmanship’ of a trades union’s rules, saying: ‘Some reliance was placed upon the differing and somewhat indiscriminate use of words such as ‘motion,’ ‘resolution’ and ‘questions’ in the various rules as . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Company, Contract, Elections

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.567799

Azimut-Benetti Spa (Benetti Division) v Healey: ComC 3 Sep 2010

The claimant sought summary judgment under a guarantee. The defendant said that the liquidated damages clause under which the claim was made was a penalty clause and unenforceable.
Held: The request for summary judgment was granted.
Blair J said: ‘the evidence clearly shows that the purpose of the clause was not deterrent, and that it was commercially justifiable as providing a balance between the parties upon lawful termination by the builder. I do not accept the defendant’s submission that the court has to form a view as to the maximum possible loss that the parties would have expected to flow from any determination of the contract and the extent to which the stipulated figure for liquidated damages exceeded that maximum possible loss, and that since it cannot do so without extensive disclosure, and factual and expert evidence, the defendant must be permitted to defend the claim. This was a contract for the construction and sale of a very expensive yacht, aptly described in the evidence as a ‘super-yacht’. Both parties had the benefit of expert representation in the conclusion of the contract. The terms, including the liquidated damages clause, were freely entered into. As the authorities referred to above show, in a commercial contract of this kind, what the parties have agreed should normally be upheld.’

Blair J
[2010] EWHC 2234 (Comm), 132 Con LR 113, [2010] TCLR 7, [2010] CILL 2921
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedMurray v Leisureplay Plc CA 28-Jul-2005
The court considered the extent to which the content of negotiations leading up to the signing of a contract were admissible. Arden LJ said: ‘Lord Dunedin in the Dunlop case makes the point that, although the issue is one of construction, the court . .
MentionedGeneral Trading Company (Holdings) Ltd v Richmond Corporation Ltd ComC 3-Jul-2008
. .
CitedDunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company Ltd v New Garage and Motor Company Ltd HL 1-Jul-1914
The appellants contracted through an agent to supply tyres. The respondents contracted not to do certain things, and in case of breach concluded: ‘We agree to pay to the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company, Ltd. the sum of 5 l. for each and every tyre, . .
CitedLordsvale Finance Plc v Bank of Zambia QBD 20-Mar-1996
The court looked at a facility agreement opened by a bank in favour of the defendant which provided that in the event of default the defendant should pay interest during the period of default at an aggregate rate equal to the cost to the bank of . .
CitedCine Bes Filmcilik Ve Yapimcilik and Another v United International Pictures and Others CA 21-Nov-2003
The parties entered into agreements licensing the exclusive distribution of encrypted television channels within Turkey. A clause provided a calculation of damages for a breach amounting to the balance of licence fees due, and other penalties, . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.421760

Robertson v Anderson: IHCS 5 Dec 2002

The parties had agreed to share any winnings from their Bingo activities. One sought to reject the contract as an unenforceable gaming contract.
Held: The contention was rejected. It had been suggested that there had been no intention to create legally binding obligations. A promise given in purely social circumstances might not normally be found to be intended to create a legally binding contract, but it was necessary to look at the actual intentions of the parties, and such an intention might be inferred. It could be inferred here. As to gaming contracts, neither party was betting with the other. The contract related to gaming but was not itself a gaming contract.

Lord MacLean, Kord Reed, Lord Weir
Times 02-Jan-2003, [2002] ScotCS 312
ScotC, Bailii
Scotland
Citing:
CitedSimpkins v Pays 1955
The court found an intention to create legal relations and therefore an enforceable contract among the members of a family to share the winnings in a newspaper competition which the family regularly entered.
Sellers J said: ‘It may well be . .
CitedDawson International plc v Coats Patons plc 1993
When two parties talk about a matter which with commercial significance, a statement by one that he will do something will be construed as obligatory, or as an offer, rather than as a mere statement of intention, if the words and deeds of the other . .
CitedGraham v Pollock IHCS 1848
There was no dispute that a dog race had been won by a dog named Violet, and that Violet had been entered in the race by one of the parties. The issue was whether that party had entered Violet for his own benefit, having borrowed Violet for the . .
CitedCumming v Mackie 1973
The general law of Scotland as to sponsio ludicra is that an action for the recovery of a gaming debt is not maintainable against the party in the gaming contract with whom the bet or wager is made, and it makes no difference to the application of . .
CitedRobertson v Balfour 1938
The rule against enforcing a gaming contract is so clear that the Court will not take cognizance of a supervening contract which is subsidiary to, and flows from, the original gaming contract. The court distinguished these contracts from, this case . .
CitedO’Connell v Russell 1864
An action will not be maintainable if it is, in substance, an action for recovery of money won by a wager on a horse race. . .
CitedLee v Lord Dalmeny ChD 1927
The Court will not enforce an agreement which is part of the gaming contract. . .
CitedKnight and Co v Stott 1892
The Court will hear an action which is connected with a gambling transaction if the connection is merely collateral or incidental. . .
CitedHopkins v Baird 1920
An action for recovery of money lent for gambling is maintainable, save only for the statutory prohibitions. . .
CitedFerguson v Littlewoods Pools Ltd 1997
The court reviewed a decision on the enforceability of gaming contracts.
Held: Different considerations played a part in the development of the rules with different emphases in different cases. In some cases the ground of decision is that the . .
CitedClayton v Clayton 1937
It was alleged that the pursuers and the defender had clubbed together to buy a ticket in an Irish lottery. The ticket was bought in the name of the defender, and a sum of money was won. The action was brought to compel him to share the winnings . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Human Rights, Scotland

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.178692

Geldof Metaalconstructie Nv v Simon Carves Ltd: CA 11 Jun 2010

The parties contracted for the supply and installation of pressure vessels by Geldof (G) for a building constructed by Simon Carves (SC). The contract contained a clause denying the remedy of set-off. G sued for the sale price, and SC now sought an equitable set off of damages for repudiation. The judge had put the question as that it was for SCL to show that there was an ‘inseparable connection’ between claim and counterclaim, and that it would be manifestly unjust to allow the former to be enforced without regard to the latter. He did not find that connection.
Held: The appeal against summary judgment denying the right of set off succeeded. The court examined in depth the development of the law of equitable set off and concluded: ‘I would underline Lord Denning’s test, freed of any reference to the concept of impeachment, as the best restatement of the test, and the one most frequently referred to and applied, namely: ‘cross-claims . . so closely connected with [the plaintiff’s] demands that it would be manifestly unjust to allow him to enforce payment without taking into account the cross-claim’.’ (‘the Nanfri’)
In this case, two contracts were involved.

Maurice Kay VP CA, Rix, Patten LJJ
[2010] EWCA Civ 667, [2010] CILL 2880, [2010] 4 All ER 847, [2011] Bus LR D61, 130 Con LR 37
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedBim Kemi v Blackburn Chemicals Ltd CA 3-Apr-2001
The question was the degree of connection which must be shown between (1) a claim for unliquidated damages for breach of a contract and (2) a cross-claim for unliquidated damages for breach of a different contract between the same parties, in order . .
CitedHanak v Green CA 1958
A builder was sued for his failure to complete the works he had contracted for. The buider sought a set-off against that claim of three of his one claims. One, under the contract, was for losses from the defendant’s refusal to allow his workmen . .
CitedBankes v Jarvis 1903
The plaintiff was his son’s agent. The son purchased a veterinary surgeon’s practice from the defendant, agreeing to pay the rent and indemnify the defendant against liability under a lease of premises from which the practice was carried on. The son . .
CitedAries Tanker Corp v Total Transport Ltd; The Aries HL 1977
Claims for freight charges are an exception to the general rule that all claims between parties must be resolved in one action. A claim for freight cannot be a claim ‘on the same grounds’ as a counter-claim for loss or damage arising out of the . .
FollowedFederal Commerce Ltd v Molena Alpha Inc; (The ‘Nanfri’) CA 1978
The court considered whether claim as against a shipowner could be set off against sums due under a time charter hire.
Held: Save for any contractual provision to the contrary a tenant is entitled to deduct from the rent payable, so as to . .
CitedLeon Corporation v Atlantic Lines and Navigation Co Inc (‘The Leon’) 1985
The court discussed the application of the equitable doctrine of set-off. Justice Hobhouse said: ‘Equitable principles derive from a sense of what justice and fairness demand. This does not mean that equitable set-off has been reduced to an exercise . .
CitedFederal Commerce Ltd v Molena Alpha Inc (The Nanfri) HL 1979
The charterers of three ships on time charter had made deductions from time charter hire payments which the shipowners regarded as unjustified. In retaliation the shipowners purported to revoke the authority of the Charterers (to be implied under . .
CitedDole Dried Fruit and Nut Co v Trustin Kerwood Ltd CA 1990
The defendant had an exclusive distributorship agency for the plaintiff in England. Under that agreement, the plaintiff sold its prunes and raisins to the defendant under separate contracts of sale. The plaintiff claimed the price of goods sold . .
CitedGovernment of Newfoundland v Newfoundland Railway PC 7-Feb-1888
A railway company and its assignees brought action the Government. Under the contract the company was to build a railway subsidised by the government. The railway was not completed. The parties disputed whether the contract was ‘entire’ and no part . .
CitedRawson v Samuel 15-Apr-1841
Cottenham LC said: ‘We speak familiarly of equitable set-off as distinguished from set-off at law, but it will be found that this equitable set-off exists in cases where the party seeking the benefit of it can show some equitable ground for being . .
CitedModern Engineering (Bristol) Ltd v Gilbert Ash (Northern) Ltd HL 1974
The court considered how to construe a clause in a contract which excluded a remedy provided by law. Lord Diplock said: ‘It is, of course, open to parties to a contract . . to exclude by express agreement a remedy for its breach which would . .
CitedEsso Petroleum Company Ltd v Milton CA 5-Feb-1997
A direct debit arrangement is tantamount to a payment by cash and so precludes the use of the defence of set-off for non-payment. . .
CitedEsso Petroleum Company Ltd v Mardon CA 6-Feb-1976
Statements had been made by employees of Esso in the course of pre-contractual negotiations with Mr Mardon, the prospective tenant of a petrol station. The statements related to the potential throughput of the station. Mr Mardon was persuaded by the . .
CitedStocznia Gdynia Sa v Gearbulk Holdings Ltd CA 13-Feb-2009
Orders were placed for the construction of ships. They were not delivered. The buyer, the defendant, cancelled the orders. The defendants sought the loss of profit. The claimants said they were entitled only to the repayment of instalments. The . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Equity

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.416737

Taylor and Another v Caldwell and Another: QBD 6 May 1863

The defendants had agreed to hire a hall to give four concerts, but it burned down before they were to start.
Held: Blackburn J said: ‘where, from the nature of the contract, it appears that the parties must from the beginning have known that it could not be fulfilled unless when the time for the fulfilment of the contract arrived some particular specified thing continued to exist, so that, when entering into the contract, they must have contemplated such continuing existence as the foundation of what was to be done; there, in the absence of any express or implied warranty that the thing shall exist, the contract is not to be construed as a positive contract, but as subject to an implied condition that the parties shall be excused in case, before breach, performance becomes impossible from the perishing of the thing without default of the contractor. ‘ and ‘Although the Civil law is not of itself authority in an English Court, it affords great assistance in investigating the principles on which the law is grounded. And it seems to us that the common law authorities establish that in such a contract the same condition of the continued existence of the thing is implied by English law. ‘

Blackburn J
[1863] EWHC QB J1, (1863) 3 B and S 826, [1863] EngR 526, (1863) 122 ER 309
Bailii, Commonlii
Citing:
CitedParadine v Jane KBD 26-Mar-1647
The defendant tenant had had his house occupied by an invading army and he sought to be excused from paying rent.
Held: ‘where the law creates a duty or charge, and the party is disabled to perform it without any default in him, and hath no . .

Cited by:
CitedKrell v Henry CA 1903
Mr Henry contracted to rent a flat located on Pall Mall from the plaintiff, Paul Krell for the daytime and on the days of the forthcoming cornation procession.. He was told that he would have an excellent view of, but this was not written down. He . .
CitedNational Carriers Ltd v Panalpina (Northern) Ltd HL 11-Dec-1980
No Frustration of Lease through loss of access
The tenant’s access to the premises was closed by the local authority because it passed by a derelict and dangerous building. The tenant argued that its tenancy was frustrated.
Held: The lease was not frustrated. The lease had a term of ten . .
CitedGamerco Sa v ICM Fair Warning (Agency) Ltd and Another QBD 31-Mar-1995
The plaintiff Spanish concert promoter, and the defendant rock group, Guns ‘n’ Roses, agreed to provide a concert at the stadium of Atetico Madrid, but shortly before it was due to take place, the stadium was deemed unfit, and its licence withdrawn. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.245442

Tiverton Estates Ltd v Wearwell Ltd: CA 1975

“Subject to Contract” not to be diluted

‘subject to contract’ proposals remain in negotiation until a formal contract is executed. Lord Denning MR said: ‘for over a hundred years, the courts have held that the effect of the words ‘subject to contract’ is that the matter remains in negotiation until a formal contract is executed’ It was vital that the meaning and effect of the phrase must not be diluted. As to the required memorandum, it must contain a recognition of the existence of the prior contract and must state its terms.
Lord Denning MR said: ‘These courts are masters of their own procedure and can do what is right even though it is not contained in the rules.’
Stamp LJ said that a memorandum must, to satisfy the section, recognise the contract.

Lord Denning MR, Stamp LJ, Scarman LJ
[1975] Ch 146
Law of Property Act 1925 40
England and Wales
Citing:
ApprovedClearbrook Property Holdings Limited v Verrier ChD 1974
The issue was whether a caution registered in the Land Registry by a plaintiff purchaser who was claiming specific performance of an agreement for sale should be vacated. The effect of the vacation of the caution was that the plaintiff’s claim for . .
IncorrectLaw v Jones 1974
A ‘subject to contract’ document might be evidence of an antecedent or oral contract and satisfy section 40 of the Law of Property Act 1925 if the stipulation was later waived. A memorandum or note must, if it is to be effective, not only state the . .

Cited by:
CitedCarlton Communications Plc, Granada Media Plc v The Football League ComC 1-Aug-2002
The applicants sought a declaration that they had not provided guarantees to support a contract between a joint venture company owned by them, OnDigital, and the respondent to screen football matches. The company had become insolvent.
Held: . .
CitedIrani v Irani and others ChD 24-Jul-2006
The deceased had effectively settled his divorce ancillary relief proceedings by promising to leave a property by will to to his former wife, the claimant. He signed a document which appeared to be intended to give effect to his undertaking, but the . .
CitedNorth Eastern Properties Ltd v Coleman and Another CA 19-Mar-2010
The appellants challenged specific performance orders obliging them to complete the purchase of apartments, saying that the contracts had not complied with the 1989 Act, and that their repudiation of the contracts had been accepted. The contracts . .
CitedGolden Ocean Group Ltd v Salgaocar Mining Industries Pvt Ltd and Another ComC 21-Jan-2011
The defendants sought to set aside orders allowing the claimants to serve proceedings alleging repudiation of a charterparty in turn allowing a claim against the defendants under a guarantee. The defendant said the guarantee was unenforceable under . .
CitedGolden Ocean Group Ltd v Salgaocar Mining Industries Pvt Ltd and Another CA 9-Mar-2012
The court was asked ‘whether a contract of guarantee is enforceable where contained not in a single document signed by the guarantor but in a series of documents duly authenticated by the signature of the guarantor. It is common in commercial . .
CitedNugent v Nugent ChD 20-Dec-2013
The court was asked whether the court has, following the the 2002 Act, an inherent power to order the cancellation of a unilateral notice registered against a title registered under the 2002 Act and, if so, in what circumstances, and how, such a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Land, Contract, Litigation Practice

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.183017

Heilbut Symons and Co v Buckleton: HL 11 Nov 1912

In an action of damages for fraudulent misrepresentation and breach of warranty, the plaintiff founded on a conversation between himself and the defendants’ representative. In this conversation the plaintiff said-‘I understand that you are bringing out a rubber company.’ The reply was-‘We are.’ The plaintiff then asked ‘if it was all right,’ and received the answer-‘We are bringing it out,’ to which he replied-‘That is good enough for me.’ He thereupon applied for and received an allotment of 5000 shares in the company at a premium, which subsequently fell in value. A jury having negatived fraudulent misrepresentation, but found that the company could not properly be described as a rubber company, and that the defendants had given a warranty to that effect, held that the intention to constitute a representation of the seller a warranty must be clearly proved, that the evidence put before the jury was insufficient to prove such intention, and should therefore not have been submitted by the judge to the jury as material on which to base a finding. The House considered the genesis of collateral contracts: ‘there may be a contract the consideration for which is the making of some other contract, ‘If you will make such and such a contract I will give you one hundred pounds’, is in every sense of the word a complete legal contract. It is collateral to the main contract.’ and
‘such collateral contracts must from their very nature be rare . . the more natural and usual way of carrying this out would be by so modifying the main contract and not by executing a concurrent and collateral contract. Such collateral contracts . . are therefore viewed with suspicion by the law. They must be proved strictly. Not only the terms of such contract but the existence of an animus contrahendi on the part of all the parties to them must be clearly shown.’ An innocent misrepresentation gives no right to damages.
Speaking as to De Lasalle v. Guildford: ‘With all deference to the authority of the Court that decided that case, the proposition which it thus formulates cannot be supported. It is clear that the Court did not intend to depart from the law laid down by Holt CJ. And cited above, for in the same judgment that dictum is referred to and accepted as a correct statement of the law. It is, therefore, evidence that the use of the phrase ‘decisive test’ cannot be defended. Otherwise it would be the duty of a judge to direct a jury that if a vendor states a fact of which the buyer is ignorant, they must, as a matter of law, find the existence of a warranty, whether or not the totality of the evidence shows that the parties intended the affirmation to form part of the contract; and this would be inconsistent with the law as laid down by Holt CJ. It may well be that the features thus referred to in the judgment of the Court of Appeal in that case may be criteria of value in guiding a jury in coming to a decision whether or not a warranty was intended; but they cannot be said to furnish decisive tests, because it cannot be said as a matter of law that the presence or absence of those features is conclusive of the intention of the parties. The intention of the parties can only be deduced from the totality of the evidence, and no secondary principles of such a kind can be universally true.’ It is of the greatest importance to ‘maintain in its full integrity the principle that a person is not liable in damages for an innocent misrepresentation, no matter in what way or under what form the attack is made.’
Investors in a new company claimed to have done so only on the basis of an alleged representation in the company’s name and by an intermediary that it was a rubber company. They sought damages when the company failed, saying that the representatin was a warranty.
Held: The appeal succeeded. The plaintiff had not shown that he had relied on any such representation, but rather on the general reputation of the appellants. Lord Moulton set out how to decide whether a clause was a warranty ‘The intention of the parties can only be deduced from the totality of the evidence’. The question whether a warranty was intended depends on the conduct of the parties, on their words and behaviour, rather than on their thoughts. If an intelligent bystander would reasonably infer that a warranty was intended, that will suffice. And this, when the facts are not in dispute, is a question of law.

Viscount Haldane LC, Lord Moulton
[1911-13] All ER 83, [1913] 82 LJKB 245, [1913] 107 LT 769, [1912] UKHL 2, [1913] AC 30, (1912) 107 LT 769, [1912] UKHL 642
Bailii, Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedDe Lasalle v Guildford CA 1901
When looking at a statement to see if a warranty was given: ‘In determining whether it was so intended, a decisive test is whether the vendor assumes to assert a fact of which the buyer is ignorant, or merely states an opinion or judgment upon a . .
CitedBrownlie v Campbell; Brownlie v Miller HL 1880
Silence where there is a duty to speak, may amount to a misrepresentation. Lord Blackburn said: ‘where there is a duty or an obligation to speak, and a man in breach of that duty or obligation holds his tongue and does not speak, and does not say . .
CitedChandelor v Lopus 1603
The plaintiff sued for an alleged misrepresentation as to the character of a precious stone sold to him.
Held: The plaintiff must either declare on a contract, or if he declared in tort for a misrepresentation must aver a scienter. . .
CitedPasley v Freeman 1789
Tort of Deceit Set Out
The court considered the tort of deceit. A representation by one person that another person was creditworthy was actionable if made fraudulently. A false affirmation made by the defendant with intent to defraud the plaintiff, whereby the plaintiff . .
CitedMedina v Stoughton 1699
. .
CitedPeek v Derry CA 1887
The court considered an action for damages for deceit: ‘As I understand the law, it is not necessary that the mis-statement should be the motive, in the sense of the only motive, the only inducement of a party who has acted to his prejudice so to . .
CitedDerry v Peek HL 1-Jul-1889
The House heard an action for damages for deceit or fraudulent misrepresentation.
Held: The court set out the requirements for fraud, saying that fraud is proved when it is shown that a false representation has been made knowingly or without . .
CriticisedDe Lassalle v Guildford CA 1901
The court was asked whether a representation amounts to a warranty or not.
Held: AL Smith MR said: ‘In determining whether it was so intended, a decisive test is whether the vendor assumes to assert a fact of which the buyer is ignorant, or . .

