Christian Concern, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Social Care: CA 25 Sep 2020

In proceedings for judicial review the appellant challenged the ‘Approval of a Class of Places’ within the Abortion Act 1967 as amended made by the Secretary of State on 30 March 2020. This approves the ‘home of a pregnant woman’ as being a place which is authorised for the purpose of section 1 of the 1967 Act where the treatment for early medical abortion may be carried out. The Approval was made under sections 1(3) and (3A) of the 1967 Act. It is time limited until either the date when the temporary provisions of the Coronavirus Act 2020 expire or two years, whichever is the earlier.

Lady Justice Nicola Davies
[2020] EWCA Civ 1239
Bailii
Abortion Act 1967, Coronavirus Act 2020
England and Wales

Health Professions, Licensing, Health

Updated: 30 November 2021; Ref: scu.654037

Practice Guidance (Transparency In The Court of Protection): CoP 16 Jan 2014

[2014] EWHC B2 (COP)
Bailii
Citing:
See AlsoCommittal for Contempt of Court (Practice Guidance) COP 3-May-2013
The court gave guidance on the practice to be followed on applications for committal for contempt of court in the Court of Protection, particularly as to the requirements for decisions to be made in public. . .

Cited by:
See AlsoPractice Guidance (Transparency In The Court of Protection) CoP 16-Jan-2014
. .
See AlsoPractice Guidance (Transparency In The Family Courts) FD 16-Jan-2014
. .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Litigation Practice, Health

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.521130

Walford, Regina (on The Application of) v Worchestershire County Council: Admn 10 Feb 2014

The Claimant challenged the decision of the Respondent to uphold its reversal of a previous decision to disregard a property, Sunnydene, Astley Burf, Stourport-on-Severn owned by the Claimant’s elderly mother, in calculating her mother’s ability to pay care home charges.
Held: The decision was quashed and returned for reconsideration. While the Council had rightly believed that the claimant had to establish that it was her main home, it had wrongly believed that she could not do so unless she established that she was in ‘actual occupation’ of it and/or that it was her ‘permanent residence’: ”home’ is a place to which a person has a degree of attachment both physical and emotional. It is also agreed that physical presence is neither necessary nor sufficient. What is important is the degree of occupation and the nature of the occupation. Ultimately whether a person occupies premises as their home is determined by a test which is both qualitative and quantitative.’ A person could in principle ‘occupy’ a property as his or her home even if they did not live there all the time, or even the majority of the time.
The Council had erred in also considering only the situation at the tiem when the patient had gone into long term care: ‘ there is no basis for limiting the power of review to the circumstances prevailing at the time of the original assessment. I accept the submissions made on behalf of the Secretary of State and the Claimant that a decision whether or not to disregard property can be reviewed whenever there is a change in circumstances. The opening words of section 7.003 of [the Guidance] require the focus of the inquiry to be on the present, not the past, position.’

Supperstone J
[2014] EWHC 234 (Admin), [2014] WLR(D) 65, [2014] PTSR 968
Bailii, WLRD
National Assistance Act 1948 22, National Assistance (Assessment of Resources) Regulations 1992
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromWalford v Worcestershire County Council CA 27-Jan-2015
The claimant had, on her mother going into long term care, sought to avoid an order for the sale of the mother’s house saying that it was also the claimant’s home. The Council now appealed against a finding that it had to take into account . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Local Government, Health

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.521115

Blankley v Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals NHS Trust: QBD 5 Feb 2014

The court was asked whether, where a party loses mental capacity in the course of proceedings, such loss of capacity has the automatic and immediate effect of terminating their solicitor’s retainer. The Costs judge had held that, as a matter of law, a supervening incapacity even if intermittent, automatically frustrates and thereby terminates a contract of retainer.
Held: The Conditional Fee Agreement remained effective. The termination of a solicitor’s authority by reason of mental incapacity did not, in itself, frustrate the underlying contract of retainer.

Phillips J
[2014] EWHC 168 (QB), [2014] 2 Costs LR 320, (2014) 138 BMLR 30, [2014] 1 WLR 2683, [2014] 2 All ER 1104, [2014] WLR(D) 14
Bailii, WLRD
Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 44(6)
England and Wales
Citing:
AppliedLauritzen A/A v Wijsmuller BV;( ‘The Super Servant Two’) CA 12-Oct-1989
Bingham LJ discussed the nature of frustration of contract: ‘The essence of frustration is that it is caused by some unforeseen supervening event over which the parties to the contract have no control and for which they are therefore not . .
CitedBank Line Ltd v Arthur Capel and Co HL 12-Dec-1918
The defendant ship-owners contracted to lease the ship on charter to the plaintiffs. Before the term, the ship was requisitioned for the war effort. The plaintiffs did not exercise the contractual right given to them to cancel the charterparty. The . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromBlankley v Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals NHS Trust CA 27-Jan-2015
This case concerns a claimant with fluctuating capacity to conduct legal proceedings. At a time when she had capacity, she retained a firm of solicitors under a conditional fee agreement. The issue was whether the CFA terminated automatically by . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Legal Professions, Costs, Health, Contract

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.521121

Aster Healthcare Ltd v Shafi (Estate of): QBD 24 Jan 2014

The defendant executor appealed from summary judgment in favour of the claimant in respect of outstanding care home fees.

Andrews DBE J
[2014] EWHC 77 (QB), [2014] PTSR 888, [2014] WLR(D) 42
Bailii, WLRD
Mental Capacity Act 2005, National Assistance Act 1948, National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990
England and Wales

Contract, Health, Local Government

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.520897

L, Regina (on The Application of) v West London Mental Health NHS Trust and Others: CA 29 Jan 2014

The court considered the narrow but important question in this appeal concerns the requirements of the common law principles of procedural fairness in cases where a convicted offender is detained under section 37 as mentally ill and is being considered for transfer from conditions of medium security to conditions of high security.