Cited by:
CitedStewart v Perth and Kinross Council HL 1-Apr-2004
The claimant challenged refusal of a licence to sell second hand cars, saying that the licensing requirements imposed were outwith the Act under which they had been made. The licensing scheme imposed additional requirements.
Held: Though a . .
CitedHedley Byrne and Co Ltd v Heller and Partners Ltd HL 28-May-1963
Banker’s Liability for Negligent Reference
The appellants were advertising agents. They were liable themselves for advertising space taken for a client, and had sought a financial reference from the defendant bankers to the client. The reference was negligent, but the bankers denied any . .
CitedEsso Petroleum Limited v Commissioners of Customs and Excise HL 10-Dec-1975
The company set up a scheme to promote their petrol sales. They distributed coins showing the heads of members of the English football team for the 1970 World Cup. One coin was given with each for gallons of petrol. The Commissioners said that the . .
CitedBlackpool and Fylde Aero Club Ltd v Blackpool Borough Council CA 25-May-1990
The club had enjoyed a concession from the council to operate pleasure flights from the airport operated by the council. They were invited to bid for a new concession subject to strict tender rules. They submitted the highest bid on time, but the . .
CitedOscar Chess Ltd v Williams CA 11-Nov-1956
Where somebody warrants something, the person giving the warranty binds himself or herself to it. Lord Denning suggested that the test of an interpretation was what an intelligent bystander would reasonably infer contracting parties had agreed upon. . .
CitedEvans and Son (Portsmouth) Ltd v Andrea Merzario Ltd CA 1976
The defendants had carried previously goods aboard ship for the plaintiffs. This time, they were asked for and gave an oral re-assurance to the plaintiffs that the goods would be carried below deck. This did not happen and the goods were swept . .
CitedDick Bentley Productions Ltd v Harold Smith (Motors) Ltd CA 3-Mar-1965
When a person gives a promise or an assurance to another, intending that he should act on it by entering into a contract, and he does act on it by entering into the contract, it is binding.
Lord Denning MR said of a collateral warranty: . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Torts – Other

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.265974

Brown and Davis Ltd v Galbraith: CA 1972

The defendant’s car was damaged in a collision. It was taken to the plaintiff’s garage for repair. The defendant’s insurers contracted with the defendant to pay for the repairs for a specified amount. The plaintiff carried out repair work, and the defendant collected the car. The defendant did not agree that the repairs were satisfactory, and so the insurers refused to pay.
Held: The defendant’s appeal succeeded. The repair works were undertaken pursuant to two contracts: first, a contract with the insurer, under which the insurer agreed to pay for all the work covered by the insurance; second, a contract with the defendant, under which the plaintiff was obliged to carry out the works efficiently and expeditiously and the defendant was obliged to pay such part of the cost as was not covered by insurance, including the policy excess. When the insurer became insolvent, the defendant was not liable for the balance of the price.
Cairns LJ said: ‘In order to imply a promise by the owner to pay for these repairs, it is necessary to say not merely that it would be a businesslike arrangement to make but that any other arrangement would be so unbusinesslike that sensible people could not be supposed to have entered into it. It appears to me that it is very doubtful whether it could be said that it would be a businesslike arrangement to make, and I certainly am not prepared to say that it was so obvious a term that it ought to be implied in order to give business efficacy to the transaction. This being so, in my opinion it is not established that the owner ever contracted to pay for these repairs beyond the amount of the excess . .’
Buckley LJ agreed, saying: ‘Now, the inference of such an implied contract [i.e. that the defendant would be liable to pay the full amount] can, in my judgment, only be drawn if it is a matter of necessary inference, that is to say, if it is an inference which the business realities of the situation really make necessary to make sense of the dealings between the parties so that they can be implemented in a sensible manner. In my judgment, there is no sufficient material to be found either in the documentation in this case or in the oral evidence of the witnesses to support such an inference. On the contrary, it seems to me . . that all the indications, such as they are, are to the contrary. None of them individually is such as to make the matter clear beyond a peradventure, but taking them together, in my judgment, they clearly indicate that the arrangement between the parties was that the repairers would look to the insurance company for payment for the repairs, except to the extent of the excess . . That view of the agreement or agreements between the three parties is . . consistent with the documentary history of the matter, and particularly with the way in which the work was invoiced by the repairers. Of course, things which occur after the date at which the contract must have been entered into cannot alter the nature of the contract, but they may very well form valuable evidence showing what the parties conceived the contract to be.’

Cairns LJ, Buckley LJ
[1972] 1 WLR 997
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedAJ Building and Plastering Ltd v Turner and Others QBD 11-Mar-2013
An insurance company had engaged a main contractor to handle repairs to houses insured under its policies. The contractor had engaged the claimant subcontractor to carry out the works at the defendants’ homes, but then went into insolvent . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.471873

Central London Property Trust Ltd v High Trees House Ltd: KBD 1947

Promissory Estoppel Created

The plaintiff leased a block a flats to the defendant in 1939, at an annual rental of pounds 2500. High Trees had difficulty in filling the flats because of the war, and the parties agreed in writing in 1940 to reduce the rental to a half. No time period for the reduction was set. High Trees paid the reduced rent for five years and by late 1945, the flats were full. Central London sought to re-instate the full rent from the second half of 1945, as the war ended.
Held: The 1940 agreement was intended to accommodate the peculiar circumstances brought about by war and so lasted only as long as the war. With the flats full by 1945, and now that the war had ended, the variation no longer applied. Central London was now entitled to the full rental. (Obiter) An action for arrears for the years 1940-45 would have failed. The plaintiff was subject to a promissory estoppel. It had made a promise. The defendant had relied upon that promise, and despite the absence of consideration, it would have been unjust to have allowed such a claim. This was an estoppel, a rule of evidence, preventing an ‘unjust departure by a party from an assumption of fact which he has caused another party to adopt or accept for the purpose of their legal relations’.
Denning J said: ‘where parties enter into an arrangement which is intended to create legal relations between them and in pursuance of such arrangement one party makes a promise to the other which he knows will be acted on and which is in fact acted on by the promissee, the court will treat the promise as binding on the promisor to the extent that it will not allow him to act inconsistently with it even although the promise may not be supported by consideration in the strict sense and the effect of the arrangement made is to vary the terms of a contract under seal by one of less value.’

Denning J
[1947] 1 KB 130, [1956] 1 All ER 256, [1947] LJR 77, [1947] 175 LT 332, [1947] 62 TLR 557
England and Wales
Citing:
AppliedHughes v Metropolitan Railway Co HL 1877
A notice to repair had been served by the landlord on the tenant. The tenant wrote offering to buy the premises and proposed deferring the commencement of repairs until the landlord responded. The landlord replied by letter asking the price. It was . .
CitedBirmingham and District Land Co v London and North Western Railway CA 1886
The court considered the creation of an estoppel: Cotton LJ: ‘. . what passed did not make a new agreement, but . . what took place . . raised an equity against him.’
Bowen LJ said: ‘The truth is that the proposition is wider than cases of . .

Cited by:
CitedDun and Bradstreet Software Services (England) Ltd; Dun and Bradstreet Software Services Ltd v Provident Mutual Life Assurance Association and General Accident Linked Life Assurance CA 9-Jun-1997
Break clauses had been exercised on behalf of the plaintiffs. The defendant landlords appealed a decision upholding the notices. A penalty rent had been sought.
Held: There had been no sufficient agency established to validate the notice. The . .
ExplainedCombe v Combe CA 1951
The defendant husband had promised his wife to allow her andpound;100 a year free of tax, without his wife furnishing any consideration for the promise. On his failing to pay, she sued on the promise.
Held: Her claim failed. The court declined . .
CitedSmith v Lawson CA 5-Jun-1997
. .
CitedThe Prudential Assurance Company Ltd v Ayres and Grew ChD 3-Apr-2007
The defendants argued that they were not liable as guarantors under an Authorised Guarantee Agreement for a lease when the assignee tenant had become insolvent.
Held: The guarantors were liable provided that the extent of the claim did not . .
CitedCollier v P and M J Wright (Holdings) Ltd CA 14-Dec-2007
Agreement for payment by joint debtor not contract
The claimant appealed against refusal of an order to set aside a statutory demand. He said that he had compromised a claim by the creditors. He argued for an extension to the Rule in Pinnel’s case, so that where a debtor agrees to pay part of a . .
CitedD and C Builders Ltd v Rees CA 1966
The plaintiff builders had been chasing payment of their undisputed invoice. Knowing that the builders were in financial difficulties, the defendant offered rather less, saying that if it was not accepted, she would pay nothing. She made the payment . .
CitedWestern Fish Products Ltd v Penwith District Council and Another CA 22-May-1978
Estoppel Cannot Oust Statutory Discretion
The plaintiff had been refused planning permission for a factory. The refusals were followed by the issue of Enforcement Notices and Stop Notices. The plaintiff said that they had been given re-assurances upon which they had relied.
Held: The . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Estoppel, Landlord and Tenant, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.188168

Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co: CA 7 Dec 1892

Unilateral Contract Liability

The defendants advertised ‘The Carbolic Smoke Ball,’ in the Pall Mall Gazette, saying ‘pounds 100 reward will be paid by the Carbolic Smoke Ball Company to any person who contracts the increasing epidemic influenza, colds, or any disease caused by taking cold, after having used the ball three times daily for two weeks according to the printed directions.’ The plaintiff bought one and used it, but suffered influenza. Hawkins J had held that she was entitled to recover the pounds 100. The defendants appealed.
Held: The appeal failed. A contract had been made. The offer was a unilateral contract capable of acceptance by anyone satisfying the conditions. Notification of performance was not required to show acceptance. That the company intended this as a serious offer was reflected by their placing pounds 1000 on deposit for the purpose.
Lindley LJ said: ‘We must first consider whether this was intended to be a promise at all, or whether it was a mere puff which meant nothing. Was it a mere puff? My answer to that question is ‘No,’ and I base my answer upon this passage: ‘andpound;1000 is deposited with the Alliance Bank, shewing our sincerity in the matter.’ Now, for what was that money deposited or that statement made except to negative the suggestion that this was a mere puff and meant nothing at all? The deposit is called in aid by the advertiser as a proof of his sincerity in the matter-that is, the sincerity of his promise to pay this andpound;100 in the event which he has specified. I say this for the purpose of giving point to the observation that we are not inferring a promise; there is the promise, as plain as words can make it. There was ample consideration for the promise.’

Lindley LJ, Bowen LJ, Smith LJ
[1893] 1 QB 256, [1892] 4 All ER Rep 127, [1892] 62 LJ QB 257, [1892] 67 LT 837, [1892] 57 JP 325, [1892] 41 WR 210, [1892] 9 TLR 124, [1892] 4 R 176, [1892] EWCA Civ 1
lip, Hamlyn, Justis, Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedGerhard v Bates 1853
The promoter of companies had promised the bearers of share warrants that they should have dividends for so many years, and the promise as alleged was held not to shew any consideration.
Held: Any promise had been made to the original bearer . .
CitedSpencer v Harding 1870
Willes J considered what promise had been made where parties had bid in response to an advertisement, and the bidder sought to enforce the contract: ‘In the advertisement cases, there never was any doubt that the advertisement amounted to a promise . .
CitedLaythoarp v Bryant 30-Apr-1936
laythoarp_bryant1836
The Defendant purchased certain leasehold premises at an auction, and signed a memorandum of the purchase on the back of a paper containing the particulars of the premises, the name of the owner, and the conditions of sale: Held, that the Defendant . .
CitedHarris’s Case 1584
. .
CitedVictors v Davies 1854
. .
CitedBrogden v Metropolitan Railway Co HL 1877
The parties wished to contract to sell and buy coal. A draft was supplied by the railway company to the supplier once head terms were agreed. The draft was returned with minor additions and the proposed name of an arbitrator. The coal was then . .

Cited by:
ConsideredPharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemists (Southern) Ltd QBD 16-Jul-1952
The Society was responsible for ensuring that sales of controlled pharmaceuticals only took place under the supervision of a pharmacist. The defendants had adopted supermarket style arrangements where the purchaser selected the goods and took them . .
ConsideredEntores Ltd v Miles Far East Corporation CA 1955
The plaintiff traded from London, and telexed an offer to purchase cathodes to a company in Holland, who signified their acceptance by return, again by telex. Entores later wanted to sue the defendant, the parent company of the Dutch party. It was . .
Referred toRe Consort Deep Level Gold Mines ex parte Stark 1897
. .
CitedStolley v Maskelyne 1898
. .
CitedJohnston v Boyes 1899
There is no custom that a purchaser at an auction can expect to have his personal cheque for a ten per cent deposit accepted. This applies even to those with a good credit standing as much as (here) for an apparent pauper.
Cozens Hardy J said . .
CitedChaplin v Hicks CA 1911
A woman who was wrongly deprived of the chance of being one of the winners in a beauty competition was awarded damages for loss of a chance. The court did not attempt to decide on balance of probability the hypothetical past event of what would have . .
CitedReynolds v Atherton 1921
. .
CitedKennedy v Thomassen 1929
No binding contract comes into existence where the acceptance was never communicated or was communicated only to the acceptor’s own agent. . .
CitedRayfield v Hands 1958
. .
CitedRapalli v K L Take Ltd 1958
. .
CitedRobophone Facilities Ltd v Bank CA 1966
Parties to a contract should be free to stipulate not only primary obligations and rights but also the secondary rights and obligations, ie those which arise upon non-performance of any primary obligation by one of the parties to the contract, but . .
CitedUnited Dominions Trust (Commercial) Ltd v Eagle Aircraft Services Ltd Ltd; United Dominions Trust (Commercial) Ltd v Eagle Aviation Ltd CA 1968
An aircraft manufacturer was obliged under contract to buy back an aircraft from a hire purchase company on three conditions. (1) when the hire purchase company foreclosed on the purchasers, (2) where the manufacturer had been given notice of the . .
CitedConfetti Records (A Firm), Fundamental Records, Andrew Alcee v Warner Music UK Ltd (Trading As East West Records) ChD 23-May-2003
An agreement was made for the assignment of the copyright in a music track, but it remained ‘subject to contract’. The assignor later sought to resile from the assignment.
Held: It is standard practice in the music licensing business for a . .
CitedBowerman and Another v Association of British Travel Agents Ltd CA 21-Nov-1995
The claimant was to take part in a school skiing trip. The first operator was a member of the defendant association, and ceased trading through insolvency.
Held: The ABTA notice displayed in the travel agent’s offices created a contract . .
CitedEsso Petroleum Limited v Commissioners of Customs and Excise HL 10-Dec-1975
The company set up a scheme to promote their petrol sales. They distributed coins showing the heads of members of the English football team for the 1970 World Cup. One coin was given with each for gallons of petrol. The Commissioners said that the . .
CitedSoulsbury v Soulsbury CA 10-Oct-2007
The claimant was the first wife of the deceased. She said that the deceased had promised her a substantial cash sum in his will in return for not pursuing him for arrears of maintenance. The will made no such provision, and she sought payment from . .
CitedBlackpool and Fylde Aero Club Ltd v Blackpool Borough Council CA 25-May-1990
The club had enjoyed a concession from the council to operate pleasure flights from the airport operated by the council. They were invited to bid for a new concession subject to strict tender rules. They submitted the highest bid on time, but the . .
CitedDresdner Kleinwort Ltd and Another v Attrill and Others CA 26-Apr-2013
The bank appealed against judgment against it on claims by former senior employees for contractual discretionary bonuses.
Held: The appeal failed. The bank’s unilateral promise made within the context of an existing employment relationship to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.183107

Turnbull and Co v Duval: PC 1902

Mr Duval owed three separate sums to a firm Turnbull and Co including andpound;1,000 owed to the Jamaican branch for beer. Turnbulls’ manager and agent in Jamaica was a Mr Campbell. Mr Campbell was also an executor and trustee of a will under which Mrs Duval had a beneficial interest. Mr Campbell threatened to stop supplying beer to Mr Duval unless security was given for the debts owed and, with Mr Campbell’s knowledge, a document was prepared under which Mrs Duval charged her beneficial interest under the will to secure the payment of all debts owed by Mr Duval to Turnbull i.e. not only the money owed for beer but all the debts. Mr Duval put pressure on Mrs Duval to sign the document. She was under the impression that the document was to secure the beer debt only.
Held: A transaction may be set aside for misrepresentation or undue influence whether it was procured by the misrepresentation or undue influence of the party seeking to uphold the transaction or that of a third party.
Lord Lindley: ‘In the face of such evidence, their Lordships are of opinion that it is quite impossible to uphold the security given by Mrs. Duval. It is open to the double objection of having been obtained by a trustee from his cestui que trust by pressure through her husband and without independent advice, and of having been obtained by a husband from his wife by pressure and concealment of material facts. Whether the security could be upheld if the only ground for impeaching it was that Mrs. Duval had no independent advice has not really to be determined. Their Lordships are not prepared to say it could not. But there is an additional and even stronger ground for impeaching it. It is, in their Lordships’ opinion, quite clear that Mrs. Duval was pressed by her husband to sign, and did sign, the document, which was very different from what she supposed it to be, and a document of the true nature of which she had no conception. It is impossible to hold that Campbell or Turnbull and Co. are unaffected by such pressure and ignorance. They left everything to Duval, and must abide the consequences.’

Lord Lindley
[1902] AC 429
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedBarclays Bank Plc v O’Brien and Another HL 21-Oct-1993
The wife joined in a charge on the family home to secure her husband’s business borrowings. The husband was found to have misrepresented to her the effect of the deed, and the bank had been aware that she might be reluctant to sign the deed.
CitedRoyal Bank of Scotland v Etridge (No 2); Barclays Bank plc v Harris; Midland Bank plc v Wallace, etc HL 11-Oct-2001
Wives had charged the family homes to secure their husband’s business borrowings, and now resisted possession orders, claiming undue influence.
Held: Undue influence is an equitable protection created to undo the effect of excess influence of . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Undue Influence

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.180580

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemists (Southern) Ltd: QBD 16 Jul 1952

The Society was responsible for ensuring that sales of controlled pharmaceuticals only took place under the supervision of a pharmacist. The defendants had adopted supermarket style arrangements where the purchaser selected the goods and took them to a till. The Society said that a sale took place when the goods were selected, and at a time when the transaction was unsupervised. ‘The question is whether the offer is an offer of the purchaser, or an offer of the buyer.’
Held: There was in principle no difference between the supermarket type arrangement and an ordinary shop. ‘The mere exposure of goods for sale by a shopkeeper indicates to the public that he is willing to treat but does not amount to an offer to sell. I do not think I ought to hold that that principle is completerly reversed merely because there is a self-service scheme, such as this, in operation. In my opinion it comes to no more than that the customer is informed that he may himself pick up an article and bring it to the shopkeeper with a view to buying it, and if, but only if, the shopkeeper then expresses his willingness to sell, the contract for sale is completed. In fact, the offer is an offer to buy, and there is no offer to sell. . . ‘ There is no sale until acceptance of the price at the till. The shopkeeper has to be free to refuse to sell, and the buyer free to pick something up without having immediately bought it. ‘The offer, the acceptance of the price, and therefore the sale, take place under the supervision of the pharmacist.’

Lord Goddard CJ
[1952] 2 All ER 456, [1952] 2 QB 795, [1953] EWCA Civ 6
Bailii
Pharmacy and Poisons Act 1933 18(1)(a)(iii)
England and Wales
Citing:
ConsideredCarlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co CA 7-Dec-1892
Unilateral Contract Liability
The defendants advertised ‘The Carbolic Smoke Ball,’ in the Pall Mall Gazette, saying ‘pounds 100 reward will be paid by the Carbolic Smoke Ball Company to any person who contracts the increasing epidemic influenza, colds, or any disease caused by . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromPharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemists (Southern) Ltd CA 5-Feb-1953
The defendant was charged with selling controlled pharmaceutical products other than under the supervision of a pharmacist. The shop operated on a self-service basis. The Society appealed.
Held: The acquittal was confirmed. Somervell LJ said: . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.183108

AJ Building and Plastering Ltd v Turner and Others: QBD 11 Mar 2013

An insurance company had engaged a main contractor to handle repairs to houses insured under its policies. The contractor had engaged the claimant subcontractor to carry out the works at the defendants’ homes, but then went into insolvent liquidation before the works were paid for. The claimant now sought payment direct from the insured. The defendants denied any contract with the claimant, despite mandates signed by them.
Held: The claims failed. It was both a perfectly possible reading of the mandate and far more consonant with the commercial common sense of the situation to interpret it to mean that, although the insurer will be responsible for paying the cost of the insured losses, the householder will remain liable for all other costs, namely the policy excess and any works not covered by the insurance.
The court considered the possible application of the contra preferentem rule: ‘The fact that the contra proferentem rule is a matter of common law whereas regulation 7 (2) is a creature of statute is no reason to differentiate between their applications; the 1999 Regulations give wholesale effect to a European Directive and it is unnecessary to suppose that they were intended to affect the common law relating to contractual interpretation. The occasions on which the principle of construction and the common-law rule apply are the same: their operation is limited to cases of genuine interpretative doubt or ambiguity’
The contracts were to be determined on the standard rules for construction. If the terms were unambiguous then the 1999 Regulation had no application, and ‘ it is impermissible to prejudge the construction of the mandates by presupposing an analysis that ignores them. The mandates were in fact signed. A common reason for having written express contracts is to impose and assume liabilities that would not otherwise be implied.’

Keyser QC J
[2013] EWHC 484 (QB)
Bailii
Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999 7
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedInvestors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society HL 19-Jun-1997
Account taken of circumstances wihout ambiguity
The respondent gave advice on home income plans. The individual claimants had assigned their initial claims to the scheme, but later sought also to have their mortgages in favour of the respondent set aside.
Held: Investors having once . .
CitedChartbrook Ltd v Persimmon Homes Ltd and Others HL 1-Jul-2009
Mutual Knowledge admissible to construe contract
The parties had entered into a development contract in respect of a site in Wandsworth, under which balancing compensation was to be paid. They disagreed as to its calculation. Persimmon sought rectification to reflect the negotiations.
Held: . .
CitedSt Edmundsbury and Ipswich Diocesan Board of Finance v Clark (No.2) CA 1973
When looking at a contract ‘one must construe the document according to the natural meaning of the words contained in the document as a whole, read in the light of surrounding circumstances.’
The contra preferetem rule can only come into play . .
CitedMira Oil Resources of Tortola v Bocimar NV ChD 1999
Colman J discussed the application of the contra preferentem rule: ‘Further, this is not a case where the meaning of the words is so finely balanced that the contra proferentum rule should be applied in favour of the owners. If in the view of the . .
CitedAssociation of British Travel Agents Ltd v British Airways Plc CA 2000
Sedley LJ described the common-law rule of contra preferentem, that any doubt as to the meaning of contractual words will be resolved by construing them against the party that put them forward, as ‘a principle not only of law but of justice’ and . .
ApprovedThe Financial Services Authority v Asset L I Inc and Others ChD 8-Feb-2013
The court was asked whether so-called ‘land-banking’ schemes were ‘collective investments schemes’ within section 235.
Held: Andrew Smith J discussed the difference in effect between the contra preferentem rule, and regulation 7 of the 1999 . .
CitedRainy Sky Sa and Others v Kookmin Bank SC 2-Nov-2011
Commercial Sense Used to Interpret Contract
The Court was asked as to the role of commercial good sense in the construction of a term in a contract which was open to alternative interpretations.
Held: The appeal succeeded. In such a case the court should adopt the more, rather than the . .
CitedPink Floyd Music Ltd and Another v EMI Records Ltd CA 14-Dec-2010
The defendant appealed against an order made on the claimant’s assertion that there were due to it substantial underpayments of royalties over many years. The issues were as to the construction of licensing agreements particularly in the context of . .
CitedDirect Travel Insurance v McGeown CA 12-Nov-2003
The contra proferentem interpretation rule is to be invoked only in cases of genuine doubt or ambiguity. Auld LJ said: ‘A court should be wary of starting its analysis by finding an ambiguity by reference to the words in question looked at on their . .
CitedDu Plessis v Fontgary Leisure Parks Ltd CA 2-Apr-2012
The claimant, who owned a holiday mobile home on the respondent’s site challenged the raising of site fees, saying that the contract was unfair. Previously all site fees were equal within the site, but the respondent had introduced a scheme which . .
CitedBrown and Davis Ltd v Galbraith CA 1972
The defendant’s car was damaged in a collision. It was taken to the plaintiff’s garage for repair. The defendant’s insurers contracted with the defendant to pay for the repairs for a specified amount. The plaintiff carried out repair work, and the . .
CitedCurtis v Chemical Cleaning and Dyeing Co CA 1951
The defendant sought to rely on an exemption clause in its garment cleaning contract. The defendant’ shop assistant had said that it extended only to damage to beads and sequins, whereas by its terms it covered all liability for damage to articles . .
CitedAmalgamated Investment and Property Co Ltd (in Liq) v Texas Commerce International Bank Ltd CA 1982
The court explained the nature of an estoppel by convention.
Lord Denning MR said: ‘The doctrine of estoppel is one of the most flexible and useful in the armoury of the law. But it has become overloaded with cases. That is why I have not gone . .
CitedPeekay Intermark Ltd v Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd CA 6-Apr-2006
Moore-Bick LJ discussed whether the court should give effect to a non-reliance clause in a contract saying: ‘It is common to include in certain kinds of contracts an express acknowledgement by each of the parties that they have not been induced to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Insurance, Consumer

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.471743

W J Alan and Co Ltd v El Nasr Export and Import Co: CA 3 Feb 1972

The parties disputed the effect of devaluation on a contract of sale and, in particular, on a letter of credit which was given for the price.
Held: Lord Denning MR said that: ‘The principle of waiver is simply this: If one party, by his conduct, leads another to believe that the strict right arising under the contract will not be insisted upon, intending that the other should act on that belief, and he does so act on it, then the first party will not afterwards be allowed to insist on the strict legal rights when it would be inequitable for him to do so.’

Lord Denning MR, Megan, Stephenon LJJ
[1972] 2 QB 189, [1972] EWCA Civ 12, [1972] 2 All ER 127, [1972] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 313, [1972] 2 WLR 800
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedMount v Barker Austin (a Firm) CA 18-Feb-1998
The plaintiff sought damages for professional negligence from his former solicitors in respect of their conduct of a claim on his behalf. He succeeded, but was awarded no damages because the judge had found that his action would be bound to fail. He . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.190235

Simpson v Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Trust: CA 12 Oct 2011

The court was asked whether it was possible to assign as a chose in action a cause of action in tort for damages for personal injury, and if so under what circumstances it was possible.
Held: The appeal was dismissed. The claimant did not have an interest in the injured party’s claim of a kind that the law should or does recognise as sufficient to support an assignment of what would otherwise be a bare right of action. She was therefore guilty of ‘wanton and officious intermeddling with the disputes of others’ and ‘The assignment in this case plainly savours of champerty, given that it involves the outright purchase by Mrs. Simpson of a claim which, if it is successful, would lead to her recovering damages in respect of an injury that she has not suffered.’

Maurice Kay VP LJ, Janet Smith D, Moore-Bick LJ
[2011] EWCA Civ 1149, (2012) 124 BMLR 1, [2012] 1 Costs LO 9, [2012] 1 All ER 1423, [2012] PIQR P2, [2012] 2 WLR 873, [2012] QB 640
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedTrendtex Trading Corporation v Credit Suisse HL 1981
A party had purported to sue having taken an assignment of a dishonoured letter of credit, in the context of the abolition of maintenance and champerty as crimes and torts in the 1967 Act.
Held: The assignment was struck down as champertous, . .
CitedTorkington v Magee 11-Jul-1902
Chose in Action defined
The effect of the 1873 Act was essentially procedural and it did not render choses in action that had not previously been assignable in equity capable of assignment.
Channell J defined a debt or other legal chose in action: ”Chose in Action’ . .
CitedOrd v Upton CA 7-Jan-2000
A bankrupt labourer (aged 30) after the bankruptcy order issued a writ against a doctor who had treated him for back pain before the bankruptcy order, claiming damages for negligence, including damages for pain and suffering as well as damages for . .
CitedTolhurst v Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers Ltd 1902
. .
CitedSibthorpe and Morris v London Borough of Southwark CA 25-Jan-2011
The court was asked as to the extent to which the ancient rule against champerty prevents a solicitor agreeing to indemnify his claimant client against any liability for costs which she may incur against the defendant in the litigation in which the . .
CitedBritish Cash and Parcel Conveyors Ltd v Lamson Store Service Co Ltd 1908
The court explained the law underlying the civil and criminal penalties for the maintenance of an action by third parties: ‘It is directed against wanton and officious intermeddling with the disputes of others in which the [maintainer] has no . .
CitedEllis v Torrington CA 1920
An assignment of the benefit of a covenant in a lease held to be sufficiently connected with enjoyment of the property as not to be a bare right of action. The assignment was not void.
Scrutton LJ stated that the assignee of a cause of action . .
CitedPeters v General Accident Fire and Life Assurance Corporation Ltd 1938
Held: A policy of motor insurance was personal to the original policyholder and incapable of being assigned to a purchaser of the vehicle in respect of which it had been issued, since the identity of the insured was material to the risk undertaken . .
CitedCompania Colombiana de Seguros v Pacific Steam Navigation Co 1964
The court considered the situation arising where an insurer took an sssignment of the right of action from the insured.
Held: Once there has been an effective assignment of a chose in action, the assignor has no continuing interest in the . .
CitedGiles v Thompson, Devlin v Baslington (Conjoined Appeals) HL 1-Jun-1993
Car hire companies who pursued actions in motorists’ names to recover the costs of hiring a replacement vehicle after an accident, from negligent drivers, were not acting in a champertous and unlawful manner. Lord Mustill said: ‘there exists in . .
CitedRegina (Factortame Ltd and Others) v Secretary of State for Transport, Local Government and the Regions (No 8) CA 3-Jul-2002
A firm of accountants had agreed to provide their services as experts in a case on the basis that they would be paid by taking part of any damages awarded. The respondent claimed that such an agreement was champertous and unlawful.
Held: The . .
CitedHolden v Thompson 1907
Several children were removed by their impoverished parents from the care of a religious institution. A charity supporting them, employed solicitors to act for them to defend proceedings brought by the institution. The solicitors now sought their . .
CitedPressos Compania Naviera S A And Others v Belgium ECHR 20-Nov-1995
When determining whether a claimant has possessions or property within the meaning of Article I the court may have regard to national law and will generally do so unless the national law is incompatible with the object and purpose of Article 1. Any . .
CitedShaws (EAL) Ltd v Pennycook CA 2-Feb-2004
Tenant’s First Notice to terminate, stood
The landlord served a notice to terminate the business lease. The tenant first served a notice to say that it would not seek a new lease, but then, and still within the time limit, it served a second counter-notice seeking a new tenancy. The . .
CitedWilson v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry; Wilson v First County Trust Ltd (No 2) HL 10-Jul-2003
The respondent appealed against a finding that the provision which made a loan agreement completely invalid for lack of compliance with the 1974 Act was itself invalid under the Human Rights Act since it deprived the respondent of its property . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Personal Injury, Torts – Other, Contract

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.445405

Law v National Greyhound Racing Club Limited: CA 29 Jul 1983

The plaintiff alleged abuse of the discretion conferred on the club by the rules. His trainer’s licence had been suspended. He said that it was contrary to an implied term of an agreement between the trainer and the racing club that any action taken would be reasonable and fair and made on reasonable grounds. The plaintiff claimed a declaration of invalidity of the decision. The question before the court, was whether the special procedures which Order 53 of the Rules of the Supreme Court applied to applications for judicial review should have been followed.
Held: The power of the Stewards of the respondent racing club to impose penalties for breach of the Rules on owners of greyhounds, derives from a contract between the NGRC and owners and all those who took part in greyhound racing in stadia licensed by the NGRC. The status of the stewards was that of a domestic tribunal. By Rule 2 every owner and holder of a licence is deemed to have read the Rules and to submit himself to them.
The National Greyhound Racing Club was not amenable to judicial review. It was a matter of private law which could be dealt with by originating summons
Lawton LJ said: ‘A stewards’ inquiry under the defendants’ Rules of Racing concerned only those who voluntarily submitted themselves to the stewards’ jurisdiction. There was no public element in the jurisdiction itself. Its exercise, however, could have consequences from which the public benefited, as, for example by the stamping out of malpractices, and from which individuals might have their rights restricted by, for example, being prevented from employing a trainer whose licence had been suspended. Consequences affecting the public generally can flow from the decisions of many domestic tribunals . . the courts have always refused to use the orders of certiorari to review the decisions of domestic tribunals.’ and ‘In my judgment, such powers as the stewards had to suspend the plaintiff’s licence were derived from a contract between him and the defendants. This was so for all who took part in greyhound racing in stadia licensed by the defendants. A stewards’ enquiry under the defendants’ Rules of Racing concerned only those who voluntarily submitted themselves to the stewards’ jurisdiction. There was no public element in the jurisdiction itself.’
Fox LJ said: ‘Accordingly, in my view, the authority of the stewards to suspend the license of the plaintiff derives wholly from a contract between him and the defendants. I see nothing to suggest that the defendants have rights or duties relating to members of the public as such. What the defendants do in relation to the control of greyhound racing may affect the public, or a section of it, but the defendants’ powers in relation to the matters with which this case is concerned are contractual.’
Slade LJ said: ‘the rules of racing of the NGRC and its decision to suspend the plaintiff in purported compliance with those rules have not been made in the field of public law. Furthermore, its authority to perform judicial or quasi judicial functions in respect of persons holding licenses from it is not derived from statute or statutory instruments or from the Crown. It is derived solely from contract. Rule 2 of the NGRC’s Rules of Racing provides that every person who is the holder of a license shall be deemed to have read the rules and to submit himself to them and to the jurisdiction of the NGRC. The relief, by way of declaration and injunction, sought by the plaintiff in his originating summons is correspondingly based primarily and explicitly on alleged breach of contract.’

Lawton, Fox, Slade LLJ
[1983] 1 WLR 1302, [1983] EWCA Civ 6, [1983] 3 All ER 300
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedFlaherty v National Greyhound Racing Club Ltd CA 14-Sep-2005
The club regulated greyhound racing. The claimant had complained that its disciplinary proceedings had been conducted unfairly. He said that a panel member had an interest as veterinary surgeon in the proceedings at the stadium at which the alleged . .
CitedRegina v Disciplinary Committee of the Jockey Club, ex parte Aga Khan CA 4-Dec-1992
No Judicial Review of Decisions of Private Body
Despite the wide range of its powers, the disciplinary committee of the Jockey Club remains a domestic tribunal. Judicial review is not available to a member. Tne relationship is in contract between the club and its member. Sir Thomas Bingham MR: . .
CitedMullins, Regina (on the Application of) v The Jockey Club Admn 17-Oct-2005
The claimant’s horse had been found after a race to have morphine in his system. It was not thought that the claimant was at fault, but the horse was disqualifed. He sought judicial review of the decision.
Held: The decision was a disciplinary . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Judicial Review

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.220132

Homburg Houtimport BV v Agrosin Private Ltd (the ‘Starsin’): HL 13 Mar 2003

Cargo owners sought damages for their cargo which had been damaged aboard the ship. The contract had been endorsed with additional terms. That variation may have changed the contract from a charterer’s to a shipowner’s bill.
Held: The specific terms added prevailed over the standard terms printed on the bill of lading. The bill was drafted to express a contract between the shipper and the owner of the vessel. Did the terms protect the shipowner from liability to the cargo owners? Clause 5 could not be construed as a covenant not to sue. The second part did not restrict the operation of the first. The cause of action was perfected not on each occasion when the damage to the cargo worsened, but was complete as soon as more than insignificant damage had occurred. At that time only one of the parties had established ownership. ‘the court should not interpolate words into a written instrument, of whatever nature, unless it is clear both that words have been omitted and what those omitted words were’ Where there is a conflict between printed and handwritten clauses, the handwritten clauses will usually prevail. (Lord Steyn dissenting) If a party, otherwise liable, is to exclude or limit his liability or to rely on an exemption, he must do so in clear words; unclear words do not suffice; any ambiguity or lack of clarity must be resolved against that party.

Lord Bingham of Cornhill, Lord Steyn, Lord Hoffmann, Lord Hobhouse of Woodborough, Lord Millett
[2003] UKHL 12, Times 17-Mar-2003, Gazette 15-May-2003, [2003] 2 WLR 711, [2004] 1 AC 715, [2003] 1 CLC 921, 2003 AMC 913, [2003] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 571, [2003] 1 All ER (Comm) 625, [2003] 2 All ER 785, [2003] 1 LLR 571
House of Lords, Bailii
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971, Hague-Visby Rules 5
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromThe Owners And/Or Demise Charterer Of The Ship Or Vessel ‘Starsin’ v The Owners Of The Cargo Lately Laden Aboard The Ship Or Vessel ‘Starsin’ CA 23-Jan-2001
. .
CitedGlynn v Margetson and Co HL 1893
A printed form of bill of lading contained general words of obligation referring to the goods being shipped ‘in and upon the .. Zena, now lying in the port of Malaga, and bound for Liverpool’. Those words were followed by printed words intended ‘to . .
CitedUniversal Steam Navigation Company Ltd v James McKelvie and Company HL 1923
If there was inconsistency between a term added to a pre-printed form and general descriptions elsewhere in the text, the former should be regarded as the ‘dominating factor’ and as of ‘preponderant importance’. . .
CitedHamilton v Mendes 8-Jun-1761
The daily negotiations and property of merchants ought not to depend upon subtleties and niceties; but upon rules, easily learned and easily retained, because they are the dictates of common sense, drawn from the truth of the case. . .
CitedSimond v Boydell 1779
To seek perfect consistency and economy of draftsmanship in a complex form of contract which has evolved over many years is to pursue a chimera. . .
CitedThe Mahkutai PC 24-Apr-1996
(Hong Kong) The question was whether shipowners, who were not parties to the bill of lading contract between the charterers and carriers on the one part, and the cargo-owners, the bill of lading being a charterer’s bill, could enforce against the . .
CitedLeigh and Sillavan Ltd v Aliakmon Shipping Co Ltd (The Aliakmon) HL 24-Apr-1985
The plaintiff contracted to buy a cargo to be shipped on the defendant’s vessel. Because of poor stowage, the cargo was damaged. At the time of the damage the claimant was neither the owner nor possessor of the cargo, but under the terms of the . .
Appeal fromHomburg Houtimport BV v Agrosin Private Ltd (The Starsin) CA 23-Jan-2001
Cargo had been negligently stowed on a ship so that condensation caused damage during the subsequent voyage. The claimant only acquired a title to the cargo after the voyage had commenced. The defendants contended that no duty of care could be owed . .
CitedAdler v Dickson; ‘the Himalaya’ CA 29-Oct-1954
The defendants were the master and boatswain of the P and O passenger liner Himalaya. The plaintiff was a passenger who was injured when an insecure gangway slipped and he fell 16ft to the wharf. The plaintiff had a contract with P and O which . .
At First InstanceThe Owners And/Or Demise Charterer Of The Ship Or Vessel ‘Starsin’ v The Owners Of The Cargo Lately Laden Aboard The Ship Or Vessel ‘Starsin’ ComC 2000
. .