Moses, Patten, Beatson LJJ
[2014] EWCA Civ 47, [2014] 1 WLR 3103, (2014) 137 BMLR 76, [2014] WLR(D) 44
Bailii, WLRD
Mental Health Act 1983 37
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromL, Regina (on The Application of) v West London Mental Health NHS Trust Admn 13-Nov-2012
. .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Natural Justice

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.520804

K B and Others, Regina (on the Application of) v Mental Health Review Tribunal and Another: Admn 13 Feb 2003

The claimants were entitled to damages for their detention as mental patients, where this had been found to be wrongful as an infringement of their human rights. The court considered the appropriate level of damages.
Held: There was no clear guidance in existence on the proper level of damages. An English court should be no lower than would be awarded for a comparable tort, an in line with general awards in this jurisdiction. It was wrong to compare such a detention with wrongful imprisonment since that would often be accompanied by feelings of humiliation and otherwise arising from the deliberately wrongful intention of the act in question. The court should compensate the injured party for his injury. It should not be lower because it was an human rights award. Even for mentally ill claimants not every feeling of distress would give rise to an award.

Mr Justice Stanley Burnton
Times 05-Mar-2003, [2003] EWHC 193 (Admin), Gazette 10-Apr-2003, [2004] QB 936, [2003] 3 WLR 185
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedFaulkner, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice and Another SC 1-May-2013
The applicants had each been given a life sentence, but having served the minimum term had been due to have the continued detention reviewed to establish whether or not continued detention was necessary for the protection of the pblic. It had not . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Damages, Human Rights

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.179102

Ashingdane v The United Kingdom: ECHR 28 May 1985

The right of access to the courts is not absolute but may be subject to limitations. These are permitted by implication since the right of access ‘by its very nature calls for regulation by the State, regulation which may vary in time and place according to the needs and resources of the community and of individuals’. There was no breach where a patient was detained in the high security conditions of Broadmoor for 18 months after the Home Secretary had acknowledged that his condition no longer warranted it, and he could be transferred to a local psychiatric unit. Article 5(1)(e) is not concerned with suitable treatment or conditions.
‘More generally, it follows from the very aim of article 5(1) that no detention that is arbitrary can ever be regarded as ‘lawful’. The court would further accept that there must be some relationship between the ground of permitted deprivation of liberty relied on and the place and conditions of detention.’

8225/78, (1985) 7 EHRR 528, [1985] ECHR 8, 14/1983/70/106
worldlii, Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights A6 A5(1)(e)
Human Rights
Citing:
Appeal fromAshingdane v Department of Health and Social Security 1981
Mr Ashingdane was a Broadmoor patient who was deemed ready for transfer back into his local hospital, but was denied a bed there because the nurses’ trade union operated a ban on taking special hospital patients. He launched proceedings against the . .

Cited by:
CitedMatthews v Ministry of Defence HL 13-Feb-2003
The claimant sought damages against the Crown, having suffered asbestosis whilst in the armed forces. He challenged the denial to him of a right of action by the 1947 Act.
Held: Human rights law did not create civil rights, but rather voided . .
CitedWoodhouse v Consignia Plc; Steliou v Compton CA 7-Mar-2002
The claimant continued an action brought in her late husband’s name. The action had begun under the former rules. After the new rules came into effect, the action was automatically stayed, since no progress had been made for over a year. Her . .
CitedMunjaz v Mersey Care National Health Service Trust And the Secretary of State for Health, the National Association for Mental Health (Mind) Respondent interested; CA 16-Jul-2003
The claimant was a mental patient under compulsory detention, and complained that he had been subjected to periods of seclusion.
Held: The appeal succeeded. The hospital had failed to follow the appropriate Code of Practice. The Code was not . .
CitedBarry Young (Deceased) v Western Power Distribution (South West) Plc CA 18-Jul-2003
The deceased had begun an action on becoming ill after exposure to asbestos by the defendant. He withdrew his action after receiving expert evidence that his illness was unrelated. A post-mortem examination showed this evidence to be mistaken. His . .
CitedRegina (Burgess) v Home Secretary 2000
The applicant challenged the refusal to move him to open conditions within the prison system.
Held: ‘Article 5(4) does not . . preclude the Secretary of State from taking a different view than the Discretionary Life Panel of the Parole Board . .
CitedP, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department Admn 11-Dec-2003
The applicant was a discretionary life prisoner compulsorily detained in a mental hospital. His tariff had now expired. If not detained under the 1983 Act he would now be entitled to a review. He argued that there should be a joint hearing.
CitedSecretary of State for Work and Pensions v Kehoe CA 5-Mar-2004
The claimant had applied to the Child Support Agncy for maintenance. They failed utterly to obtain payment, and she complained now that she was denied the opportunity by the 1991 Act to take court proceedings herself.
Held: The denial of . .
CitedGovernment of the United States of America v Barnette and another Admn 2002
The applicant sought to register, under the Act, an order against the funds of the defendant, who replied that the order sought to be registered had been obtained in a way which would infringe her human rights if obtained here. As a fugitive she had . .
CitedB, Regina (on the Application of) v Ashworth Hospital Authority HL 17-Mar-2005
The House was asked whether a patient detained for treatment under the 1983 Act can be treated against his will for any mental disorder from which he is suffering or only for the particular form of mental disorder from which he is classified as . .
CitedKehoe, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions HL 14-Jul-2005
The applicant contended that the 1991 Act infringed her human rights in denying her access to court to obtain maintenance for her children.
Held: The applicant had no substantive right to take part in the enforcement process in domestic law . .
CitedRegina v Ashworth Hospital Authority (Now Mersey Care National Health Service Trust) ex parte Munjaz HL 13-Oct-2005
The claimant was detained in a secure Mental Hospital. He complained at the seclusions policy applied by the hospital, saying that it departed from the Guidance issued for such policies by the Secretary of State under the Act.
Held: The House . .
CitedRaja v Van Hoogstraten and others ChD 12-Jun-2006
The claimant sought the strike out of the defendants pleadings. The first defendant was found to have been responsible for the killing of the deceased. The proceedings had been prolonged by procedural challenges by the defendant.
Held: The . .
CitedK Ltd v National Westminster Bank Plc and others CA 19-Jul-2006
The bank had declined to act upon a customer’s instructions, reporting its suspicions of criminal activity to the police. Permission was given to proceed but only after a delay. The claimant customer sought its costs.
Held: The customer’s . .
CitedSeal v Chief Constable of South Wales Police HL 4-Jul-2007
The claimant had sought to bring proceedings against the respondent, but as a mental patient subject to the 1983 Act, had been obliged by the section first to obtain consent. The parties disputed whether the failure was a procedural or substantial . .
CitedIn re F (A Child) (Placement Order); C v East Sussex County Council (Adoption) CA 1-May-2008
The father sought to revoke a freeing order. He said that the social workers had conspired to exclude him from the process. The child was born of a casual relationship, and at first he was unaware of the proceedings. On learning of them he sought to . .
CitedMAK and RK v The United Kingdom ECHR 23-Mar-2010
mak_ukECHR10
When RK, a nine year old girl was taken to hospital, with bruises, the paediatrician wrongly suspecting sexual abuse, took blood samples and intimate photographs in the absence of the parents and without their consent.
Held: The doctor had . .
CitedG v E and Others CA 16-Jul-2010
E, now aged 19, suffered a genetic disorder leading to severe learning disability and lack of mental capacity. He had been in the care of his sister, the appellant, but had been removed by the local authority when his behaviour became disturbed. G, . .
CitedFairclough Homes Ltd v Summers SC 27-Jun-2012
The respondent had made a personal injury claim, but had then been discovered to have wildly and dishonestly exaggerated the damages claim. The defendant argued that the court should hand down some condign form of punishment, and appealed against . .
CitedRe DE, JE v DE, Surrey County Council and EW FD 29-Dec-2006
JE, wife of DE, who had been taken into residential care by the Local authority, said that the authority had infringed his Article 5 and 8 rights on transferring him between homes. The authority asserted that he did not have mental capacity. She . .
CitedG v Scottish Ministers and Another SC 18-Dec-2013
The 2003 Act had been intended to make provision for those who had been in long term mental health carse, but would not need such continued are but were not either ready to survive without continuing support in the community. The claimant had been . .
CitedBenkharbouche v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs SC 18-Oct-2017
The court was asked as to the compatibility of provisions in the 1978 Act with the human rights of the appellant. The claimants, Moroccan nationals were employed as domestic staff in embassies in London. They alleged both race discrimination and . .
CitedBrown v The Parole Board for Scotland, The Scottish Ministers and Another SC 1-Nov-2017
The court was asked whether the duty under article 5 to provide prisoners with a real opportunity for rehabilitation applied to prisoners serving extended sentences. The prisoner was subject to an extended sentence, but had been released on licence . .
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Health, Prisons