Cited by:
CitedJIS (1974) Ltd v MCP Investment Nominees I Ltd CA 9-Apr-2003
The parties agreed for a lease to be granted of a new building. Part had been intended to be excluded for shops, but permission was not obtained, the shops area was included and leased back. When the tenants sought to determine the lease, the . .
CitedDairy Containers Ltd v Tasman Orient Line Cv PC 20-May-2004
PC (New Zealand) The appeal concerned the correct interpretation of a damage limitation clause in a contract for the carriage of goods by sea.
Held: Clause 6(B)(b)(i) must be construed in the context of the . .
CitedTaylor v Rive Droite Music Ltd ChD 6-Jul-2004
The claimant music producer and songwriter had entered into a publishers agreement with the defendant, agreeing to work for it. He now sought to be free to work for another company. The factual background was unclear, and the contract documentation . .
CitedPhonographic Performance Limited v Department of Trade and Industry HM Attorney General ChD 23-Jul-2004
The claimant represented the interests of copyright holders, and complained that the defendant had failed to implement the Directive properly, leaving them unable properly to collect royalties in the music rental market. The respondent argued that . .
CitedPhonographic Performance Limited v Department of Trade and Industry HM Attorney General ChD 23-Jul-2004
The claimant represented the interests of copyright holders, and complained that the defendant had failed to implement the Directive properly, leaving them unable properly to collect royalties in the music rental market. The respondent argued that . .
CitedJindal Iron and Steel Co Ltd and others v Islamic Solidarity Shipping Company Jordan Inc (‘The Jordan II’) HL 25-Nov-2004
Cargo was damaged by rough handling during loading and/or discharging, and/or inadequate stowage due to failure to provide dunnage, failure to secure the coils and/or stacking them so that the bottom layers were excessively compressed. The House was . .
CitedJ I MacWilliam Company Inc v Mediterranean Shipping Company SA; The ‘Rafaela S’ HL 16-Feb-2005
A US company bought a printing machine and ancillary equipment on CIF terms from an English company. The sellers consigned the goods to the buyers. The carriers were a container liner operator and the demise charterers of the vessels ‘Rosemary’ and . .
CitedTelewest Communications Plc Telewest (Publications) Limited v Commissioners of Customs and Excise CA 10-Feb-2005
The taxpayers sold cable services which were liable to VAT through 28 subsidiaries, and supplied by a third party as part of the same service a listings magazine. They sought exemption from VAT for that part of the consideration related to the . .
CitedIqbal v Legal Services Commission CA 10-May-2005
The claimant had been a partner in a firm of solicitors. They came to be suspected by the respondent of overclaiming legal aid payments and sums were withheld. For this and other reasons the practice folded, and the claimant became insolvent. He . .
CitedGolden Strait Corporation v Nippon Yusen Kubishka Kaisha (‘The Golden Victory’) HL 28-Mar-2007
The claimant sought damages for repudiation of a charterparty. The charterpary had been intended to continue until 2005. The charterer repudiated the contract and that repudiation was accepted, but before the arbitrator could set his award, the Iraq . .
CitedAlchemy Estates Ltd v Astor and Another ChD 5-Nov-2008
The parties disputed the effect of a contract between them for the sale of a leasehold property. After exchange the solicitors failed to obtain the landlord’s consent to the proposed assignment as required by the lease. In the meantime the proposed . .
CitedChartbrook Ltd v Persimmon Homes Ltd and Others HL 1-Jul-2009
Mutual Knowledge admissible to construe contract
The parties had entered into a development contract in respect of a site in Wandsworth, under which balancing compensation was to be paid. They disagreed as to its calculation. Persimmon sought rectification to reflect the negotiations.
Held: . .
CitedRainy Sky Sa and Others v Kookmin Bank SC 2-Nov-2011
Commercial Sense Used to Interpret Contract
The Court was asked as to the role of commercial good sense in the construction of a term in a contract which was open to alternative interpretations.
Held: The appeal succeeded. In such a case the court should adopt the more, rather than the . .
CitedBNY Mellon Corporate Trustee Services Ltd v LBG Capital No 1 Plc and Another SC 16-Jun-2016
The Court was asked whether Lloyds Banking Group was entitled to redeem 3.3 billion pounds of loan notes which would otherwise carry a relatively high rate of interest, namely over 10% per annum. The loan notes are contingent convertible securities . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Transport, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.179802

Profit Investment Sim v Ossi: ECJ 20 Apr 2016

ECJ (Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Regulation (EC) No 44/2001 – Area of Freedom, Security and Justice – Concept of ‘irreconcilable judgments’ – Actions having different subject-matters brought against several defendants domiciled in various Member States – Conditions for the prorogation of jurisdiction – Jurisdiction clause – Concept of ‘matters relating to a contract’ – Verification of the lack of a valid contractual link

C-366/13, [2016] EUECJ C-366/13, [2016] WLR(D) 202, ECLI:EU:C:2016:282
Bailii, WLRD
Regulation (EC) No 44/2001
England and Wales

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.562823

Associated Foreign Exchange Ltd v International Foreign Exchange (UK) Ltd and Another: ChD 26 May 2010

The claimant sought interim injunctions to enforce a restrictive covenant against solicitation of customers in a former employee’s contract. The employee, a FOREX dealer, had been placed on garden leave for three months and then his contract terminated. The contract sought a further twelve months’ restriction.
Held: At trial it was likely to be held that the twelve months’ duration of the non-solicitation clause went beyond what was reasonably necessary for the protection of AFEX’s legitimate interests. Cousins J thought it likely that any period beyond six months would be found objectionable. Also the extension of the covenant to potential customers was unreasonable.

Cousins QC J
[2010] EWHC 1178 (Ch), [2010] IRLR 964
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedAmerican Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd HL 5-Feb-1975
Interim Injunctions in Patents Cases
The plaintiffs brought proceedings for infringement of their patent. The proceedings were defended. The plaintiffs obtained an interim injunction to prevent the defendants infringing their patent, but they now appealed its discharge by the Court of . .
CitedCredit Suisse Asset Management Ltd v Armstrong and Others CA 3-Jun-1996
The employer provided fund management services to private clients. The notice periods for the various employees ranged between three and twelve months, but the handbook governing the terms of employment provided that during the respective notice . .
CitedLansing Linde v Kerr CA 1991
Staughton LJ held that ‘trade secrets’ embrace information used in a trade, restricted in its dissemination, and the disclosure of which would be liable to cause real or significant harm to the party claiming confidentiality. He considered the . .
CitedHerbert Morris Ltd v Saxelby HL 1916
For a covenant in restraint of trade to be treated as reasonable in the interests of the parties ‘it must afford no more than adequate protection to the benefit of the party in whose favour it is imposed.’ There is a need for the court to consider . .
CitedKores Manufacturing Co Ltd v Kolok Manufacturing Ltd CA 1959
When considering a post employment restrictive covenant on an employee, the court should allow that an employer has a legitimate interest in maintaining a stable and trained workforce. However, even accepting that interest, an employer has no . .
CitedStenhouse Australia Ltd v Phillips PC 2-Oct-1973
(Australia) An employer’s claim for protection from competition by a former employee under a restrictive covenant must be based upon the identification of some advantage or asset inherent in the business which can properly be regarded as, in a . .
CitedMason v Provident Clothing and Supply Co Ltd 1913
To uphold restrictions which a covenant imposes upon the freedom of action of the servant after he has left the service of the master, the master must satisfy the Court that the restrictions are no greater than are reasonably necessary for the . .
CitedTFS Derivatives Ltd v Morgan QBD 15-Nov-2004
The claimant sought to enforce a post employment restrictive covenant. There was a 6 months’ prohibition, post-termination of employment (less any period of garden leave) on any employment which was competitive with the business of a former . .
CitedInternational Consulting Services (UK) Ltd v Hart QBD 26-Jan-2000
The claimant sought damages and an injunction from their former employee, the defendant, saying that he had breached a post-employment restrictive covenant.
Held: The court upheld a 12-month non-solicitation clause. This was however a . .
CitedDowden and Pook Ltd v Pook CA 1904
When an employment covenant is unlimited, the covenant cannot be rewritten to limit its territorial extent. . .
CitedHome Counties Dairies v Skilton CA 1970
In construing an employee’s restrictive covenant, a court should disregard fanciful hypotheses or arguments leading to a reductio ad absurdum. . .
CitedDawnay, Day and Co Limited; Wilcourt Investments Limited v D’Alphen; Johnston; Parkman; Cantor Fitzgerald International CA 22-May-1997
The defendants were investment managers who left the plaintiff’s employment to take up posts with a rival. DD issued these proceedings claiming to enforce inter alia contractual undertakings by the defendants not to compete with the business of DDS, . .
CitedDairy Crest Ltd v Piggott CA 1989
When considering restrictive covenants in employment cases, courts must not seek to uphold a clause as reasonable only because the same clause was upheld in a different case. It is an error of law. There is no ‘tariff’ of what is reasonable. In this . .
CitedGilford Motor Co Ltd v Horne CA 1933
The defendant was the plaintiff’s former managing director. He was bound by a restrictive covenant after he left them. To avoid the covenant, he formed a company and sought to transact his business through it. At first instance, Farwell J had found . .
CitedM and S Drapers (a Firm) v Reynolds CA 1956
The defendant, a collector salesman entered the employment of a firm of credit drapers at a weekly wage of andpound;10. He brought with him the connection of customers acquired in previous employments. He entered into a restrictive covenant that he . .
CitedOffice Angels Ltd v Rainer-Thomas CA 1991
Reasonability Test of Post Employment Restriction
The court re-stated the principles applicable in testing whether an employee’s restrictive covenant was reasonable: ‘The court cannot say that a covenant in one form affords no more than adequate protection to a covenantee’s relevant legitimate . .
CitedBasic Solutions Ltd v Sands QBD 23-Jun-2008
The claimant sought injunctions to prevent misuse by former employees of confidential information in their possession and breach of a post employment restrictive covenant.
Held: Eady J said that he could not see, as a matter of general . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Employment, Contract

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.416206

Lauritzen A/A v Wijsmuller BV;( ‘The Super Servant Two’): CA 12 Oct 1989

Bingham LJ discussed the nature of frustration of contract: ‘The essence of frustration is that it is caused by some unforeseen supervening event over which the parties to the contract have no control and for which they are therefore not responsible. To say that the supervening event occurs without the default or blame or responsibility of the parties is, in the context of the doctrine of frustration, but another way of saying it is a supervening event over which they have no control; still less can it apply in a situation in which the parties owed a contractual duty to one another to prevent the frustrating event from occurring.’
He identified five particular conditions for frustration: ‘(a) The mitigation of the law’s insistence on literal performance of absolute promises so as to avoid injustice.
(b) Because frustration operated ‘to kill the contract’, it was not to be lightly invoked.
(c) Frustration brought an end to the contract forthwith.
(d) The essence of frustration was that it should not be due to the act or election of the party seeking to rely on it and must instead be due to some outside event or extraneous change of situation.
(e) A frustrating event had to take place without blame or fault on the side of the party seeking to rely on it.’

Bingham LJ, Dillon LJ
[1989] EWCA Civ 6, [1990] 1 Lloyds Rep 1
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedBank Line Ltd v Arthur Capel and Co HL 12-Dec-1918
The defendant ship-owners contracted to lease the ship on charter to the plaintiffs. Before the term, the ship was requisitioned for the war effort. The plaintiffs did not exercise the contractual right given to them to cancel the charterparty. The . .

Cited by:
CitedCTI Group Inc v Transclear Sa Comc 14-Sep-2007
The parties had contracted for the sale of concrete. The buyers appealed findings by an arbitrator that the contracts were both frustrated for the inability of the seller to complete after the intervention of a company with an effective monopoly, . .
CitedGold Group Properties Ltd v BDW Trading Ltd TCC 3-Mar-2010
The parties had contracted for the construction of an estate of houses and flats to be followed by the interim purchase by the defendants. The defendants argued that the slump in land prices frustrated the contract and that they should not be called . .
AppliedBlankley v Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals NHS Trust QBD 5-Feb-2014
The court was asked whether, where a party loses mental capacity in the course of proceedings, such loss of capacity has the automatic and immediate effect of terminating their solicitor’s retainer. The Costs judge had held that, as a matter of law, . .
CitedBlankley v Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals NHS Trust CA 27-Jan-2015
This case concerns a claimant with fluctuating capacity to conduct legal proceedings. At a time when she had capacity, she retained a firm of solicitors under a conditional fee agreement. The issue was whether the CFA terminated automatically by . .
CitedGamerco Sa v ICM Fair Warning (Agency) Ltd and Another QBD 31-Mar-1995
The plaintiff Spanish concert promoter, and the defendant rock group, Guns ‘n’ Roses, agreed to provide a concert at the stadium of Atetico Madrid, but shortly before it was due to take place, the stadium was deemed unfit, and its licence withdrawn. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.259378

Millar Son and Co v Radford: CA 1903

For an estate agent to recover his commission, it was ‘necessary’ to show that the agent’s introduction was an ‘efficient’ (namely effective) cause in bringing about the transaction.

Sir Richard Henn Collins MR
(1903) 19 TLR 575
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedThe County Homesearch Company (Thames and Chilterns) Ltd v Cowham CA 31-Jan-2008
The defendants contracted to pay estate agents to find them a house. They completed the purchase of a property mentioned to them three times by the agent, but now appealed from a finding that they were obliged to pay his commission. The judge found . .
CitedFoxtons Ltd v Pelkey Bicknell and Another CA 23-Apr-2008
The defendant appealed against a finding that she was liable to pay her estate agent, appointed as sole agent, on the sale of her property. The eventual purchasers had visited but rejected the property. The agency was later terminated, and the . .
CitedCharania v Harbour Estates Ltd CA 27-Oct-2009
The defendant appealed against the award of the estate agent’s fees, acting under a sole agency agreement. The agreement had been terminated. A buyer who had seen the property first under the agency later returned and negotiated a purchase.
Agency, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.264092

Herne Bay Steam Boat Company v Hutton: CA 1902

A contract to hire a steam boat to view the royal review of the naval fleet at Spithead as part of the celebrations for the coronation of Edward VII was not frustrated by cancellation of the review on the King’s illness because the fleet was still at Spithead to be viewed.
Vaughan Williams LJ said that because the purposes (of seeing the review and being taken around the fleet) became impossible that did not mean the contract was frustrated. The happening of the naval review was not the foundation of the contract: ‘ . . Mr. Hutton, in hiring this vessel, had two objects in view: first, of taking people to see the naval review, and, secondly, of taking them round the fleet. Those, no doubt, were the purposes of Mr. Hutton, but it does not seem to me that because, as it is said, those purposes became impossible, it would be a very legitimate inference that the happening of the naval review was contemplated by both parties as the basis and foundation of this contract . . On the contrary, when the contract is properly regarded, I think the purpose of Mr. Hutton, whether of seeing the naval review or of going round the fleet with a party of paying guests, does not lay the foundation of the contract within the authorities.’
Romer LJ said: ‘it is a contract for the hiring of a ship by the defendant for a certain voyage, though having, no doubt, a special object, namely, to see the naval review and the fleet; but it appears to me that the object was a matter with which the defendant, as hirer of the ship, was alone concerned, and not the plaintiffs, the owners of the ship’ . . And: ‘so far as the plaintiffs are concerned, the objects of the passengers on this voyage with regard to sight-seeing do not form the subject-matter or essence of this contract.’
Stirling LJ referring directly to the fact that part of the stated purpose, the ‘day’s cruise round the fleet’, had remained possible, saying: ‘It seems to me that the reference in the contract to the naval review is easily explained; it was inserted in order to define more exactly the nature of the voyage, and I am unable to treat it as being such a reference as to constitute the naval review the foundation of the contract so as to entitle either party to the benefit of the doctrine in Taylor v Caldwell. I come to this conclusion the more readily because the object of the voyage is not limited to the naval review, but also extends to a cruise round the fleet. The fleet was there, and passengers might have been found willing to go round it. It is true that in the event which happened the object of the voyage became limited, but, in my opinion, that was the risk of the defendant whose venture the taking the passengers was.’

Vaughan Williams, Stirling, Romer LJJ
[1902] 2 KB 683
Cited by:
CitedGamerco Sa v ICM Fair Warning (Agency) Ltd and Another QBD 31-Mar-1995
The plaintiff Spanish concert promoter, and the defendant rock group, Guns ‘n’ Roses, agreed to provide a concert at the stadium of Atetico Madrid, but shortly before it was due to take place, the stadium was deemed unfit, and its licence withdrawn. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.564154

Clea Shipping Corp v Bulk Oil International, The Alaskan Trader (No 2): 1984

The 24 month charterparty vessel suffered a major engine breakdown after nearly a year. The repairs would take several months. The charterers said they had no further use for the vessel but the owner did the repairs and sought to hold the charterers liable for hire for the rest of the period of the charterparty, once the repairs had been completed – some seven months. On an arbitration, the award was that the owners had no legitimate interest in pursuing their claim for hire rather than asserting a claim for damages. The owners appealed.
Held: The appeal was dismissed. Given the defendants’ conduct when called on to honour their clear obligations and because of their policy of non-cooperation during the proceedings, including admitting liability only at the last moment, it would not be equitable to deny the claimants their statutory rights.
Lloyd J reviewed the case law and said: ‘this court is bound to hold that there is some fetter [on the innocent party’s right to elect to disregard the repudiation], if only in extreme cases; and for want of a better way of describing that fetter it is safest for this court to use the language of Lord Reid, which, as I have already said, was adopted by a majority of the Court of Appeal in The Puerto Buitrago.’ The correct analysis was that, the court, on equitable grounds, refused to allow the innocent party to enforce his full contractual rights.

Lloyd J
[1984] 1 All ER 129, [1983] 2 Lloyds Rep 645
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedAttica Sea Carriers Corporation v Ferrostaal Poseidon Bulk Reederei GmbH, The Puerto Buitrago CA 1976
The parties entered into a charterparty by demise of a bulk carrier. It was in a state of disrepair. The owners required the charterers to repair it before redelivery, and claimed hire losses until it was returned repaired. The extensive repairs . .

Cited by:
CitedReichman and Another v Beveridge CA 13-Dec-2006
The defendants were tenants of the claimant. They vacated the premises and stopped paying the rent. The claimant sought payment of the arrears of rent. The defendants said that the claimants should have taken steps to reduce their damages by seeking . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Transport

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.396614

RTS Flexible Systems Ltd v Molkerei Alois Muller Gmbh and Company Kg (UK Production): SC 10 Mar 2010

The parties had reached agreement in outline and sought to have the contract formalised, but went ahead anyway. They now disputed whether an agreement had been created and as to its terms if so.
Held: It was unrealistic to suggest that no contract had been created. The parties initially intended that there should be a written contract between them which was executed by each and exchanged between them. As to whether the arrangement remained subject to contract: ‘the question was, objectively speaking, whether the parties’ intentions took a new turn at some stage such that they intended to be bound by the ‘final draft contract’ without the need for its formal execution.’ and ‘essentially all the terms were agreed between the parties and that substantial works were then carried out and the agreement was subsequently varied in important respects. The parties treated the agreement of 25 August as a variation of the agreement that they had reached by 5 July. Nobody suggested in August that there was no contract and thus nothing to vary. It was not until November, by which time the parties were in dispute, that points were taken as to whether there was a contract.’
Lord Clarke, set out the tests for the intention to create a contract: ‘The general principles are not in doubt. Whether there is a binding contract between the parties and, if so, upon what terms depends upon what they have agreed. It depends not upon their subjective state of mind, but upon a consideration of what was communicated between them by words or conduct, and whether that leads objectively to a conclusion that they intended to create legal relations and had agreed upon all the terms which they regarded or the law requires as essential for the formation of legally binding relations. Even if certain terms of economic or other significance to the parties have not been finalised, an objective appraisal of their words and conduct may lead to the conclusion that they did not intend agreement of such terms to be a precondition to a concluded and legally binding agreement.’

Lord Phillips, President, Lord Mance, Lord Collins, Lord Kerr, Lord Clarke
[2010] UKSC 14, [2010] WLR (D) 75, [2010] 3 All ER 1, (2010) 129 Con LR 1, [2010] 1 WLR 753, [2010] 2 All ER (Comm) 97, [2010] 1 CLC 388, [2010] Bus LR 776, [2010] CILL 2868, [2010] BLR 337
Bailii, WLRD, SC, SC Summary
England and Wales
Citing:
At First InstanceRTS Flexible Systems Ltd v Molkerei Alois Muller Gmbh and Co Kg (UK Productions) TCC 16-May-2008
The parties had gone ahead in performing the contract for the supply of machinery for manufacturing yoghurt pots, despite not having concluded formal agreements. . .
CitedG Percy Trentham Ltd v Archital Luxfer Ltd CA 1993
The court discussed how it should approach the task of establishing whether a contract had been made.
Steyn LJ said: ‘Before I turn to the facts it is important to consider briefly the approach to be adopted to the issue of contract formation . .
Appeal fromRTS Flexible Systems Ltd v Molkerei Alois Muller Gmbh and Co KG CA 12-Feb-2009
The parties went ahead with performance of a contract or the provision of a substantial production line without formally completing negotiation of the contract. . .
CitedBritish Steel Corporation v Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co Ltd 1983
An ‘if contract’ is where one party makes an offer capable of acceptance on the basis that ‘if you do this for us, we will do that for you’. Often used in the construction industry.
Goff J said: ‘the question whether . . any contract has come . .
CitedPagnan SpA v Feed Products Ltd ChD 1987
An agreement can be enforceable as an agreement on main terms only, with the detailed terms to be agreed later. Bingham J said: ‘The Court’s task is to review what the parties said and did and from that material to infer whether the parties’ . .
CitedPagnan SpA v Feed Products Ltd CA 2-Jan-1987
Contractually Bound – but Further Terms to Agree
The parties had gone ahead with performance of the arrangement between them, but without a formal agreement being in place.
Held: Parties may intend to be bound forthwith even though there are further terms still to be agreed. If they then . .
CitedJ Jarvis and Sons Plc v Galliard Homes Ltd CA 12-Nov-1999
. .