Leading Case

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.164941

MM v WL Clinic and Another: UTAA 23 Nov 2015

Mental Health : All – whether for the purposes of Article 5 a restricted patient who has the capacity to do so can give a valid consent to the terms of a conditional discharge that, when it is implemented, will on an objective assessment create a deprivation of the patient’s liberty.
Held: there was power to impose a condition of compliance with a care package, provided that the patient had the capacity to consent to it and did consent

Charles J
[2015] UKUT 644 (AAC), [2016] MHLR 198
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromThe Secretary of State for Justice v MM CA 29-Mar-2017
Power of FTT to deprivie patient of liberty
Two patients who had been confined to a secure hospital, appealed against orders which would continue to restrict their liberty upon being conditionally released. The parties now disputed the jurisdiction of the FTT to make such an order.
At UTSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.556086

Secretary of State for Justice v RB: UTAA 20 Dec 2010

‘The premise for exercise of the tribunal’s powers is that the patient has previously been lawfully detained (so that article 5 has been complied with); but that he does not now need to be detained in a hospital and that some other form of accommodation is appropriate, subject to the possibility of recall. The next step is to devise the conditions. At that stage, it is hard to see why the question whether the conditions would amount to detention for the purposes of article 5 should come into it. Even if they do amount to such detention, there will be no breach of article 5 because the 1983 Act makes provision for the procedural safeguards guaranteed by article 5. The tribunal’s concern should be simply to decide what is necessary for the well-being and protection of the patient, and the protection of the public and to satisfy themselves that the patient is willing to comply with the conditions and to that extent consents to them. We see no reason why Parliament should have wished them to concern with themselves with the fine distinctions which may arise under the Strasbourg case law on detention.’

Lord Justice Carnwath SPT
[2010] UKUT 454 (AAC), [2011] MHLR 37
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.433613

The Secretary of State for Justice v MM: CA 29 Mar 2017

Power of FTT to deprivie patient of liberty

Two patients who had been confined to a secure hospital, appealed against orders which would continue to restrict their liberty upon being conditionally released. The parties now disputed the jurisdiction of the FTT to make such an order.
Held: The orders made by the UT were set aside. There is no ‘umbrella’ power that can be exercised by the tribunal to authorise a patient’s deprivation of liberty outside hospital. It is accordingly inappropriate for a tribunal to do so, whether by direct or indirect means (for example, by the use of declarations to provide for an asserted lacuna in the statutory scheme). There is no lacuna in the scheme. However practicable and effective it may be to provide for a tribunal to have such a power, for example to improve access to justice to a specialist and procedurally appropriate adjudication, Parliament has not provided for the same.

Sir James Munby, President, Lady Justice Gloster, Vice-President, and Sir Ernest Ryder, Senior President
[2017] EWCA Civ 194
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v KC and C Partnership NHS Foundation Trust UTAA 2-Jul-2015
Mental Health : All
The local authority had sought an order under the 2005 Act seeking a personal welfare order on the basis that it would be in KC’s best interests for him to move to a proposed placement (the Placement) on the terms of a care . .
CitedP (By His Litigation Friend The Official Solicitor) v Cheshire West and Chester Council and Another and similar SC 19-Mar-2014
Deprivation of Liberty
P and Q were two adolescent sisters without capacity. They complained that the arrangements made for their care amounted to an unjustified deprivation of liberty, and now appealed against rejection of their cases. In the second case, P, an adult . .
CitedGhaidan v Godin-Mendoza HL 21-Jun-2004
Same Sex Partner Entitled to tenancy Succession
The protected tenant had died. His same-sex partner sought a statutory inheritance of the tenancy.
Held: His appeal succeeded. The Fitzpatrick case referred to the position before the 1998 Act: ‘Discriminatory law undermines the rule of law . .
Appeal fromMM v WL Clinic and Another UTAA 23-Nov-2015
Mental Health : All – whether for the purposes of Article 5 a restricted patient who has the capacity to do so can give a valid consent to the terms of a conditional discharge that, when it is implemented, will on an objective assessment create a . .
CitedSecretary of State for the Home Department, Regina (on the Application of) v Mental Health Review Tribunal Admn 20-May-2002
The Court considered the meaning of ‘discharge’ from a mental health hospital. Elias J held that it meant ‘discharge from detention in hospital’, so that there could be a discharge on condition of residence in another hospital: but he also held that . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Torts – Other, Health, Human Rights

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.581298

Regina v South Thames Mental Health Review Tribunal (ex parte M ): Admn 3 Sep 1997

An application to a Tribunal made by a patient detained for assessment under section 2 remained effective on his becoming detained for treatment under section 3 and had to be heard by the Tribunal.

Andrew Collins J
[1997] EWHC Admin 797, [1998] COD 38
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
DistinguishedSR, Regina (on the Application of) v Mental Health Review Tribunal Admn 14-Dec-2005
The patient had been detained under section 3. He applied to challenge his detention, but before the hearing, he was accepted on to a programme for supervision following his intended release the day before the hearing. His solicitors notified the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.137742

P (By His Litigation Friend The Official Solicitor) v Cheshire West and Chester Council and Another and similar: SC 19 Mar 2014

Deprivation of Liberty

P and Q were two adolescent sisters without capacity. They complained that the arrangements made for their care amounted to an unjustified deprivation of liberty, and now appealed against rejection of their cases. In the second case, P, an adult male, again without capacity, also complained as to the arrangements for his care, and the lack of restraint on the deprivation of his liberty. The Court now considered the criteria for judging whether the living arrangements made for a mentally incapacitated person amount to a deprivation of liberty.
Held: (Lord Clarke of Stone-cum-Ebony, Lord Carnwath and Lord Hodge JJSC dissenting) A person suffering a mental incapacity has no lesser rights to personal freedom than someone with capacity. The appeals of P and Q succeeded. An arrangement which would amount to a deprivation of liberty for a person with capacity is equally a deprivation of liberty of someone without. Any system providing such restrictions must include periodic and independent checks to verify that any such restriction remained necessary and in their personal best interests.
The phrase ‘deprivation of liberty’ when used to apply to living arrangements for a person without capacity was to be construed as providing the same protection as Article 5 of the Convention. Though each case was to be decided as a matter of the particular facts.

Lord Neuberger, President, Lady Hale, Deputy President, Lord Kerr, Lord Clarke, Lord Sumption, Lord Carnwath, Lord Hodge
[2014] UKSC 19, (2014) 17 CCL Rep 5, [2014] HRLR 13, [2014] 2 WLR 642, [2014] 2 All ER 585, [2014] WLR(D) 140, [2014] 2 FCR 71, [2014] PTSR 460, [2014] COPLR 313, UKSC 2012/0068, [2014] AC 896, (2014) 137 BMLR 16, [2014] Med LR 321
Bailii, Bailii Summary, WLRD, SC Summary, SC
Mental Capacity Act 2005 64(5), European Convention on Human Rights 5
England and Wales
Citing:
At CoPA Primary Care Trust v P and Others Misc 21-Dec-2009
(Court of Protection) The court was asked whether, if P could be found to lack mental capacity where he should live, where there was an essential conflict between representatives of the State who owe statutory duties to P on the one hand, and the . .
See AlsoCheshire West and Chester Council v P CA 18-Nov-2011
. .
Appeal fromCheshire West and Chester Council v P CA 9-Nov-2011
The claimant, a disabled adult with cerebral palsy and Downs, asserted that the care plan set out in an order of the Court of Protection involved a contravention of his human rights since it involved a deprivation of his liberty. He was incontinent . .
See AlsoCheshire West and Chester Council v P and Another COP 14-Jun-2011
The patient, an adult without capacity and with Down’s syndrome and cerebral palsy complained of his treatment, when in order to prevent his habit of eating his nappy, they dressed him in an adult babygrow costume. The court was asked whether the . .
CitedP and Q v Surrey County Council CA 28-Feb-2011
The appellant sisters, both with substantial learing disabilities appealed against a declaration that the arrangements made for their care by the respondent did not amount to a deprivation of their liberty. In either case, they would only be allowed . .

Cited by:
AppliedIn re X and Others (Deprivation of Liberty) CoP 7-Aug-2014
inreX_dolCoP1408
The court considered the practical and procedural implications for the Court of Protection of what was expected too be a large increase in its case-load which following the Supreme Court’s decision in Surrey County Council v P where it was held that . .
CitedThe Secretary of State for Justice v MM CA 29-Mar-2017
Power of FTT to deprivie patient of liberty
Two patients who had been confined to a secure hospital, appealed against orders which would continue to restrict their liberty upon being conditionally released. The parties now disputed the jurisdiction of the FTT to make such an order.
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Torts – Other, Human Rights

Leading Case

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.522603

Winterwerp v The Netherlands: ECHR 24 Oct 1979

A Dutch national detained in hospital complained that his detention had divested him of his capacity to administer his property, and thus there had been determination of his civil rights and obligations without the guarantee of a judicial procedure.
Held: Article 5(1)(a) is concerned with the question whether the detention is permissible. Its object and purpose is to ensure that no one should be dispossessed of his liberty in an arbitrary fashion, and its provisions call for a narrow interpretation. The Court defined the conditions to be met before the detention of a person may be justified on grounds of mental illness: ‘In the Court’s opinion, except in emergency cases, the individual concerned should not be deprived of his liberty unless he has been reliably shown to be of ‘unsound mind’. The very nature of what has to be established before the competent national authority – that is, a true mental disorder – calls for objective medical expertise. Further, the mental disorder must be of a kind or degree warranting compulsory confinement. What is more, the validity of continued confinement depends upon the persistence of such a disorder.’ but ‘it is essential that the person concerned should have access to a court and the opportunity to be heard either in person or, where necessary, through some form of representation . . . Mental illness may entail restricting or modifying the manner of the exercise of such a right, but it cannot justify impairing the very essence of the right. Indeed, special procedural safeguards may prove called for in order to protect the interests of persons who, on account of their mental disabilities, are not fully capable of acting for themselves.’