Cited by:
CitedParties Named In Schedule A v Dresdner Kleinwort Ltd and Another QBD 28-May-2010
The defendant merchant banks resisted two group claims for annual bonuses for 2008 made by the employee claimants. They now sought summary judgment against the claims. The employer had declared a guaranteed minimum bonus pool available to make the . .
Principal JudgmentRTS Flexible Systems Ltd v Molkerei Alois Muller Gmbh and Company Kg (UK Production) No 2 – Order and Costs SC 21-Jul-2010
The main judgment had not attempted to settle all issues between the parties, and much remained to be done. Any order would not be a final one. As to costs, each party had succeeded in one respect or another, but ‘at the end of this whole process . .
AppliedMulcaire v News Group Newspapers Ltd ChD 21-Dec-2011
The claimant, a private investigator had contracted with the News of the World owned by the defendant but since closed. He had committed criminal offences in providing information for the paper, had been convicted and had served his sentence. He . .
CitedDresdner Kleinwort Ltd and Another v Attrill and Others CA 26-Apr-2013
The bank appealed against judgment against it on claims by former senior employees for contractual discretionary bonuses.
Held: The appeal failed. The bank’s unilateral promise made within the context of an existing employment relationship to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.402571

Warren and Another v Burns: QBD 13 Nov 2014

The boxing manager and boxer each said that the other owed him money.
Held: The contract entitled the claimant to take some share of the boxers earnings but as part of the overall management fee, but as a part of the overall sum and at a share to be apprtioned between the managers. On the other hand the claimant had not waived payment by failing to call for payment in earlier years. In summary, unpaid comission remained payable, the balance of any payment for one particular fight was due from a company now in liquidation (not Mr Warren), but no sum was payable in respect of the promoter agreement.

Knowles CBE J
[2014] EWHC 3671 (QB)
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedAllied Marine Ltd v Vale do Rio Doce SA (The Leonidas D) CA 1985
One party sought to construct an agreement to abandon an ongoing, if stalled, arbitration out of mere silence.
Held: Robert Goff LJ said that silence will not normally amount to acceptance of an offer since acceptance cannot be inferred from . .
CitedLiberty Insurance Pte Ltd and Another v Argo Systems Fze CA 21-Dec-2011
Aikens LJ said that the waiver of a contractual right by election or by estoppel requires ‘that the person who is alleged to have ‘waived’ the relevant contractual right has made an unequivocal representation, by words or conduct, that he does not, . .
CitedBehzadi v Shaftsbury Hotels CA 1992
The court must distinguish between an open contract such as Green v. Sevin where no date for completion is fixed by the contract and the more normal case where a completion date is fixed but time is not of the essence of the date specified. In the . .
CitedDalkia Utilities Services Plc v Celtech International Ltd ComC 27-Jan-2006
The Court was asked to decide (i) which, if either, of the two parties to a 15 year agreement lawfully terminated it; (ii) whether, if one of them did so, it was by giving notice under a contractual termination clause or by way of acceptance of the . .
CitedValilas v Januzaj CA 8-Apr-2014
The parties, dentist working together, disputed the contract between them.
Held: Floyd LJ described the assessment to be made when deciding if a contract had been breached: ‘Whether a breach or threatened breach does give rise to a right to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Estoppel

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.538724

Imperial Loan Co v Stone: CA 1892

Contract without Capacity – Voidable not Void

A person of unsound mind was sued on a promissory note. He had signed it as surety. The jury found that he was insane when he signed the note but there was no finding as to the creditor’s knowledge of such insanity. The judge entered a verdict against the creditor, who appealed.
Held: A contract made by a person who lacked the capacity to make it was not void, but could be avoided by that person provided that the other party to the contract knew (or, as is now generally accepted, ought to have known) of his incapacity.
The submission that there was no authority that a man could be sued and made liable on an executory contract which he had made when of unsound mind, except in the case of a contract for necessaries was rejected. Lord Esher MR: ‘I shall not try to go through the cases bearing on the subject; but what I am about to state appears to me to be the result of all the cases. When a person enters into a contract, and afterwards alleges that he was so insane at the time that he did not know what he was doing, and proves the allegation, the contract is as binding on him in every respect, whether it is executory or executed, as if he had been sane when he made it, unless he can prove further that the person with whom he contracted knew him to be so insane as not to be capable of understanding what he was about.’
Fry LJ said: ‘It thus appears that there has been grafted on the old rule the exception that the contracts of a person who is non compos mentis may be avoided when his condition can be shown to have been known to the plaintiff. So far as I know, that is the only exception.’
Lopes LJ said: ‘In order to avoid a fair contract on the ground of insanity, the mental incapacity of the one must be known to the other of the contracting parties. A defendant who seeks to avoid a contract on the ground of his insanity, must plead and prove, not merely his incapacity, but also the plaintiff s knowledge of that fact, and unless he proves these two things he cannot succeed.’

Lord Esher MR, Fry LJ, Lopes LJ
[1892] 1 QB 599
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedBailey v Warre CA 7-Feb-2006
The claimant had been severely injured in a road traffic accident. His claim was compromised and embodied in a court order, but later a question was raised as to whether he had had mental capacity at the time to make the compromise he had.
CitedMcLaughlin v Daily Telegraph Newspaper Co. Ltd 15-Jul-1904
(High Court of Australia) The court considered the law on the effect of mental incapacity on a contract in the two cases Imperial Loan, and Molton v Camroux: ‘The principle of the decision seems, however, to be the same in both cases, which, in our . .
CitedHart v O’Connor PC 22-Apr-1985
Effect of insanity on making of contract
(New Zealand) The parties disputed the effect in law of an agreement for the sale of land. The transferor had proved not to be of sound mind.
Held: The validity of a contract entered into by a lunatic who is ostensibly sane is to be judged by . .
CitedArcher v Cutler 1980
(New Zealand) The purchaser of land sought specific performance of the contract. The vendor and purchaser had been neighbours. The neighbour needed part of the vendor’s land for access.
Held: A contract made by a person of insufficient mental . .
CitedMasterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1) CA 19-Dec-2002
Capacity for Litigation
The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the . .
CitedJosife v Summertrot Holdings Ltd Admn 4-Apr-2014
The claimant sought to avoid liability under a banking guarantee, saying that he had lacked mental capacity to grant it.
Held: The appeal failed. The judge had correctly applied the law. The execution of the guarantee had been especially . .
CitedBlankley v Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals NHS Trust CA 27-Jan-2015
This case concerns a claimant with fluctuating capacity to conduct legal proceedings. At a time when she had capacity, she retained a firm of solicitors under a conditional fee agreement. The issue was whether the CFA terminated automatically by . .
CitedDunhill v Burgin SC 12-Mar-2014
Lack of Capacity – Effect on Proceedings
The Court was asked ‘First, what is the test for deciding whether a person lacks the mental capacity to conduct legal proceedings on her own behalf (in which case the Civil Procedure Rules require that she has a litigation friend to conduct the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.238883

Chilton v Saga Holidays Plc: CA 3 Dec 1984

At a trial under the small claims procedure, the registrar had declined to allow the defendant company to dross examine the plaintiff, and the counr court judge had held that decision to be well within the registrar’s discertion under the rules, on the basis that as acting without lawyers, they would be unable to achieve similar cross examinations of the dfenedants.
Held: The appeal succeeded. ‘Informality is all important in these small claims cases provided that the rules of natural justice are observed; and while I have not actually invited Mr. Foskett to defend his application for further and better particulars in this case, they are virtually indefensible. It was an attempt to turn this arbitration into a High Court hearing with detailed requests for information of which there was not the slightest need since they were already set out in a document prepared by the claimant. That is the sort of formality which should be disapproved of without qualification; but cross-examination is quite different. I would set the award aside and reluctantly, because additional costs may be involved, would direct that it be re-heard by a different registrar. ‘

Sir John Donaldson MR, Slade, Lloyd LJJ
[1984] EWCA Civ 1
Bailii
County Court Rules 1981
Citing:
CitedAllen v Allen CA 1894
Lopes LJ said: ‘It appears to us contrary to all rules of evidence, and opposed to natural justice, that the evidence of one party should be received as evidence against another party, without the latter having an opportunity of testing its . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.258756

Alchemy Estates Ltd v Astor and Another: ChD 5 Nov 2008

The parties disputed the effect of a contract between them for the sale of a leasehold property. After exchange the solicitors failed to obtain the landlord’s consent to the proposed assignment as required by the lease. In the meantime the proposed assignees set out to enfranchise the lease under the 1967 Act as envisaged by the contract. The notice proved defective and after difficulties with the licence to assign, the purchaser purported to rescind (but offering a reduced price).
Held: The purchaser was not disentitled to rescind for failure to apply for the licence to assign, since that duty fell on the sellers under the standard conditions. It had however failed to provide accounts as requested by the landlord. They had been provided later, and the question of whether they were in breach of the contract was to be asked not at the time fixed or completion but at the time when the notice to rescind was given. The standard conditions provided for the possibility that the landlord’s consent might not have been obtained before the date fixed for completion, and apportioned risk between the parties in contuing to act on the basis of the contract’s continued existence. This in turn implied a limitation on the freedom to rescind. The purchasers had not acted promptly as required, and ‘An equitable approach to the exercise of rights between the parties contained in contracts for the sale of land has been established for a very long time.’

Sales J
[2008] EWHC 2675 (Ch)
Bailii, Times
Leasehold Reform Act 1967
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedHomburg Houtimport BV v Agrosin Private Ltd (the ‘Starsin’) HL 13-Mar-2003
Cargo owners sought damages for their cargo which had been damaged aboard the ship. The contract had been endorsed with additional terms. That variation may have changed the contract from a charterer’s to a shipowner’s bill.
Held: The specific . .
CitedRe Hewitt’s Contract 1963
The interpretation and effect of standard conditions governing the sale of land are informed by the background rules of equity governing the operation of contracts for the sale of land. . .
CitedICI Chemicals and Polymers Ltd v TTE Training Ltd CA 13-Jun-2007
The Defendant had applied for summary judgment under CPR Part 24. One argument was a short point of construction. The Judge suggested the parties agree that he should decide the point as a preliminary issue. They were unwilling so he proceeded on . .
CitedBowman v Hyland 1878
A vendor’s right to rescind a contract for the sale of land on receipt of a requisition was not to be exercised for reasons unconnected with the contract. . .
CitedSmith v Wallace 1895
Romer J said that a vendor of land wanting to exercise the right of rescission given him by the relevant contract term must do so ‘fairly, and to determine promptly whether he [will] exercise the power or not. He [is] not entitled to take advantage . .
CitedAubergine Enterprises Limited v Lakewood International Limited CA 26-Feb-2002
A sought confirmation that it had successfully rescinded a contract for the purchase of a leasehold property from L. Either party was to be able to rescind, if consent to the assignment had not obtained before three days before completion. There . .
CitedSelkirk v Romar Investments Ltd PC 1963
A vendor of land may properly only rescind a contract on receipt of requisitions for reasons associated with the contract. . .
CitedSt Leonard’s Shoreditch Vestry v Hughes 1864
The vendor of land is only allowed a reasonable time within which to make his decision whether to rescind or not in reliance on a contractual term providing for this right where requisitions have been raised which he cannot fulfil. . .
CitedDedman v British Building and Engineering Appliances CA 1973
The claimant sought to bring his claim under a provision which required a complaint to the industrial tribunal to be made within four weeks of the dismissal unless the employment tribunal was satisfied that this was not ‘practicable’. He did not . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Land, Contract

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.277552

The County Homesearch Company (Thames and Chilterns) Ltd v Cowham: CA 31 Jan 2008

The defendants contracted to pay estate agents to find them a house. They completed the purchase of a property mentioned to them three times by the agent, but now appealed from a finding that they were obliged to pay his commission. The judge found that it was not implied into the contract that the commission would be payable only if the agent was an effective contributor to the transaction.
Held: The appeal was dismissed. The main reason for implying the term would be to avoid the client having to pay two commissions, but that was already precluded, and express terms were inconsistent with the term sought to be implied, and ‘The fact that it may be arguable whether a term should be implied . . does not mean that there is a doubt about the meaning of a written term’.

Longmore LJ
[2008] EWCA Civ 26, [2008] 1 EGLR 24, [2008] 1 WLR 909, [2008] NPC 10, [2008] 15 EG 178
Bailii
Estate Agents Act 1979, Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999 (1999 SI No. 2083) 7(2)
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedThe Moorcock CA 1889
Unless restricted by something else, an employer ought to find work to enable a workman to perform his part of the bargain, namely, to do his work. A term will be implied into a contract only to the extent required to give the contract efficacy: ‘if . .
CitedShirlaw v Southern Foundries (1926) Ltd CA 1939
The court warned against the over-ready application of any principle to justify the implication of terms into a contract. McKinnon LJ set out his ‘officious bystander’ test: ‘If I may quote from an essay which I wrote some years ago, I then said: . .
CitedBrian Cooper and Co v Fairview Estates (Investments) Ltd CA 13-Mar-1987
A substantial property developer sought a tenant for its office block and agreed with his selling agent to pay ‘a full scale letting fee . . should you introduce a tenant by whom you are unable to be retained and with whom we have not been in . .
CitedToulmin v Millar HL 1887
The agent claimed a second commission when his principal, who had already paid a commission for the procuring of a tenant, was asked to pay a second commission on the purchase of the property by the tenant at a later date.
Held: Where there . .
CitedDoyle v Mount Kidston Mining and Exploration Property Ltd 1984
(Queensland) McPherson J considered an estate agent’s contract: ‘it would have been quite artificial to suppose that the parties intended that the agent should earn his commission simply by finding an individual who, independently of any further . .
CitedShirlaw v Southern Foundries (1926) Ltd HL 1940
Where a party enters into an arrangement which can only take effect by the continuance of an existing state of circumstances, there is an implied engagement on his part that he will do nothing of his own motion to put an end to that state of . .
CitedMillar Son and Co v Radford CA 1903
For an estate agent to recover his commission, it was ‘necessary’ to show that the agent’s introduction was an ‘efficient’ (namely effective) cause in bringing about the transaction. . .

Cited by:
CitedOffice of Fair Trading v Abbey National Plc and seven Others ComC 24-Apr-2008
The Office sought a declaration that the respondent and other banks were subject to the provisions of the Regulations in their imposition of bank charges to customer accounts, and in particular as to the imposition of penalties or charges for the . .
CitedFoxtons Ltd v Pelkey Bicknell and Another CA 23-Apr-2008
The defendant appealed against a finding that she was liable to pay her estate agent, appointed as sole agent, on the sale of her property. The eventual purchasers had visited but rejected the property. The agency was later terminated, and the . .
CitedGlentree Estates Ltd and Others v Favermead Ltd ChD 20-May-2010
The claimant estate agents claimed commission on property sales. The defendant said that the agreement to pay commission had been waived.
Held: The sale triggered the commission. However the later agreement did work to vary the original . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Agency, Consumer

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.264035

Balfour Beatty Construction (Scotland) Ltd v Scottish Power Plc: HL 23 Mar 1994

The House was asked as to the treatment of the idea of remoteness of damages in a claim under contract in Scotland.
Held: A supplier was not to be imputed with knowledge of his purchaser’s technical processes.

Lord Keith of Kinkel, Lord Bridge of Harwich, Lord Jauncey of Tullichettle, Lord Brown Wilkinson, Lord Nolan
Times 23-Mar-1994, [1994] UKHL 11, [1994] CLC 321, 1994 SC (HL) 20, 1994 SLT 807
Bailii
Scotland

Damages, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.78106

Datec Electronics Holdings Ltd and others v United Parcels Services Ltd: HL 16 May 2007

The defendants had taken on the delivery of a quantity of the claimant’s computers. The equipment reached one depot, but then was lost or stolen. The parties disputed whether the Convention rules applied. UPS said that the claimant had agreed that the value of any one item did not exceed the stated limit. The claimants said that the alleged misconduct of the defendant’s staff meant that UPS could not rely on the limitation of liability provided by the Convention, and that with both restrictions not applying, UPS’s liability was unlimited.
Held: The contract should be read to reflect the commercial reality under which there remained an effective contract despite the excess value. Had the misconduct been proved? The judge had not reflected the proper effect of the expert evidence, and ‘theft involving a UPS employee was shown on a strong balance of probability to have been the cause of this loss. ‘ UPS’ appeal was therefore dismissed.

Lord Hoffmann, Lord Hope of Craighead, Lord Walker of Gestingthorpe, Lord Mance, Lord Neuberger of Abbotsbury
Times 18-May-2007, [2007] UKHL 23, [2007] 1 WLR 1325, [2007] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 114, [2007] Bus LR 1291
Bailii
Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road 81, Carriage of Goods by Road Act 1965
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedManning v Stylianou CA 26-Oct-2006
Where an appeal is against a judge’s evaluation of the facts, the Court of Appeal should consider the evaluation in the same way it would approach an appeal against the exercise of discretion. . .
CitedQuantum Corporation Inc and Others v Plane Trucking Ltd and Another CA 27-Mar-2002
A valuable cargo was stolen whilst being transported. Part of the journey was by road, and part by air. The carriers sought to limit their liability, because of the provisions of the Act and Convention. It was argued that that did not apply, because . .
ApprovedAssicurazioni Generali Spa v Arab Insurance Group (BSC) CA 13-Nov-2002
Rehearing/Review – Little Difference on Appeal
The appellant asked the Court to reverse a decision on the facts reached in the lower court.
Held: The appeal failed (Majority decision). The court’s approach should be the same whether the case was dealt with as a rehearing or as a review. . .
At First InstanceDatec Electronic Holdings Ltd and Another v United Parcels Service Ltd and Another ComC 22-Feb-2005
The claimant sought damages for the loss of goods in transit under the care of the defendant. Andrew Smith J held as regards the burden of proof in an allegation of wilful misconduct: ‘I should add that I was properly reminded by counsel that the . .
Appeal fromDatec Electronic Holdings Ltd and Another v United Parcels Service Ltd CA 29-Nov-2005
The parties put forward alternative explanations for the loss of a mail packet. Richards LJ said: ‘Nor do I see any inconsistency between my approach and the observations of Lord Brandon in The Popi M. The conclusion that employee theft was the . .

Cited by:
CitedLondon Borough of Lewisham v Malcolm and Disability Rights Commission CA 25-Jul-2007
The court was asked, whether asked to grant possession against a disabled tenant where the grounds for possession were mandatory. The defendant was a secure tenant with a history of psychiatric disability. He had set out to buy his flat, but the . .
CitedIde v ATB Sales Ltd and Another CA 28-Apr-2008
Each appellant challenged how the judge had decided between alternative proofs of causation of the respective loss. In Ide, the claimant asserted a fault in a cycle handlebar, and in Lexus, the claimant asserted that it caught fire whilst . .
CitedBarlow Clowes International Ltd and Others v Henwood CA 23-May-2008
The receiver appealed against an order finding that the debtor petitioner was not domiciled here when the order was made. The debtor had a domicile of origin in England, but later acquired on in the Isle of Man. He then acquired a home in Mauritius . .
CitedFosse Motor Engineers Ltd and others v Conde Nast and National Magazine Distributors Ltd and Another TCC 20-Aug-2008
The claimant said that the defendant’s employees had negligently started a fire which burned down the claimant’s warehouse. There was limited evidence to establish the cause.
Held: The claim failed. The scientific evidence did not point to any . .
CitedSony Computer Entertainment UK Ltd v Cinram Logistics UK Ltd CA 8-Aug-2008
Various items were deemed to have been lost whilst being transported by the defendants. The claimants sought damages based on the price for which they would have been sold. The defendants appealed a judgment on that basis.
Held: The carrier’s . .
CitedAlford v Cambridgeshire Police CA 24-Feb-2009
The claimant police officer had been held after an accident when he was in a high speed pursuit of a vehicle into the neighbouring respondent’s area. The prosecution had been discontinued, and he now appealed against rejection of his claims for . .
CitedWhitehouse v Lee CA 14-May-2009
The tenant appealed against an order requiring her to give up possession of her flat, held under the 1977 Act, saying that the court should not have found it reasonable to make an order after finding alternative accommodation suitable.
Held: . .
CitedCooper and Others v Fanmailuk.Com Ltd and Another CA 17-Dec-2009
F claimed to be the beneficial owner of shares registered in the names of the claimants. The appellants challenged a finding that the shares were held on trust for F, and the implication that the first appellant had presented a dishonest claim.
CitedNulty and Others v Milton Keynes Borough Council CA 24-Jan-2013
There had been two fires at a depot owned by the claimants. The fires were found to have been likely to have been caused by the deceased employee. His insurers had repudiated liability saying that the had not been notified oin a timely fashion.
CitedFortune and Others v Wiltshire Council and Another CA 20-Mar-2012
The court considered the contnuation of public rights of way against the new system of the ending of certain unrecorded rights.
Held: he appeal failed. ‘As a matter of plain language, section 67(2)(b) does not, in our judgment, require the . .
CitedFortune and Others v Wiltshire Council and Another CA 20-Mar-2012
The court considered the contnuation of public rights of way against the new system of the ending of certain unrecorded rights.
Held: he appeal failed. ‘As a matter of plain language, section 67(2)(b) does not, in our judgment, require the . .
CitedMichalak v General Medical Council and Others SC 1-Nov-2017
Dr M had successfully challenged her dismissal and recovered damages for unfair dismissal and race discrimination. In the interim, Her employer HA had reported the dismissal to the respondent who continued their proceedings despite the decision in . .
MentionedShagang Shipping Company Ltd v HNA Group Company Ltd SC 5-Aug-2020
Allegations had been made that a contract had been procured by bribery. The other party said that the admissions of bribery had been extracted by torture and were inadmissible. The CA had decided that the unproven possibility that it was obtained by . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Transport, Contract, Damages

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.252416

Steel v Young: SCS 11 Jan 1907

‘The main question to be disposed of under this appeal is that which is raised by the fact that the pursuer in building the walls of the house used milled lime instead of cement mortar as required by the specification.
In making that departure from the specification the pursuer was acting in accordance with the orders of the architect, but I am of opinion that nevertheless he must be regarded as being in breach of his contract in a question with the defender if the architect was not authorised by the latter to substitute the one material for the other.’

Lord Low
[1907] ScotCS CSIH – 4, 1907 SC 360, [1907] SLR 44 – 291
Bailii, Bailii
Scotland

Construction, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.279272

Ronaasen and Son v Arcos Ltd: HL 2 Feb 1933

A buyer may lawfully reject goods on the grounds of breach of condition, even though he did not know of the breach of condition at the time of the rejection; and the rejection will not be wrongful merely because he mistakenly alleged the breach of some other condition.
Where the contract contains a detailed description of the goods, minor discrepancies between the delivered goods and their description may entitle the purchaser to reject the goods.
Lord Atkin said: ‘If a condition is not performed the buyer has a right to reject. I do not myself think that there is any different between business men and laywers on this matter. No doubt, in business, men often find it unnecessary or inexpedient to insist on their strict legal rights. In a normal market if they get something substantially like the specified goods they may take them with or without grumbling and a claim for an allowance. But in a falling market I find that buyers are often as eager to insist on their legal rights as courts of law are ready to maintain them.’

Lord Buckmaster, Lord Blanesburgh, Lord Warrington of Clyffe, Lord Atkin, Lord Macmillan
[1933] UKHL 1, [1933] AC 470
Bailii
England and Wales

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.248486

Whitworth Street Estates (Manchester) Ltd v James Miller and Partners Ltd: HL 1970

The parties disagreed as to the curial law of an arbitration agreement. The proper law of the building contract and the arbitration agreement was English but the reference was conducted in Scotland.
Held: Evidence of behaviour after a contract had been made is inadmissible to assist in the construction of an entirely written contract. An application for the appointment of an arbitrator stated that there was a submission to arbitration within the meaning of the Arbitration Act 1950, but the arbitration was held to be subject to the law of Scotland. While evidence of subsequent conduct is admissible to determine the existence of a contract, it is not admissible to determine the terms of a contract.
Lord Reid: ‘It has been assumed in the course of this case that it is proper, in determining what was the proper law, to have regard to actings of the parties after their contract had been made. Of course the actings of the parties (including any words which they used) may be sufficient to show that they made a new contract. If they made no agreement originally as to the proper law, such actings may show that they made an agreement about that at a later stage. Or if they did make such an agreement originally such actings may show that they later agreed to alter it. But with regard to actings of the parties between the date of the original contract and the date of Mr. Underwood’s appointment I did not understand it to be argued that they were sufficient to establish any new contract, and I think they clearly were not. As I understood him, counsel sought to use those actings to show that there was an agreement when the original contract was made that the proper law of that contract was to be the law of England. I must say that I had thought that it is now well settled that it is not legitimate to use as an aid in the construction of the contract anything which the parties said or did after it was made. Otherwise one might have the result that a contract meant one thing the day it was signed, but by reason of subsequent events meant something different a month or a year later.’
Lord Hodson: ‘I should add that I cannot assent to the view which seems to have found favour in the eyes of the Master of the Rolls and Widgery LJ. that as a matter of construction the contract can be construed not only in its surrounding circumstances but also by reference to the subsequent conduct of the parties.’
Viscount Dilhorne: ‘I do not consider that one can properly have regard to the parties’ conduct after the contract has been entered into when considering whether an inference can be drawn as to their intention when they entered into the contract, though subsequent conduct by one party may give rise to an estoppel.’
Lord Wilberforce said: ‘once it was seen that the parties had made no express choice of law, the correct course was to ascertain from all relevant contemporary circumstances including, but not limited to, what the parties said or did at the time, what intention ought to be imputed to them on the formation of the contract. Unless it were to found an estoppel or a subsequent agreement, I do not think that subsequent conduct can be relevant to this question.’

Lord Reid, Lord Hodson, Viscount Dilhorne, Lord Wilberforce,
[1970] AC 572, [1970] 1 Lloyds Rep 269, [1970] 1 All ER 796, [1970] AC 583
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromWhitworth Street Estates (Manchester) Ltd v James Miller and Partners Ltd CA 1969
The parties, one in England and one in Scotland agreed to perform certain actions in Scotland. Any dispute was to be settled by arbitration, but it was not said whether this would be in England or Scotland. The curial law of arbitration would decide . .

Cited by:
CitedMontgomery v Johnson Underwood Ltd CA 9-Mar-2001
A worker who had strictly been employed by an agency but on a long term placement at a customer, claimed to have been unfairly dismissed by the customer when that placement ended.
Held: To see whether she was an employee the tribunal should . .
CitedHalpern and Another v Halpern and others ComC 24-Mar-2006
The deceased parents, being orthodox Jews, had first made standard wills and then made provision accoding to Jewish law. A dispute after the second death was referred to a Beth Din arbitration. After an initial resolution, various distributions were . .
CitedBeale v Harvey CA 28-Nov-2003
Land had been divided into three lots on its development, but the site plan did not match the line of a fence actually erected.
Held: The court was not bound by the Watcham case, and would not follow it to allow reference to the later . .
CitedF L Schuler AG v Wickman Machine Tools Sales Limited HL 4-Apr-1973
The parties entered an agreement to distribute and sell goods in the UK. They disagreed as to the meaning of a term governing the termination of the distributorship.
Held: The court can not take into account the post-contractual conduct or . .
CitedAB and others v British Coal Corporation (Department of Trade and Industry) QBD 27-Jun-2007
The parties disputed the effect of the Claims Handling Agreement (CHA) which regulated claims for compensation for respiratory diseases incurred by people working for the defendant as regards the circumstances for claimants with chronic bronchitis. . .
CitedSattar v Sattar and Another ChD 20-Feb-2009
The parties disputed the effect of a Tomlin order settling litigation between them. Under the order, if certain sums were not paid, the company was to be sold.
Held: Later behaviour could not be used to help interpret an agreement, and in this . .
CitedLexington Insurance Co v AGF Insurance Ltd HL 30-Jul-2009
The respondent insurers had been held liable in Washington, and had been granted indemnity against the appellants by the Court of Appeal. The insurance contract had been under the law of Pennsylvania, but that of the re-insurance under the law of . .
CitedRadford and Another v Frade and Others QBD 8-Jul-2016
The court was asked as to the terms on which solicitors and Counsel were retained to act for the defendants. The appeals did not raise any issues concerning costs practice, and were by way of review of the Costs Judge’s rulings, and not by way of . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Arbitration

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.194302

Waugh v Morris: 1873

Defence of Illegality of contract failed

Under a voyage charterparty, for a voyage from Trouville to London, pressed hay was to be loaded at Trouville and brought to London where it was to be taken from the ship alongside. The charterer’s agent told the master that the consignees under the bills of lading would require the hay to be delivered to them at a particular wharf in Deptford Creek and that he should proceed there on his arrival in London, which the master promised to do. On arriving in the Thames, the master learned for the first time that by an Order in Council France had been declared to be an infected country, and it was illegal to land in Great Britain any hay brought from that country. The Order had been made and published before the charter party was entered into, but neither the master of the ship nor the charterer’s agent was aware of it. On learning of the Order, the master refrained from landing the cargo at the wharf. After some delay, during which the contractual number of laydays elapsed, the charterer received the cargo from alongside the ship into another vessel and exported it. The owner claimed for detention. The claim was resisted by the charterer on the ground that the contract was unenforceable for illegality, because the purpose of the contract was the delivery of the consignment to London, which was prohibited by law.
Held: The defence failed. Where the party or parties were not aware that the intended performance was illegal and, on discovery, are subsequently content that the contract be performed in a legal manner within its terms, the contract is enforceable.
Blackburn J distinguished the case before him from one where the contract could not be performed without illegality or which was entered into for the object of satisfying an illegal purpose. He observed that all that the owner had bargained for, and could properly be said to have intended, was that on the ship’s arrival in London his freight should be paid and the hay taken out of the ship. As to an illegal object, he never contemplated that the charterer would violate the law. He contemplated that the charterer would land the goods and thought that this would be lawful; but if he had thought of the possibility of the landing being prohibited, he would probably, and correctly, have expected the charterer not to break the law. He continued: ‘We quite agree, that, where a contract is to do a thing which cannot be performed without a violation of the law it is void, whether the parties knew the law or not. But we think, that in order to avoid a contract which can be legally performed, on the ground that there was an intention to perform it in an illegal manner, it is necessary to show that there was the wicked intention to break the law; and, if this be so, the knowledge of what the law is becomes of great importance.’

Blackburn J
(1873) LR 8 QB 202
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act 1869
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedParkingeye Ltd v Somerfield Stores Ltd CA 17-Oct-2012
The claimant company operated parking management for the defendant, charging customers for overparking. The defendant came to believe that the claimant’s behaviour was over-aggressive, and the use of falsehoods, and terminated the contract. The . .
ApprovedAnglo Petroleum Ltd and Another v TFB (Mortgages) Ltd CA 16-May-2007
Challenge to validity of mortgages executed by company – allegation that funds used for financial assistance in purchase of own shares – effect on loan.
Toulson LJ approved the case of Waugh v Morris, saying: ‘130 years later, this statement of . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Transport

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.536187

Krupp v John Menzies Ltd: SCS 16 May 1907

kruppSCS1907

The court considered whether there had been an error in the contract and how it should be dealt with. Lord President Dunedin said: ‘it is a very delicate matter to interfere with a written contract expressed in clear terms, and that parole proof should not be rashly allowed in such a case. But there are cases in which it would be truly a disgrace to any system of jurisprudence if there was no way available of rectifying what would otherwise be a gross injustice.’

Lord President Dunedin
[1907] ScotCS CSIH – 7, (1907) 15 SLT 36, 1907 SC 903
Bailii
Cited by:
CitedAnderson v Lambie HL 25-Jan-1954
As the result of a mistake, a disposition of property conveyed the entirety of an estate which consisted mainly of a farm, but also included other property. The preceding missives of sale were capable of more than one meaning as to the extent of the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Scotland, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.279275

Khatri v Cooperatieve Centrale Raiffeisen-Boerenleenbank Ba: CA 23 Apr 2010

The claimant appealed against refusal of summary judgment on his claim for payment of a discretionary employment bonus by the defendant.
Held: The appeal succeeded and summary judgment was given. The contract properly construed did give rise to a bonus calculated according to the formula. Appying Elias J’s ‘only referable’ test, it would be quite wrong to infer from all the circumstances that the claimant had accepted changes to his contract, changes which were wholly to his disadvantage both by removing his right to performance related bonus and imposing restrictive covenants. Doing nothing, like saying nothing (in the absence of an obligation to communicate or act) is inherently ambiguous. The court had been asked whether the employee’s act of continuing to work constituted the acceptance of adverse changes to his contract. In this case it did not.

Rix LJ, Longmore LJ, Jacob LJ
[2010] EWCA Civ 397
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
ApprovedNigeria v Santolina Investment Corp and others ChD 7-Mar-2007
The federal government sought to recover properties from the defendants which it said were the proceeds of corrupt behaviour by the principal defendant who had been State Governor of a province. The claimant sought summary judgment.
Held: . .
CitedInvestors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society HL 19-Jun-1997
Account taken of circumstances wihout ambiguity
The respondent gave advice on home income plans. The individual claimants had assigned their initial claims to the scheme, but later sought also to have their mortgages in favour of the respondent set aside.
Held: Investors having once . .
CitedCommerzbank Ag v Keen CA 17-Nov-2006
The bank had sought summary dismissal of a claim for non-payment of bonuses to the claimant a former employee, and now appealed refusal of its request for summary dismissal, saying that the claim had no prospect of success. The claimant said that . .
CitedCantor Fitzgerald International v Horkulak CA 14-Oct-2004
The employee claimed under a bonus clause which ‘contained in a contract of employment in a high earning and competitive activity in which the payment of discretionary bonuses is part of the remuneration structure of employers.’
Held: The . .
CitedRigby v Ferodo Ltd HL 1988
The House considered a claim for constructive dismissal where the employer had changed the terms of the employment contract by unilaterally imposing a pay cut.
Held: It was possible for an employee to continue to work under protest as to the . .
CitedJones v Associated Tunnelling Co Ltd EAT 16-Oct-1981
The tribunal had been asked as to the circumstances under which the acceptance of new employment terms can be inferred from an employee’s continuing to work.
Browne-Wilkinson P said: ‘The starting point must be that a contract of employment . .
CitedSolectron Scotland Ltd v Roper and others EAT 31-Jul-2003
The court was asked whether, following a TUPE transfer, a contractual term with regard to the making of enhanced redundancy payments had been preserved.
Held: Elias J said: ‘The fundamental question is this: is the employee’s conduct, by . .

Cited by:
CitedParties Named In Schedule A v Dresdner Kleinwort Ltd and Another QBD 28-May-2010
The defendant merchant banks resisted two group claims for annual bonuses for 2008 made by the employee claimants. They now sought summary judgment against the claims. The employer had declared a guaranteed minimum bonus pool available to make the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Employment, Contract

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.408599

Office Angels Ltd v Rainer-Thomas: CA 1991

Reasonability Test of Post Employment Restriction

The court re-stated the principles applicable in testing whether an employee’s restrictive covenant was reasonable: ‘The court cannot say that a covenant in one form affords no more than adequate protection to a covenantee’s relevant legitimate interests if the evidence shows that a covenant in another form, much less far-reaching and less potentially prejudicial to the covenantor, would have afforded adequate protection.’
The court nevertheless identified a prototype non-solicitation covenant likely to be effective in most cases where there was a need to protect a client connection or a goodwill: ‘At least at first sight, a suitably drafted covenant precluding the defendants, for a reasonable period of time after the termination of their employment, from soliciting or dealing with clients of the plaintiff with whom they had dealt during the period of their employment would appear to have been quite adequate for the plaintiff’s protection in this context.’
Sir Christopher Slade said: ‘The employer’s claim for protection must be based upon the identification of some advantage or asset inherent in the business which can properly be regarded as,in a general sense, his property, and which it would be unjust to allow the employee to appropriate for his own purposes, even though he, the employee, may have contributed to its creation.’

Sir Christopher Slade
[1991] IRLR 215
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedKores Manufacturing Co Ltd v Kolok Manufacturing Ltd CA 1959
When considering a post employment restrictive covenant on an employee, the court should allow that an employer has a legitimate interest in maintaining a stable and trained workforce. However, even accepting that interest, an employer has no . .
CitedHerbert Morris Ltd v Saxelby HL 1916
For a covenant in restraint of trade to be treated as reasonable in the interests of the parties ‘it must afford no more than adequate protection to the benefit of the party in whose favour it is imposed.’ There is a need for the court to consider . .
CitedStenhouse Australia Ltd v Phillips PC 2-Oct-1973
(Australia) An employer’s claim for protection from competition by a former employee under a restrictive covenant must be based upon the identification of some advantage or asset inherent in the business which can properly be regarded as, in a . .

Cited by:
CitedAllan Janes Llp v Johal ChD 23-Feb-2006
The claimant sought to enforce a restrictive covenant against the defendant a former assistant solicitor as to non-competition within a certain distance of the practice for a period of three years. After leaving she had sought to set up partnership . .
CitedDentmaster (UK) Limited v Kent CA 2-May-1997
The court was asked as to whether a post-employment non-solicitation restrictive covenant was reasonable.
Held: The covenant was upheld. It extended for a period of twelve months to customers within the last six months with whom the employee . .
CitedDawnay, Day and Co Limited; Wilcourt Investments Limited v D’Alphen; Johnston; Parkman; Cantor Fitzgerald International CA 22-May-1997
The defendants were investment managers who left the plaintiff’s employment to take up posts with a rival. DD issued these proceedings claiming to enforce inter alia contractual undertakings by the defendants not to compete with the business of DDS, . .
CitedFSS Travel and Leisure Systems Limited v Johnson and Chauntry Corporation Limited CA 19-Nov-1997
The court considered a covenant said to be in restraint of trade. The employee was a 25 year old computer programmer who had worked entirely upon a computerised booking system for the travel industry.
Held: The employer had failed to identify . .
CitedAssembly Solutions and Tools Ltd v Mitchell SCS 7-Dec-2007
. .
CitedNorbrook Laboratories (GB) Ltd v Adair and Another QBD 6-May-2008
The claimants sought a post employment injunction to prevent the defendant revealing confidential materials relating to inventions created during his employment. . .
CitedWRN Ltd v Ayris QBD 21-May-2008
The claimant sought to enforce post employment contracts against the defendant. One issue was whether or not business cards that had been given to the employee in the course of his employment, as well as cards that were already in his possession and . .
CitedKynixa Ltd v Hynes and others QBD 30-Jun-2008
Complaint of breaches of employment contracts and shareholders’ agreements. . .
CitedAccounting, Secretarial and Personnel Limited T/a ASAP Recruitment v Stuart Hallford SCS 10-Aug-2000
. .
CitedThurstan Hoskin and Partners v Jewill Hill and Bennett (A Firm) and others CA 5-Feb-2002
. .
CitedAxiom Business Computers Ltd v Frederick ScS 20-Nov-2003
Lord Bracadale re-iterated the principles used in assessing whether a proposed employment condition operated as an unlawful restraint on trade: ‘(i) A covenant in restraint of trade is void unless it is reasonable in the interests of the parties and . .
CitedBeckett Investment Management Group Ltd and others v Hall and others CA 28-Jun-2007
The company sought to enforce restrictive covenants entered into by employees of its subsidiary. The employees said that the covenants did not benefit them.
Held: The court should take a realistic view of corporate identity in such situations. . .
CitedGreck v Henderson Asia Pacific Equity Partners (Fp) Lp and others SCS 8-Jan-2008
. .
CitedSeabrokers Ltd v Riddell SCS 15-Aug-2007
. .
CitedTFS Derivatives Ltd v Morgan QBD 15-Nov-2004
The claimant sought to enforce a post employment restrictive covenant. There was a 6 months’ prohibition, post-termination of employment (less any period of garden leave) on any employment which was competitive with the business of a former . .
CitedLeeds Rugby Ltd v Harris and Bradford Bulls Holdings Limited QBD 20-Jul-2005
The claimant sought damages from the defendants saying that the second defendant had induced a breach of contract by the first when he left to play rugby for the second defendant.
Held: The contract could not be said to be void as an agreement . .
CitedBeckett Investment Management Group Ltd. Beckett Financial Services Ltd. Beckett Asset Management Ltd and others v Hall and others QBD 16-Feb-2007
. .
CitedBridgend County Borough Council v Stephens EAT 10-Dec-1999
. .
CitedBridgend Borough Council v Sutton EAT 22-Jan-2002
. .
CitedWatts v Information Commissioner IT 20-Nov-2007
. .
CitedDuarte v The Black and Decker Corporation and Another QBD 23-Nov-2007
Attempt to enforce restrictive covenant in employment contract. . .
CitedAssociated Foreign Exchange Ltd v International Foreign Exchange (UK) Ltd and Another ChD 26-May-2010
The claimant sought interim injunctions to enforce a restrictive covenant against solicitation of customers in a former employee’s contract. The employee, a FOREX dealer, had been placed on garden leave for three months and then his contract . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Employment, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.240032

Barry Ostlere and Shepherd Ltd v Edinburgh Cork Importing Co: SCS 5 Jun 1909

The pursuers ordered large quantities of cork shavings. They were not delivered and claimed in damages after the prices in the open market rose. The defenders said that no contract had been concluded, that the negotiations between the parties resulted in nothing more than an offer on the part of the pursuers to purchase the goods; that this offer required acceptance on the part of the defenders, and that they did not accept it.
Held: The pursuers’ appeal succeeded. A contract had been concluded. They party negotiating for the defenders had apparent authority to make the contract and it was not for the pursuers to question his status.