[1979] 2 EHRR 387, [1979] ECHR 4, 6301/73
Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 5 6 8
Human Rights
Cited by:
CitedA v The Scottish Ministers PC 15-Oct-2001
(Scotland) The power to detain a person suffering from a mental illness, in order to ensure the safety of the public, and even though there was no real possibility of treatment of the mental condition in hospital, was not a disproportionate . .
CitedGiles, Regina (on the Application of) v Parole Board and Another HL 31-Jul-2003
The defendant had been sentenced for offences of violence, but an additional period was imposed to protect the public. He had been refused leave for reconsideration of that part of his sentence after he completed the normal segment of his sentence. . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for the Home Department and Another ex parte IH HL 13-Nov-2003
The appellant had been found unfit to plead after assaulting his son, and he had been detained under the 1964 Act. He alleged his detention was in breach of his right to a fair trial. His release had been authorised subject to the appointment of a . .
CitedRegina v Parole Board ex parte Smith, Regina v Parole Board ex parte West (Conjoined Appeals) HL 27-Jan-2005
Each defendant challenged the way he had been treated on revocation of his parole licence, saying he should have been given the opportunity to make oral representations.
Held: The prisoners’ appeals were allowed.
Lord Bingham stated: . .
CitedB, Regina (on the Application of) v Ashworth Hospital Authority HL 17-Mar-2005
The House was asked whether a patient detained for treatment under the 1983 Act can be treated against his will for any mental disorder from which he is suffering or only for the particular form of mental disorder from which he is classified as . .
CitedWard v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and others HL 5-May-2005
The claimant had been taken under warrant to a mental hospital, but was found not to be suffering any mental illness. She complained that the arrest was unlawful, since the police officer had not been accompanied by the people named on the warrant. . .
CitedRegina v Ashworth Hospital Authority (Now Mersey Care National Health Service Trust) ex parte Munjaz HL 13-Oct-2005
The claimant was detained in a secure Mental Hospital. He complained at the seclusions policy applied by the hospital, saying that it departed from the Guidance issued for such policies by the Secretary of State under the Act.
Held: The House . .
CitedMH v Secretary of State for the Department of Health and others HL 20-Oct-2005
The appellant, detained for assessment under section 2, was too disabled to make an application to the court on her own behalf. After a dispute between her mother and the medical officer over her treatment, an application was made to the county . .
CitedAN, Regina (on the Application of) v Mental Health Review Tribunal (Northern Region) and others CA 21-Dec-2005
The appellant was detained under section 37 of the 1983 Act as a mental patient with a restriction under section 41. He sought his release.
Held: The standard of proof in such applications remained the balance of probabilities, but that . .
CitedMasterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1) CA 19-Dec-2002
Capacity for Litigation
The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the . .
See AlsoWinterwerp v The Netherlands ECHR 27-Nov-1981
Hudoc Judgment (Just satisfaction) Struck out of the list (friendly settlement) . .
CitedIn re PS (an Adult), Re; City of Sunderland v PS by her litigation friend the Offcial Solcicitor and CA; Re PS (Incapacitated or Vulnerable Adult) FD 9-Mar-2007
The patient an elderly lady with limited mental capacity was to be returned from hospital, but her daughter said she was to come home. The local authority sought to prevent this, wanting to return her to a residential unit where she had lived for . .
CitedJuncal, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department and others CA 25-Jul-2008
The claimant appealed dismissal of his claim for wrongful imprisonment having been detained in 1997 on being found unfit to plead to an offence of violence.
Held: Parliament had a legitimate concern for the protection of the public, and . .
CitedSK (Zimbabwe) v Secretary of State for the Home Department CA 6-Nov-2008
Immigration detention proper after prison release
The Home Secretary appealed against a finding that he had unlawfully detained the applicant. The applicant had been detained on release from prison pending his return to Zimbabwe as recommended by the sentencing judge under section 6 of the 1971 . .
CitedG v E and Others CoP 26-Mar-2010
E Was born with and still suffered severe learning difficulties. The court was asked as to the extent of his capacity to make decisions, and as to where he should live, with a family member, the carer or with the local authority, which had removed . .
CitedG v E and Others CA 4-May-2010
E, now aged 19, suffered a genetic condition leading to severe learning disability, and a lack of mental capacity. After being in the care of F, but displaying potentially violent behaviours, he was removed against his and F’s will to the care of . .
CitedG v E and Others CA 16-Jul-2010
E, now aged 19, suffered a genetic disorder leading to severe learning disability and lack of mental capacity. He had been in the care of his sister, the appellant, but had been removed by the local authority when his behaviour became disturbed. G, . .
CitedSherry v The Queen PC 4-Mar-2013
Discretion as to credit for remand time
(Guernsey) In 1980 the appellant had been sentenced to three months imprisonment. He had spent 10 days on remand, but no allowance was given for that time. He gave notice of appeal, but after being released on open remand, he failed to appear at his . .
CitedIn re X and Others (Deprivation of Liberty) CoP 7-Aug-2014
inreX_dolCoP1408
The court considered the practical and procedural implications for the Court of Protection of what was expected too be a large increase in its case-load which following the Supreme Court’s decision in Surrey County Council v P where it was held that . .
CitedModaresi, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health SC 24-Jul-2013
The Court was asked: ‘As: (i) a public body with obligations in public law and (ii) a public authority under the Human Rights Act 1998 can the Secretary of State for Health ‘the S/S’ lawfully refuse to refer a patient’s case to the First-tier Mental . .
CitedThe Health Service Executive of Ireland v PA and Others CoP 3-Jun-2015
hsen_paCoP201506
The HSE sought orders under s.63 of and Schedule 3 to the 2005 Act recognising and enforcing orders by the Irish High Court for the detention of three young persons (‘PA’, ‘PB’, and ‘PC’) at a special unit known in Northampton.
Held: On an . .
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.164887

Secretary of State for the Home Department, Regina (on the Application of) v Mental Health Review Tribunal: Admn 20 May 2002

The Court considered the meaning of ‘discharge’ from a mental health hospital. Elias J held that it meant ‘discharge from detention in hospital’, so that there could be a discharge on condition of residence in another hospital: but he also held that the crucial question was whether the conditions amounted to detention, which was not permitted.
Otherwise: Regina (Secretary of State for the Home Department) v Mental Health Review Tribunal, PH as interested party

Elias J
[2002] EWHC 1128 (Admin), [2002] MHLR 241
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedThe Secretary of State for Justice v MM CA 29-Mar-2017
Power of FTT to deprivie patient of liberty
Two patients who had been confined to a secure hospital, appealed against orders which would continue to restrict their liberty upon being conditionally released. The parties now disputed the jurisdiction of the FTT to make such an order.
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.251514

The Secretary of State for Justice v RB and Another: CA 20 Dec 2011

The court considered and rejected the possibility of the First Tier Tribunal making orders under the 2005 Act which would have the effect of depriving a patient of his liberty. The respondent, now aged 73, suffered a persistent delusional condition and was a ‘restricted patient’.

Maurice Kay LJ VP, Arden, Moses LJJ
[2011] EWCA Civ 1608, (2012) 124 BMLR 13, [2012] 1 WLR 2043, [2012] AACR 31, [2012] MHLR 131, [2011] WLR (D) 379, (2012) 124 BMLR 13
Bailii, WLRD
Mental Health Act 1983
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Criminal Sentencing

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.450118

Secretary of State for Justice v MM: SC 28 Nov 2018

The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a conditional release. He said that that was discriminatory.
Held: (Lord Hughes dissenting) The appeal failed. The MHA does not permit either the FtT or the Secretary of State to order a conditional discharge of a restricted patient subject to conditions which amount to detention or a deprivation of liberty. The Secretary of State has complete control over the conditions imposed on restricted patients and whether the patient should be recalled to hospital.

Lady Hale, President, Lord Kerr, Lord Hughes, Lady Black, Lord Lloyd-Jones
[2018] UKSC 60
Bailii, Bailii Summary
Mental Health Act 1983, European Convention on Human Rights 5
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedThe Secretary of State for Justice v RB and Another CA 20-Dec-2011
The court considered and rejected the possibility of the First Tier Tribunal making orders under the 2005 Act which would have the effect of depriving a patient of his liberty. The respondent, now aged 73, suffered a persistent delusional condition . .
CitedP (By His Litigation Friend The Official Solicitor) v Cheshire West and Chester Council and Another and similar SC 19-Mar-2014
Deprivation of Liberty
P and Q were two adolescent sisters without capacity. They complained that the arrangements made for their care amounted to an unjustified deprivation of liberty, and now appealed against rejection of their cases. In the second case, P, an adult . .
At UTMM v WL Clinic and Another UTAA 23-Nov-2015
Mental Health : All – whether for the purposes of Article 5 a restricted patient who has the capacity to do so can give a valid consent to the terms of a conditional discharge that, when it is implemented, will on an objective assessment create a . .
Appeal fromThe Secretary of State for Justice v MM CA 29-Mar-2017
Power of FTT to deprivie patient of liberty
Two patients who had been confined to a secure hospital, appealed against orders which would continue to restrict their liberty upon being conditionally released. The parties now disputed the jurisdiction of the FTT to make such an order.
CitedWinterwerp v The Netherlands ECHR 24-Oct-1979
A Dutch national detained in hospital complained that his detention had divested him of his capacity to administer his property, and thus there had been determination of his civil rights and obligations without the guarantee of a judicial procedure. . .
CitedSecretary of State for the Home Department v Mental Health Review Tribunal for Mersey Regional Health Authority Admn 1986
the interpretation of section 73(2) (and section 42(2)) may depend, in part at least, on what is meant by ‘discharge’.
Held: Mann J said that it meant ‘discharge from hospital’, so that a condition could not be imposed that the patient reside . .
CitedSecretary of State for the Home Department, Regina (on the Application of) v Mental Health Review Tribunal Admn 20-May-2002
The Court considered the meaning of ‘discharge’ from a mental health hospital. Elias J held that it meant ‘discharge from detention in hospital’, so that there could be a discharge on condition of residence in another hospital: but he also held that . .
CitedAshingdane v The United Kingdom ECHR 28-May-1985
The right of access to the courts is not absolute but may be subject to limitations. These are permitted by implication since the right of access ‘by its very nature calls for regulation by the State, regulation which may vary in time and place . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for The Home Department Ex Parte Simms HL 8-Jul-1999
Ban on Prisoners talking to Journalists unlawful
The two prisoners, serving life sentences for murder, had had their appeals rejected. They continued to protest innocence, and sought to bring their campaigns to public attention through the press, having oral interviews with journalists without . .
CitedStanev v Bulgaria ECHR 17-Jan-2012
. .
CitedStorck v Germany ECHR 16-Jun-2005
ECHR Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction) – Preliminary objection rejected ( res iudicata ); Violation of Art. 5-1 (placement in private clinic from 1977 to 1979); No separate issue under Arts. 5-4 and 5-5; No . .
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v RB UTAA 20-Dec-2010
‘The premise for exercise of the tribunal’s powers is that the patient has previously been lawfully detained (so that article 5 has been complied with); but that he does not now need to be detained in a hospital and that some other form of . .
CitedRobertson v The Balmain New Ferry Company Ltd PC 10-Dec-1909
High Court of Australia – The Plaintiff paid a penny on entering the wharf to stay there till the boat should start and then be taken by the boat to the other side. The Defendants were admittedly always ready and willing to carry out their part of . .
CitedHerd v Weardale Steel Coal and Coke Co Ltd HL 30-Jun-1914
The claimant, a miner, said that his work was dangerous, and threw down his tools. He now sought damages saying that his employer had falsely imprisoned him by failing to bring him to the surface until the end of his shift.
Held: The . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Criminal Sentencing, Health, Human Rights