Lord Pearson
1909 1 SLT 540, 1909 SC 1113, [1909] ScotCS CSIH – 2
Bailii
Scotland

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.279294

Hadley v Baxendale: Exc 23 Feb 1854

Contract Damages; What follows the Breach Naturaly

The plaintiffs had sent a part of their milling machinery for repair. The defendants contracted to carry it, but delayed in breach of contract. The plaintiffs claimed damages for the earnings lost through the delay. The defendants appealed, saying that the damages were too remote.
Held: The case was to be retried.
Alderson B said: ‘Where two parties have made a contract which one of them has broken, the damages which the other party ought to receive in respect of such breach of contract should be such as may be fairly and reasonably be considered either as arising naturally, ie according to the usual course of things, from such breach of contract itself, or such as may reasonably be supposed to have been in the contemplation of both parties, at the time they made the contract, as the probable result of the breach of it. Now, if the special circumstances under which the contract was actually made where communicated by the plaintiffs to the defendants, and thus known to both parties, the damages resulting from the breach of such a contract, which they would reasonably contemplate, would be the amount of injury which would ordinarily follow from a breach of contract under these special circumstances so known and communicated. But, on the other hand, if these special circumstances were wholly unknown to the party breaking the contract, he, at the most, could only be supposed to have had in his contemplation the amount of injury which would arise generally, and in the great multitude of cases not affected by any special circumstances, from such a breach of contract. For such loss would neither have flowed naturally from the breach of this contract in the great multitude of such cases occurring under ordinary circumstances, nor were the special circumstances, which, perhaps, would have made it a reasonable and natural consequence of such breach of contract, communicated to or known by the defendants. The Judge ought, therefore, to have told the jury, that, upon the facts then before them, they ought not to take the loss of profits into consideration at all in estimating the damages. There must therefore be a new trial in this case.’

Alderson B
[1854] EWHC Exch J70, [1854] EngR 296, (1854) 9 Exch 341, (1854) 156 ER 145
Bailii, Commonlii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedG and K Ladenbau (UK) Ltd v Crawley and De Reya QBD 25-Apr-1977
The defendant solicitors acted for the plaintiff in the purchase of land, but failed to undertake a commons search which would have revealed an entry which would prevent the client pursuing his development. The defect was discovered only when . .
CitedWatford Electronics Ltd v Sanderson CFL Ltd CA 23-Feb-2001
The plaintiff had contracted to purchase software from the respondent. The system failed to perform, and the defendant sought to rely upon its exclusion and limitation of liability clauses.
Held: It is for the party claiming that a contract . .
CitedPlatform Home Loans Ltd v Oyston Shipways Ltd and others HL 18-Feb-1999
The plaintiffs had lent about 1 million pounds on the security of property negligently valued at 1.5 million pounds. The property was sold for much less than that and the plaintiffs suffered a loss of 680,000 pounds. The judge found that the . .
CitedCaledonian North Sea Ltd v London Bridge Engineering Ltd and Others HL 7-Feb-2002
Substantial personal injury claims had been settled following the Piper Alpha disaster. Where a contractual indemnity had been provided under a contract, and insurance had also been taken out, but the insurance had not been a contractual . .
CitedAlfred Mcalpine Construction Limited v Panatown Limited HL 17-Feb-2000
A main contractor who was building not on his own land, would only be free to claim damages from a sub-contractor for defects in the building where the actual owner of the land would not also have had a remedy. Here, the land owner was able to sue . .
CitedJackson and Davies (Trading As Samson Lancastrian) v Royal Bank of Scotland CA 28-Jun-2000
In error, the bank disclosed to one customer, the mark up being taken by another in selling on goods to that first customer. The second customer went to make its purchasers direct, and the first customer sought damages from the bank. The bank . .
AppliedJackson and Another v Royal Bank of Scotland HL 27-Jan-2005
The claimants sought damages, alleging that a breach of contract by the defendant had resulted in their being unable to earn further profits elsewhere. The defendant said the damages claimed were too remote. The bank had, by error, disclosed to one . .
RestatedVictoria Laundry (Windsor) Ltd v Newman Industries CA 1949
The plaintiffs claimed for loss of the profits from their laundry business because of late delivery of a boiler.
Held: The Court did not regard ‘loss of profits from the laundry business’ as a single type of loss. They distinguished losses . .
CitedCzarnikow (C ) Ltd v Koufos; The Heron II HL 17-Oct-1967
The vessel had arrived late at Basrah in breach of the terms of the charterparty. The House was asked as to the measure of damages. The charterers had intended to sell the cargo of sugar promptly upon arrival, and now claimed for the fall in the . .
AppliedCox v Philips Industries Ltd 15-Oct-1975
Damages for distress, vexation and frustration, including consequent ill-health, could be recovered for breach of a contract of employment if it could be said to have been in the contemplation of the parties that the breach would cause such distress . .
CitedHeywood v Wellers CA 1976
The claimant instructed solicitors in injunction proceedings which they conducted negligently. The solicitors had put the case in the hands of an incompetent junior clerk. She sued acting in person, and succeeded but now appealed the only limited . .
CitedCroudace Construction Limited v Cawoods CA 1978
A clause in a contract provided that: ‘We are not under any circumstances to be liable for any consequential loss or damage caused or arising by reason of late supply or any fault, failure or defect in any material or goods supplied by us or by . .
CitedPegler Ltd v Wang (UK) Ltd TCC 25-Feb-2000
Standard Conract – Wide Exclusions, Apply 1977 Act
The claimant had acquired a computer system from the defendant, which had failed. It was admitted that the contract had been broken, and the court set out to decide the issue of damages.
Held: Even though Wang had been ready to amend one or . .
CitedSmithkline Beecham Plc Glaxosmithkline UK Ltd and Another v Apotex Europe Ltd and others (No 2) CA 23-May-2006
The parties to the action had given cross undertakings to support the grant of an interim injunction. A third party subsequently applied to be joined, and now sought to take advantage of the cross undertakings to claim the losses incurred through . .
CitedWiseman v Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd QBD 29-Jun-2006
The claimant said that he was refused permission to board a flight by the defendants representative without paying a bribe, and was publicly humiliated for not doing so.
Held: Whilst the claimant could recover for his own additional expenses, . .
CitedTransfield Shipping Inc of Panama v Mercator Shipping Inc of Monrovia ComC 1-Dec-2006
The owners made substantial losses after the charterers breached the contract by failing to redliver the ship on time as agreed.
Held: On the facts found the Owners’ primary claim is not too remote. To the knowledge of the Charterers, it was . .
CitedThe ‘Pegase’ 1981
The court considered the measure of damages for breach of contract in the light of the cases in the Heron II and Victoria Laundry: ‘the principle in Hadley v Baxendale is now no longer stated in terms of two rules, but rather in terms of a single . .
CitedSempra Metals Ltd v Inland Revenue Commissioners and Another HL 18-Jul-2007
The parties agreed that damages were payable in an action for restitution, but the sum depended upon to a calculation of interest. They disputed whether such interest should be calculated on a simple or compound basis. The company sought compound . .
CitedPenwith District Council v VP Developments Ltd TCC 2-Nov-2007
The council sought to appeal against an interim arbitration award.
Held: Leave to appeal was refused. The application was wholly unjustified. This was an appeal on the facts dressed up as an appeal on law. . .
CitedTransfield Shipping Inc v Mercator Shipping Inc (The Achilleas) HL 9-Jul-2008
The parties contracted to charter the Achileas. The charterer gave notice to terminate the hire, and the owner found a new charterer. Until the termination the charterers sub-chartered. That charter was not completed, delaying the ship for the . .
CitedDoyle v Olby (Ironmongers) Ltd CA 31-Jan-1969
The plaintiff had been induced by the fraudulent misrepresentation of the defendant to buy an ironmonger’s business for 4,500 pounds plus stock at a valuation of 5,000 pounds. Shortly after the purchase, he discovered the fraud and started the . .
CitedMarkerstudy Insurance Company Ltd and Others v Endsleigh Insurance Services Ltd ComC 18-Feb-2010
The claimant insurers alleged the mishandling of insurance claims by the defendant of many claims leading to substantial losses. The parties asked the court to determine a basis for calculation of damages under the contract.
Held: A similar . .
CitedKpohraror v Woolwich Building Society CA 1996
The Society, acting as a bank, had at first failed to pay its customer’s cheque for andpound;4,550, even though there were sufficient funds. The bank said that it had been reported lost. The customer sought damages to his business reputation.
CitedLittlewoods Ltd and Others v Commissioners for Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs SC 1-Nov-2017
The appellants had overpaid under a mistake of law very substantial sums in VAT over several years. The excess had been repaid, but with simple interest and not compound interest, which the now claimed (together with other taxpayers amounting to 17 . .
AppliedHerbert Clayton and Jack Waller Ltd v Oliver HL 1930
When awarding damages for breach of contract courts should take care to confine the damages to their proper ambit: making good financial loss. When considering an award of damages to an actor who should have been billed to appear at the London . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Damages

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.182804

Interfoto Picture Library Ltd v Stiletto Visual Programmes Ltd: CA 12 Nov 1987

Incorporation of Onerous Terms Requires More Care

Photographic transparencies were hired out to the advertising agency defendant. The contract clauses on the delivery note included a fee which was exorbitant for the retention of transparencies beyond the set date.
Held: The plaintiff had not managed to include the terms in the contract, which was only made when the deivery was received. Damages on a quantum meruit were substituted. Where a party wishes to incorporate particularly onerous or unusual conditions, it is necessary to do something to draw the attention of the other party to those conditions. A delivery of goods at the request of a potential customer may constitute an offer to supply the goods, which the customer accepts by keeping the goods. There should be no over-arching principle of good faith, but rather piecemeal solutions in response to demonstrated problems of unfairness.
Lord Justice Dillon said: ‘It has to be said, however, that the holding fee charged by the plaintiffs by condition 2 is extremely high and in my view exorbitant . . It would seem therefore that the defendants would have had a strong case for saying that condition 2 was void and unenforceable as a penalty clause; but that point was not taken in the court below or in the notice of appeal.’
Lord Justice Bingham described ‘an overriding principle’ recognised by the law of obligations ‘in many civil law systems, and perhaps in most legal systems outside the common law world’ that ‘in making and carrying out contracts parties should act in good faith’.
However English law recognised no such principle: ‘English law . . . has developed piecemeal solutions in response to demonstrated problems of unfairness. Many examples could be given. Thus equity has intervened to strike down unconscionable bargains. Parliament has stepped in to regulate the imposition of exemption clauses and the form of certain hire-purchase agreements. The common law also has made its contribution, by holding that certain classes of contract require the utmost good faith, by treating as irrecoverable what purport to be agreed estimates of damage but are in truth a disguised penalty for breach, and in many other ways.’
The defendant was to be relieved of the liability imposed by the standard terms sought because the plaintiff had not done ‘what was necessary to draw this unreasonable and extortionate clause fairly to [the defendant’s] attention’.
But ‘In reaching the conclusion I have expressed I would not wish to be taken as deciding that condition 2 was not challengeable as a disguised penalty clause. This point was not argued before the judge nor raised in the notice of appeal. It was accordingly not argued before us. I have accordingly felt bound to assume, somewhat reluctantly, that condition 2 would be enforceable if fully and fairly brought to the defendants’ attention.’

Dillon and Bingham LJJ
[1989] QB 433, [1998] 1 All ER 348, [1987] EWCA Civ 6
lip, Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedHood v Anchor Line (Henderson Bros) Ltd HL 1-Jul-1918
An English court may exercise its jurisdiction in personam over the liquidator to enforce the contract between the chargee and the company, and may require the liquidator to pay the proceeds to the chargee, The Scottish courts did not recognise the . .
CitedMcCutcheon v David MacBrayne Ltd HL 21-Jan-1964
The appellant had asked his brother-in-law to have a car shipped from Islay to the mainland. The appellant had personally consigned goods on four previous occasions. On three of them he was acting on behalf of his employer; on the other occasion he . .
CitedParker v South Eastern Railway Co CA 1877
The plaintiff took a parcel to a railway company depot for delivery, and received a ticket on which were printed conditions including a disclaimer. On the front of the ticket were printed the words ‘see back’. The jury was asked only if they . .
CitedSpurling (J ) Ltd v Bradshaw CA 1956
A person will not be bound by terms of a contract of which he has not received reasonable notice. Denning LJ: ‘I quite agree that the more unreasonable a clause is, the greater the notice which must be given of it. Some clauses which I have seen . .
CitedThornton v Shoe Lane Parking Ltd CA 18-Dec-1970
The claimant had suffered damage at the defendant’s car park. The defendant relied upon an exemption clause printed on the ticket, and now appealed against rejection of its defence under the clause.
Held: The appeal failed. The more extreme an . .

Cited by:
CitedConfetti Records (A Firm), Fundamental Records, Andrew Alcee v Warner Music UK Ltd (Trading As East West Records) ChD 23-May-2003
An agreement was made for the assignment of the copyright in a music track, but it remained ‘subject to contract’. The assignor later sought to resile from the assignment.
Held: It is standard practice in the music licensing business for a . .
CitedAmiri Flight Authority v BAE Systems Plc CA 17-Oct-2003
The appellant had contracted to purchase maintenance from the defendant of aircraft it had also purchased from them. They sought damages for negligence, saying the defendants had failed to prevent a known risk of corrosion. The defendants argued . .
CitedRegina v Immigration Officer at Prague Airport and another, ex parte European Roma Rights Centre and others HL 9-Dec-2004
Extension oh Human Rights Beyond Borders
The appellants complained that the system set up by the respondent where Home Office officers were placed in Prague airport to pre-vet applicants for asylum from Romania were dsicriminatory in that substantially more gypsies were refused entry than . .
CitedRevenue and Customs v Debenhams Retail Plc CA 18-Jul-2005
The store introduced a system whereby when a customer paid by credit card, the charges made to them for card handling were expressed as a separate amount on the receipt. The store then said that VAT was payable only on the net amount allocated to . .
CitedBrodie, Marshall and Co (Hotel Division) Ltd v Sharer 1988
The defendant resisted payment of his estate agent’s charges. The agency contract gave the agent sole selling rights, but the purchaser was found on the vendor’s own initiative. The terms made commission was payable if ‘we introduce directly of . .
CitedEuro London Appointments Ltd v Claessens International Ltd CA 6-Apr-2006
The court considered whether a clause in an employment agency’s terms and conditions amounted to a penalty and was unenforceable. The contract provided that if the offer was withdrawn by the eventual employer after acceptance but before the . .
CitedStretford v The Football Association Ltd and Another CA 21-Mar-2007
The claimant was a football player’s agent. The licensing scheme required disputes, including disciplinary procedures, to be referred to arbitration. He denied that the rule had been incorporated in the contract. He also complained that the . .
CitedSumukan Ltd v The Commonwealth Secretariat CA 21-Mar-2007
The appellants sought to challenge a finding that they had by their contract with the defendants excluded the right to appeal to a court on a point of law. The defendants replied that the appeal court had no jurisdiction to hear such an appeal.
CitedBankway Properties Ltd v Penfold-Dunsford and Another CA 24-Apr-2001
A grant of an assured tenancy included a clause under which the rent would be increased from pounds 4,680, to pounds 25,000 per year. It was expected that the tenant would be reliant upon Housing Benefit to pay the rent, and that Housing Benefit . .
CitedGreen v Petfre (Gibraltar) Ltd (T/A Betfred) QBD 7-Apr-2021
Onerous Contract Terms Unclear – Not Incorporated
The claimant said that he had won a substantial sum on the online gaming platform operated by the defendants, but that they had refused to pay up. The defendants said that there had been a glitch in the game. The court faced a request for summary . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.177484

Jarvis v Swans Tours Ltd: CA 16 Oct 1972

The plaintiff had booked a holiday through the defendant travel tour company. He claimed damages after the holiday failed to live up to expectations.
Held: In appropriate cases where one party contracts to provide entertainment and enjoyment, including a contract for a holiday, damages can be recovered for mental distress and vexation. The damages awarded by the county court judge were inadequate. The descriptions in the brochure were representations or warranties, but after the 1967 Act, it was no longer necessary to decide which since damages were available for either. The measure of damages was the loss of entertainment and enjoyment which was promised, and not delivered.
Lord Denning said: ‘In a proper case damages for mental distress can be recovered in contract, just as damages for shock can be recovered in tort. One such case is a contract for a holiday or any other contract to provide entertainment and enjoyment. If the contracting party breaks his contract, damages can be given for the disappointment, the distress, the upset and frustration caused by the breach. I know that it is difficult to assess in terms of money, but it is no more difficult than the assessment which the courts have to make every day in personal injury cases for loss of amenity. Take the present case. Mr Jarvis has only a fortnight’s holiday in the year. He books it far ahead and looks forward to it all that time. He ought to be compensated for the loss of it . . Here Mr Jarvis’s fortnight’s winter holiday has been a grave disappointment. It is true that he was conveyed to Switzerland and had meals and bed in the hotel. But that is not what he went for. He went to enjoy himself with all the facilities which the defendant said he would have. He is entitled to damages for the lack of those facilities and for his loss of enjoyment.’
Edmund Davies LJ said: ‘The court is entitled, and indeed bound, to contrast the overall quality of the holiday so enticingly promised with that which the defendant in fact provided . . When a man has paid for and properly expects an invigorating and amusing holiday and, through no fault of his, returns home dejected because his expectations have been largely unfulfilled in my judgment it would be quite wrong to say his disappointment must find no reflection in the damages to be awarded.’

Lord Denning MR, Edmund Davies and Stephenson LJJ
[1973] 1 All ER 71, [1972] 3 WLR 954, [1973] QB 233, [1972] EWCA Civ 8
lip, Bailii
Misrepresentation Act 1967
England and Wales
Citing:
Not FollowedHobbs v London and South Western Railway Co 1875
The court considered an application for damages for inconvenience in a breach of contract case: ‘for the mere inconvenience, such as annoyance and loss of temper, or vexation, or for being disappointed in a particular thing which you have set your . .
CitedBailey v Bullock 1950
The court awarded damages against solicitors for the inconvenience to the plaintiff of having to live in an overcrowded house. . .
CitedStedman v Swan’s Tours CA 1951
The plaintiffs sought damages for their disappointing holiday in Jersey. Instead of enjoying the superior rooms with a sea view in a first class hotel expected, the holiday party found that the rooms reserved for them were very inferior and had no . .
CitedBruen v Bruce (Practice Note) CA 1959
. .
CitedFeldman v Allways Travel Service 1957
The claimant sought damages after a disappointing holiday.
Held: Such damages were capable of being awarded. . .
Not FollowedHamlin v Great Northern Railway Co 19-Nov-1856
A plaintiff can recover whatever damages naturally resulted from the breach of contract, but damages cannot be given ‘for the disappointment of mind occasioned by the breach of contract.’ . .
CitedGriffiths v Evans CA 1953
The parties disputed the terms on which the solicitor had been engaged, and in particular as to the scope of the duty undertaken by and entrusted to the solicitor as regards advising the client.
Held: Where there is a dispute between a . .

Cited by:
AppliedHeywood v Wellers CA 1976
The claimant instructed solicitors in injunction proceedings which they conducted negligently. The solicitors had put the case in the hands of an incompetent junior clerk. She sued acting in person, and succeeded but now appealed the only limited . .
CitedWiseman v Virgin Atlantic Airways Ltd QBD 29-Jun-2006
The claimant said that he was refused permission to board a flight by the defendants representative without paying a bribe, and was publicly humiliated for not doing so.
Held: Whilst the claimant could recover for his own additional expenses, . .
CitedYearworth and others v North Bristol NHS Trust CA 4-Feb-2009
The defendant hospital had custody of sperm samples given by the claimants in the course of fertility treatment. The samples were effectively destroyed when the fridge malfunctioned. Each claimant was undergoing chemotherapy which would prevent them . .
CitedMilner and Another v Carnival Plc (T/A Cunard) CA 20-Apr-2010
Damages for Disastrous Cruise
The claimants had gone on a cruise organised by the defendants. It was described by them as ‘the trip of a lifetime.’ It did not meet their expectations. There had been several complaints, including that the cabin was noisy as the floor flexed with . .
CitedRuxley Electronics and Construction Ltd v Forsyth HL 29-Jun-1995
Damages on Construction not as Agreed
The appellant had contracted to build a swimming pool for the respondent, but, after agreeing to alter the specification to construct it to a certain depth, in fact built it to the original lesser depth, Damages had been awarded to the house owner . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Consumer, Contract, Damages

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.174316

Lavarack v Woods of Colchester Ltd: CA 1967

Damages for wrongful dismissal could not confer on an employee extra benefits that the contract did not oblige the employer to confer. There is a clear distinction between expectations, however reasonable, and contractual obligations.
Diplock LJ said: ‘the first task of the assessor of damages is to estimate as best he can what the plaintiff would have gained in money or money’s worth if the defendant had fulfilled his legal obligations and had done no more. Where there is an anticipatory breach by wrongful repudiation, this can at best be an estimate, whatever the date of the hearing. It involves assuming that what has not occurred and never will occur has occurred or will occur, ie that the defendant has since the breach performed his legal obligations under the contract and, if the estimate is made before the contract would otherwise have come to an end, that he will continue to perform his legal obligations thereunder until the due date of its termination. But the assumption to be made is that the defendant has performed or will perform his legal obligations under his contract with the plaintiff and nothing more.’

Diplock LJ, Lord Denning MR, Russell LJ
[1967] 1 QB 278, [1966] EWCA Civ 4, [1966] 3 All ER 683, [1966] 1 KIR 312, [1966] 3 WLR 706
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedBrace v Calder 1895
The dissolution of the employing partnership brings a contract of employment to an end.
Rigby LJ said: ‘a contract to serve four employers cannot, without express language, be construed as being a contract to serve two of them . . the . .

Cited by:
ApprovedNorth Sea Energy Holdings Nv (Formerly Midland and Scottish Holdings Nv) v Petroleum Authority of Thailand CA 16-Dec-1998
The buyers repudiated an oil purchase agreement and the sellers accepted their repudiation. The sellers could not show that they would have been able to obtain the oil to sell.
Held: They were not entitled to substantial damages. . .
CitedGolden Strait Corporation v Nippon Yusen Kubishka Kaisha (‘The Golden Victory’) HL 28-Mar-2007
The claimant sought damages for repudiation of a charterparty. The charterpary had been intended to continue until 2005. The charterer repudiated the contract and that repudiation was accepted, but before the arbitrator could set his award, the Iraq . .
CitedBlackpool and Fylde Aero Club Ltd v Blackpool Borough Council CA 25-May-1990
The club had enjoyed a concession from the council to operate pleasure flights from the airport operated by the council. They were invited to bid for a new concession subject to strict tender rules. They submitted the highest bid on time, but the . .
CitedNestle v National Westminster Bank CA 6-May-1992
The claimant said that the defendant bank as trustee of her late father’s estate had been negligent in its investment of trust assets.
Held: The claimant had failed to establish either a breach of trust or any loss flowing from it, though . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Damages, Employment, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.252494

OT Africa Line Ltd v Magic Sportswear Corporation and others: CA 13 Jun 2005

The parties to a contract had agreed that the proper law for the contract was England. One party commenced proceedings in Canada, and the courts of Canada had accepted jurisdiction as the most appropriate and convenient forum to resolve the dispute. Proceedings were also begun in England, and the original Canadian claimant now appealed a refusal to restrain the action.
Held: The appeal failed. Whilst it was important to avoid a clash of jurisdictions, the autonomy of the parties to make their own contract was more important than the place of business or where the location was made: ‘no English court would expect a foreign court to grant a stay by reason of any provision of English law, if an action was proceeding in that foreign court by virtue of an agreement, governed by the law of that court, that proceedings were to be brought in the courts of that country. Conversely an English court would hope that a decision to retain an action brought in England, pursuant to an exclusive jurisdiction clause in a contract governed by English law, would be respected by any foreign court.’ However: ‘In the case of exclusive jurisdiction clauses, however, comity has a smaller role. It goes without saying that any court should pay respect to another (foreign) court but, if the parties have actually agreed that a foreign court is to have sole jurisdiction over any dispute, the true role of comity is to ensure that the parties’ agreement is respected.’

Laws, Rix and Longmore LJJ
[2005] EWCA Civ 710, Times 21-Jun-2005, [2006] 1 All ER (Comm) 32, [2005] 2 LLR 170, [2005] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 170, [2005] 1 CLC 923
Bailii
Contracts (Applicable Law) Act 1990
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedDonohue v Armco Inc and others HL 13-Dec-2001
The appellant had sought injunctions against the respondent US companies to restrain their commencing proceedings in the US against him. The parties had negotiated for the purchase of the run-off liabilities of a defunct insurance company. . .
CitedThe Eleftheria 1970
In general, and all other things being equal, it is more satisfactory (from the point of view of ensuring that justice is done) for the law of a foreign country to be decided by the courts of that country.
Brandon J said: ‘I further regard, . .
CitedThe El Amria 1981
The court set out the principles to be applied where a party seeks to enforce or act in breach of a choice of jurisdiction contract. If a party seek to sue here in breach of such a clause, the court has a discretion to stay, but a stay should be . .
CitedVita Food Products Inc v Unus Shipping Co Ltd PC 30-Jan-1939
(Nova Scotia) Goods were shipped from Newfoundland under a bill of lading which contained an exemption for loss caused by the servants of the carrier. This exemption was void by the law of Newfoundland, whose legislature had enacted the Hague Rules, . .
CitedAdams v National Bank of Greece HL 1961
Questions of interpretation and enforcement of contracts are resolved by reference to the proper law. Although debt under a contract whose proper law is the law of another jurisdiction may, for the purposes of Scots law, be discharged by insolvency . .
CitedAirbus Industrie G I E v Patel and Others HL 18-Mar-1999
An Indian Airlines Airbus A-320 crashed at Bangalore airport after an internal Indian flight. The plaintiff passengers lived in England. Proceedings began in Bangalore against the airline and the airport authority. The natural forum was the . .
CitedAMCHEM Products Incorporated v British Columbia (Workers’ Compensation Board) 24-Mar-1993
Supreme Court of Canada – Courts – Appropriate forum – Action commenced in U.S. courts – Plaintiffs largely resident in Canada – Most of corporate defendants with some connection with state where action brought – Anti-suit injunction sought in . .
CitedErich Gasser GmbH v MISAT Srl ECJ 9-Dec-2003
The claimant Austrian company had for many years sold goods to the defendant an Italian company. Eventually it presented a claim before the court in Italy. Having obtained judgement, it later sought to enforce the order through the Austrian court . .
CitedSabah Shipyard (Pakistan) Ltd v The Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Another CA 14-Nov-2002
An order was sought to restrain proceedings in Pakistan.
Held: The agreement provided that it should be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of England. The national state was also party to the agreement, and had waived sovereign immunity. It . .
CitedAggeliki Charis Compania Maritima SA v Pagnan SpA – The Angelic Grace CA 1995
On the charterers’ orders the Angelic Grace was required to tie up alongside another vessel which they owned. Whilst unloading the weather turned and the vessels collided. Each blamed the other and the owners claimed a salvage. The court considered . .
CitedContinental Bank Na v Aeakos Compania Naviera Sa and Others CA 26-Nov-1993
The Bank was entitled to an injunction in the UK, by virtue of the jurisdiction given in their agreement, even though it was not the UK court which was first seised of the matter. Steyn LJ said: ‘. . a claim for damages for breach of contract would . .
CitedSociete Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale v Lee Kui Jak, Yong Joon Kim and, Lee Kui Jak (F) PC 14-May-1987
Brunei Darussalam – The Board was asked where a civil claim should be tried.
Held: The court stated some principles governing the grant of anti-suit injunctions restraining foreign proceedings. The inconvenience of a forum is of itself not a . .
CitedThe Fehmarn 1957
Willmer J said: ‘Clearly it requires a strong case to satisfy the court that the agreement [an express agreement to submit to a foreign tribunal] should be overridden.’ . .
CitedThe Fehmarn 1958
The effect of an agreement prorogating a foreign jurisdiction is to confer on the English court a discretion to stay the English proceedings. . .
CitedTurner v Grovit and others HL 13-Dec-2001
The applicant was a solicitor employed by a company in Belgium. He later resigned claiming unfair dismissal, saying he had been pressed to become involved in unlawful activities. The defendants sought to challenge the jurisdiction of the English . .
CitedTurner v Grovit ECJ 27-Apr-2004
The claimant had been employed as a solicitor by the respondent at locations across Europe, and came to claim in England that they had wrongly implicated him in unlawful activity. The company sought to issue proceedings in Spain.
Held: The . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Jurisdiction, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.226156

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemists (Southern) Ltd: CA 5 Feb 1953

The defendant was charged with selling controlled pharmaceutical products other than under the supervision of a pharmacist. The shop operated on a self-service basis. The Society appealed.
Held: The acquittal was confirmed. Somervell LJ said: ‘Whether the view contended for by the plaintiffs is a right view depends on what are the legal implications of this layout – the invitation to the customer, is a contract to be regarded as being completed when the article is put into the receptacle, or is this to be regarded as a more organized way of doing what is already done in many types of shops – and a bookseller is perhaps the best example – namely, enabling customers to have free access to what is in the shop, to look at the different articles, and then, ultimately, having got the ones which they wish to buy, to come up to the assistant stating ‘I want this’? . . In the case of an ordinary shop, although goods are displayed and it is intended that customers should go and choose what they want, the contract is not completed until, the customer having indicated the articles which he needs, the shopkeeper . . accepts that offer. Then the contract is completed. I can see no reason at all, that being clearly the normal position, for drawing any different implication as a result of this layout.’

Somervell LJ, Birkett LJ, Romer LJ
[1953] 1 QB 401, [1953] 1 All ER 482, [1953] EWCA Civ 6
Bailii
Pharmacy and Poisons Act 1933 18(1)(a)(iii)
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromPharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemists (Southern) Ltd QBD 16-Jul-1952
The Society was responsible for ensuring that sales of controlled pharmaceuticals only took place under the supervision of a pharmacist. The defendants had adopted supermarket style arrangements where the purchaser selected the goods and took them . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.199444

Gibson v Manchester City Council: HL 8 Mar 1979

The plaintiff sought specific performance of what he said was a contract for the sale of land.
Held: The appeal succeeded. In a case where a contract is alleged to have been made by an exchange of correspondence between the parties, in which the successive communications other than the first are in reply to one another, the normal analysis of a contract as being constituted by offer and acceptance falls to be applied. It may not be necessary where a contract is alleged to have come into existence through performance. ‘My Lords, there may be certain types of contract, though I think they are exceptional, which do not fit easily into the normal analysis of a contract as being constituted by offer and acceptance; but a contract alleged to have been made by an exchange of correspondence between the parties in which the successive communications other than the first are in reply to one another is not one of these. I can see no reason in the instant case for departing from the conventional approach of looking at the handful of documents relied upon as constituting the contract sued upon and seeing whether upon their true construction there is to be found in them a contractual offer by the corporation to sell the house to Mr. Gibson and an acceptance of that offer by Mr. Gibson.’

Lord Diplock, Lord Edmund-Davies, Lord Fraser of Tullybelton, Lord Russell of Killowen, Lord Keith of Kinkel
[1979] 1 WLR 294, [1979] UKHL 6, [1979] 1 All ER 972
Bailii
Law of Property Act 1925 40
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedStorer v Manchester City Council CA 1974
Whether a contract has been made
A newly elected city Council refused to proceed with the sale of a dwelling and premises to a sitting tenant, the plaintiff. The sale had been arranged by the previous Council. The plaintiff had signed the form sent to him by the council, and only . .
CitedHyde v Wrench ChD 8-Dec-1840
The defendant offered to sell his land to the plaintiff for andpound;1000. The plaintiff counter-offered andpound;950, which was rejected. The plaintiff then said that he accepted the original offer.
Held: Lord Langdale MR said: ‘there exists . .
CitedStevenson v McLean 1880
. .
CitedClarke v Earl Dunraven 1897
A court may be able to hold that there is a contract even though it is difficult or impossible to analyse the transaction in terms of offer and acceptance. ‘You should look at the correspondence as a whole and at the conduct of the parties and see . .
Appeal fromGibson v Manchester City Council CA 1978
The parties disputed which terms of a contract applied.
Held: Lord Denning MR rejected the conventional approach of looking to see whether upon the true construction of the documents relied upon there can be discerned an offer and acceptance: . .

Cited by:
CitedBarbara Fontana (Administratrix of the Estate of Alan Neil Gosley Deceased) v Skandia Life Assurance Ltd and Molesworths (a Firm) CA 14-Dec-2000
The deceased took out pension and life policies. After failure to make payments they were suspended. The savings element was re-instated, but the deceased did not return the statement as to his health. At first instance the court held the insurance . .
CitedKilcarne Holdings Ltd v Targetfollow (Birmingham) Ltd, Targetfollow Group Ltd ChD 9-Nov-2004
The defendant entered into an agreement for lease, incurring substantial obligations. When it could not meet them it sought assistance from the claimant, who now claimed to have an interest in a joint venture. The draft documentation originally . .
CitedTekdata Interconnections Ltd v Amphenol Ltd CA 19-Nov-2009
The court considered which of two sets of contractual terms applied. The parties had dealt with each other over a long period. Under standard offer and acceptance the seller’s terms would apply. The buyer appealed, saying the court should look to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.184173

Re Duke of Devonshire’s Settlement: 1952

DukeDevon1952

Vaisey J said: ‘As a rule the date properly to be inserted in a deed delivered as an escrow is the date at which it was so delivered and not the date when the condition of the delivery has been fulfilled.’

Vaisey J
(1952) ATC 405
Cited by:
CitedAlan Estates Ltd v WG Stores Ltd and Another CA 1-Jul-1981
The proposed tenant wanted to get into possession, and was given a key and paid a quarter’s rent to the lessor’s solicitors to be held as stakeholders, before the lease had been formally granted. An undated lease and counterpart were executed and . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.252345

Re Stirrup’s Contract: 1961

The parties disputed whether good title had been shown when an assent under seal had been used where a conveyance ordinarily should have been used.
Held: Good title had been shown. Though the law is concerned with substance rather than form, it would not be consistent with the orderly development of the common law if the court could, as a matter of construction, produce the result that it believed the parties to the contract wanted by rewriting the contract.
Wilberforce J said that a purchaser of land is entitled to be satisfied ‘that his vendor is seized of the estate which he is purporting to sell, in this case the fee simple, and that he is in a position, without the possibility of dispute or litigation, to pass that fee simple to the purchaser.’ and
‘Section 63 states that every conveyance is effectual to pass all the estate which the conveying party has or which is intended to be so passed; and if that is read in conjunction with the definition section, Section 205 (1) (ii), by which the expression ‘conveyance’ includes an assent, that produces the result that an assent, provided that it is under seal, is effective to pass whatever estate the conveying party has.
I would be reluctant to decide this case on the basis of a mechanical argument of that kind alone, but I think on the broad framework of the Act, provided that the sole form of requirement of being under seal is complied with, any document, since 1925, at any rate, is effective to pass a legal estate, provided that the intention so to pass it can be ascertained.
I therefore feel on both those branches of the argument that the vendor here is correct in saying that, although the document is described as an assent, and although admittedly the case was not one for which an assent should be used, yet, nevertheless, on the intention to be ascertained from it and having regard to the statutory provisions, it was perfectly effective to pass the fee simple to the purchaser, and I propose so to declare.’ and
Where the title shown is less than perfect, the question is whether the risk is ‘so remote or so shadowy as to be one to which no serious attention need be paid . . the test must always be, would the court, in an action for specific performance at the instance of the vendors, force a title containing the alleged defect upon a reluctant purchaser ?’

Wilberforce J
[1961] 1 WLR 449
Law of Property Act 1925 63 20(91)
Cited by:
CitedPW and Co v Milton Gate Investments Ltd (BT Property Ltd and another, Part 20 defendants) ChD 8-Aug-2003
The parties, head lessor and sub-lessess, had assumed that following Brown -v- Wilson the sub-lease would continue upon the determination of the head lease, and had overlooked Pennell which overruled Brown v Wilson. However the lease made express . .
CitedBarclays Bank Plc v Weeks Legg and Dean (a Firm); Barclays Bank Plc v Lougher and Others; Barclays Bank Plc v Hopkin John and Co CA 21-May-1998
The defendant solicitors had each acted for banks in completing charges over property. They had given the standard agreed form of undertaking to secure a good and marketable title, and the banks now alleged that they were in breach because . .
CitedHarbour Estates Limited v HSBC Bank Plc ChD 15-Jul-2004
The lease contained a break clause. The parties disputed whether the benefit of the clause was personal to the orginal lessee, or whether it touched and concerned the land, and therefore the benefit of it passed with the land.
Held: The . .
CitedBarclays Bank Plc v Weeks Legg and Dean ChD 26-Feb-1996
The failure by a conveyancer to disclose a right of way either to his lay client or to the lender was not a breach of his undertaking to acquire a good and marketable title. The Solicitor had applied the money in accordance with the undertaking even . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Land

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.190576

Crockfords Club Ltd v Mehta: CA 8 Jan 1992

The Defendant had gambled at the plaintiff’s casino, using cheques drawn on a company to obtain chips, all of which he lost. The cheques not having been honoured, Crockfords sued the Defendant for repayment of the loan made to him on the issue of the chips, and applied for summary judgment. At first instance, Henry J held that the cheques had been accepted in conditional repayment of the loan, so that on dishonour of the cheques, the Defendant remained liable on the loan. He then held that, just as section 16(2) and (4) validated the cheques, so they validated the underlying loan.
Held: A cheque which had been given in exchange for gaming tokens which complied with the Act was to be enforced as would be any other cheque. The use of such tokens was regulated and supported by the law. No new sub-species of contract was created by the Act.
Lloyd LJ said: ‘The legislative purpose of section 16 of the 1968 Act was to discourage gaming on credit. But consistently with that overall objective Parliament had to allow machinery for enabling lawful gaming to take place at licensed clubs. Otherwise those taking part in the gaming would have had to bring their own cash. The solution adopted was a neat one, and is to be found in section 16(1) and (2). Provided the cheque meets the requirements of subsection (2) and subsection (3), the giving of cash or tokens in exchange for the cheque does not contravene subsection (1).
The error in Mr Glick’s argument is to treat section 16(2) as if it only validated the cheque. It does more than that. It validates the whole transaction. Subsection (1) is subject to subsection (2). Subsection (2) provides that the transaction-that is to say the giving of the cash or tokens in exchange for the cheque-shall not contravene section 16(1). Provided the cheque complies with subsections (2) and (3) there is nothing in subsection (1) to prohibit the underlying loan.
What then was the purpose of section 16(4)? The explanation, like so much else in our law, is historical. The old legislation did not make loans for lawful gaming illegal. The Act of 1710 is concerned with securities. It provides that all securities for repaying money knowingly lent for gaming should be ‘utterly void frustrate and of none effect to all intents and purposes whatsoever’. But this was found to work injustice on an innocent holder for value-that is to say a third party to whom the security may have been negotiated without notice. So 125 years later, by the Act of 1835, Parliament amended the law so as to provide that the security should not be void, but should be deemed to have been given for an illegal consideration. Nothing in either Act affects the underlying loan.
The subsequent history is traced in CHT Ltd v Ward [1965] 2 QB 63. It was argued that it would be absurd to invalidate the security but to leave the contract of loan unaffected. That cannot have been Parliament’s intention. This argument was accepted by the Divisional Court in Carlton Hall Club Ltd v Laurence best reported in 98 LJKB 305. It was held that the consideration for the security which was deemed to be illegal as between immediate parties under the Act of 1835 tainted the loan itself.
It was to prevent this line of argument being resurrected that Parliament found it necessary, or at any rate desirable, to enact section 16(4). The source of the taint has now been removed. There is no longer, therefore, any basis for the argument that the underlying loan is illegal or unenforceable. Indeed, to turn the argument the other way, it would surely be absurd to hold that Parliament had, by the Act of 1968, made the cheque enforceable, but made it a criminal offence to enter into the underlying contract of loan.’

Lloyd LJ
Gazette 08-Jan-1992, [1992] 1 WLR 355
Gaming Act 1968 16
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedAspinall’s Club Ltd v Al-Zayat CA 19-Oct-2007
The claimant had sued the defendant for non-payment under a cheque for andpound;2 million. The cheque had been issued to replace earlier cheques given but not met, for sums staked for gambling at the claimant’s casino. The defendant said that the . .
CitedGrosvenor Casinos Ltd v National Bank of Abu Dhabi ComC 17-Mar-2008
Banker’s reference no guarantee
An Arab businessman lost pounds 18m at the claimant casino, and wrote scrip cheques against his account with the defendant. The claimant obtained judgment, but being unable to enforce that judgment pursued his bank. The club had used a system where . .
CitedThe Ritz Hotel Casino Ltd v Al Daher QBD 15-Aug-2014
The claimant sought to recover andpound;1m on unpaid cheques. The cheques represented half of the sum gambled away by the defendant in one evening. She now alleged that the claimant had not complied with its duties under the 2005 Act to act . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Banking

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.79676