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.630739

Stanev v Bulgaria: ECHR 17 Jan 2012

36760/06, [2012] ECHR 46, [2012] MHLR 23, (2012) 55 EHRR 22
Bailii
Human Rights
Cited by:
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Health

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.670119

Secretary of State for the Home Department v Mental Health Review Tribunal for Mersey Regional Health Authority: Admn 1986

the interpretation of section 73(2) (and section 42(2)) may depend, in part at least, on what is meant by ‘discharge’.
Held: Mann J said that it meant ‘discharge from hospital’, so that a condition could not be imposed that the patient reside in another hospital, even if not under conditions of detention.

Mann J
[1986] 1 WLR 1170
Mental Health Act 1986 73(2) 42(2)
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.670118

Baker Tilly (A Firm) v Makar: QBD 27 Mar 2013

The claimant accountants had represented the defendant in a dispute with former employees. They sought payment of their costs, but the claim was stayed until the defendant had the opportunity to to seek representation by a MacKenzie friend after the taxing master became concerned for her health and as to her ability to conduct proceedings. They now appealed against that stay.
Held: Sir Raymond Jack saaid: ‘the Master put more weight on the incident of 18th July than it could bear and that he should have taken into account Miss Makar’s appearances before other judges. I also bear in mind that I have a more complete description of the incident than was before the Master. In all the circumstances he should not have concluded that it was established that Miss Makar lacked capacity and he should not have stayed the assessment pending the appointment of a litigation friend for Miss Makar. There is then no bar to Baker Tilly’s application for an interim costs certificate

Sir Raymond Jack
[2013] EWHC 759 (QB), [2013] 3 Costs LR 444
Bailii
Mental Capacity Act 2005 2, Civil Procedure Rules 21
Citing:
CitedCarmarthenshire County Council v Lewis CA 16-Dec-2010
Renewed application for leave to appeal against tenancy possession order. The respondent argued that as a result of his suffering Asperger’s syndrome, the court should have adjourned the proceedings to see whether he was a protected party in need of . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Costs, Litigation Practice, Health

Updated: 28 November 2021; Ref: scu.519762

TAQ v AA: CA 19 Dec 2013

Application for permission to appeal against a decision of dismissing the Appellant’s application under section 21A 2005 Act challenging the lawfulness of a Standard Authorisation made under Schedule A1 of the MCA authorizing the deprivation of his son’s, the first respondent’s liberty.

Moses, Black, Gloster LJJ
[2013] EWCA Civ 1661, [2014] 1 WLR 3773
Bailii
Mental Capacity Act 2005 21A
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedGeogas SA v Trammo Gas Ltd (The Baleares) HL 1991
Charterers had appealed an arbitration award. The judge set it aside. The CA gave leave and allowed the appeal saying that as a question of mixed fact and law sought leave to appeal against an arbitration award.
Held: The House had no . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 28 November 2021; Ref: scu.519324

Rance v Mid-Downs Health Authority: 1991

A child is born alive: ‘if, after birth, it exists as a live child, that is to say, breathing and living by reason of its breathing through its own lungs alone, without deriving any of its living or power of living by or through any connection with its mother.’

Brooke J
[1991] 1 QB 587
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedIn Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation) CA 22-Sep-2000
Twins were conjoined (Siamese). Medically, both could not survive, and one was dependent upon the vital organs of the other. Doctors applied for permission to separate the twins which would be followed by the inevitable death of one of them. The . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 28 November 2021; Ref: scu.211404

A Local Authority v JB: SC 24 Nov 2021

The LA sought a declaration as to JB’s lack of capacity to consent to sexual relations.

Lord Briggs, Lady Arden, Lord Burrows, Lord Stephens, Lady Rose
[2021] UKSC 52
Bailii, Bailii Press Summary, Bailii Issues and Facts
Mental Capacity Act 2005
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromA Local Authority v JB CA 11-Jun-2020
The LA sought a declaration as to the capacity of JB to consent to sexual relations. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 26 November 2021; Ref: scu.670057

In re B (A Child): CA 13 Nov 2013

The mother had a long term history of severe mental health. The local authority took steps to begin care proceedings so that the child might be taken from her at birth. Hearing of these plans, she moved first to a different area, and then to Sweden. She and the child returned to visit the maternal grandmother, and then when the authority began its steps, she resisted saying that since they were now ordinarily resident in Sweden, the court had no jurisdiction. She now appealed against rejection of that claim.
Held: The matter was governed by Brussells II.

McFarlane, Gloster, Floyd LJJ
[2013] EWCA Civ 1434, [2014] 2 WLR 1384, [2013] WLR(D) 461
Bailii, WLRD
European Council regulation No. 2201/2003
England and Wales

Children, Health

Updated: 25 November 2021; Ref: scu.517647

Committal for Contempt of Court (Practice Guidance – Supplemental): CoP 4 Jun 2013

The court gave additional guidance for the procedures to be adopted in applications for committal for contempt of court, particularly as regards the Court of Protection, and emphasised the need for hearings to be in public.

Sir James Munby, P
[2013] EWHC B7 (COP), [2013] 1 WLR 1753
Bailii

Contempt of Court

Updated: 25 November 2021; Ref: scu.517576

W Healthcare NHS Trust v KH: CA 17 Sep 2004

The patient was a lady aged 59, suffering multiple sclerosis. She had lost mental capacity to make her own decisions many years before. She appealed against a refusal of an order allowing the doctors to bring her life to an end.
Held: The appeal failed: ‘The judge came to the conclusion was that in KH’s present state he was unable to say that life prolonging treatment would provide no benefit, and that death by, in effect, starvation would be even less dignified than the death which she will face in due course if kept artificially alive for more weeks or months or possibly years.’, and as a cort of appeal it was not proper to inrterfere with his assessment of the facts.

Brooke LJ VP, Clarke LJ, Maurice Kay J
[2004] EWCA Civ 1324, [2005] 1 WLR 834
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedAintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust v James SC 30-Oct-2013
The hospital where a gravely ill man had been treated had asked for a declaration that it would be in his best interests to withhold certain life-sustaining treatments from him. When can it be in the best interests of a living patient to withhold . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 23 November 2021; Ref: scu.517240

Re A: FD 1992

The law treats death as meaning brain stem death.
The Court made a declaration that a 19 month old child was ‘dead for all legal, as well as medical, purposes.’ In doing so, Johnson J held that, in consequence of the conclusion as to the child’s death, it was not possible for the court to exercise the inherent jurisdiction that it would have over a live child either as a ward of court or otherwise. He did, however, hold that the court retained jurisdiction to make a declaration as to death and to declare that it would not be unlawful for the ventilator to be disconnected.

Mr Justice Johnson
[1992] 3 Med LR 303
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedRegina (Smeaton) v Secretary of State for Health and Others Admn 18-Apr-2002
The claimant challenged the Order as regards the prescription of the morning-after pill, asserting that the pill would cause miscarriages, and that therefore the use would be an offence under the 1861 Act.
Held: ‘SPUC’s case is that any . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 23 November 2021; Ref: scu.223696

Regina (Smeaton) v Secretary of State for Health and Others: Admn 18 Apr 2002

The claimant challenged the Order as regards the prescription of the morning-after pill, asserting that the pill would cause miscarriages, and that therefore the use would be an offence under the 1861 Act.
Held: ‘SPUC’s case is that any interference with a fertilised egg, if it leads to the loss of the egg, involves the procuring of a ‘miscarriage’ within the meaning of the 1861 Act, even – and this is the important point – if the interference takes place before the egg has implanted in the wall of the womb.’ ‘The Court of King’s Bench, or its modern incarnation the Administrative Court, is no longer custos morum of the people. ‘ The 1861 Act was an ‘always speaking’ Act, and was to be interpreted according to our understanding now, not as in 1861. Also the word ‘miscarriage’ is an ordinary word and is not to be given a technical meaning. On current understanding, pregnancy began once the blastocyst had implanted in the endometrium. The morning after pill operated before that time, and was not an abortifacient. The Regulations were not unlawful. ‘There would in my judgment be something very seriously wrong, indeed grievously wrong with our system – by which I mean not just our legal system but the entire system by which our polity is governed – if a judge in 2002 were to be compelled by a statute 141 years old to hold that what . . . millions, of ordinary honest, decent, law abiding citizens have been doing day in day out for so many years is and always has been criminal. I am glad to be spared so unattractive a duty. ‘

Mr Justice Munby
Times 02-May-2002, Gazette 30-May-2002, [2002] EWHC 610 (Admin), [2002] EWHC 886 (Admin), (2002) 2 FLR 146
Bailii, Bailii
Offences against the Person Act 1861 58 59, Prescription Only Medicines (Human Use) Amendment (No 3) Order 2000 (SI 2000 No 3231), Abortion Act 1967, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 2(3) 27
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRoyal College of Nursing of the United Kingdom v Department of Health and Social Security HL 2-Jan-1981
The court was asked whether nurses could properly involve themselves in a pregnancy termination procedure not known when the Act was passed, and in particular, whether a pregnancy was ‘terminated by a medical practitioner’, when it was carried out . .
CitedAttorney-General v Edison Telephone Company of London 1880
The 1869 Act gave the Postmaster-General a monopoly of transmitting telegrams. Telegrams were defined as messages transmitted by telegraph. A telegraph was defined to include ‘any apparatus for transmitting messages or other communications by means . .
CitedChard v Chard (otherwise Northcott), Haye, Winstanley, Lord and Norris FD 1956
If a person has not been heard of for seven years by those who would be likely to hear from them then, if proper inquiries have been made and there is no evidence to the contrary, the person is presumed to be dead. However, the mere fact of a seven . .
CitedDuport Steels Ltd v Sirs HL 3-Jan-1980
Judiciary must Interpret, not Remedy the Law
The House emphasised the need for courts to be even handed in interpreting statutes dealing with industrial relations. Where the words of the statute are plain and unambiguous, the Court ought to give effect to that plain meaning.
Lord Diplock . .
CitedSulaiman v Juffali FD 9-Nov-2001
A talaq pronounced in England as between parties who were Saudi nationals was not to be recognised in English law as a valid extra judicial overseas divorce, even though it otherwise complied with Sharia law. Section 44(1)(a) provides that no . .
CitedHarris v Harris; Harris v Attorney General FD 21-May-2001
The applicant had been committed for ten months for contempt, being in breach of family court injunctions. He applied to be released after two months on the basis that the unserved balance of the sentence be suspended. The court held that it had the . .
CitedIn Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation) CA 22-Sep-2000
Twins were conjoined (Siamese). Medically, both could not survive, and one was dependent upon the vital organs of the other. Doctors applied for permission to separate the twins which would be followed by the inevitable death of one of them. The . .
CitedIn re F (Mental Patient: Sterilisation) HL 4-May-1989
Where a patient lacks capacity, there is the power to provide him with whatever treatment or care is necessary in his own best interests. Medical treatment can be undertaken in an emergency even if, through a lack of capacity, no consent had been . .
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland HL 4-Feb-1993
Procedures on Withdrawal of Life Support Treatment
The patient had been severely injured in the Hillsborough disaster, and had come to be in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). The doctors sought permission to withdraw medical treatment. The Official Solicitor appealed against an order of the Court . .
CitedRe A FD 1992
The law treats death as meaning brain stem death.
The Court made a declaration that a 19 month old child was ‘dead for all legal, as well as medical, purposes.’ In doing so, Johnson J held that, in consequence of the conclusion as to the . .
CitedPaton v United Kingdom ECHR 1980
An abortion conducted in the tenth week of pregnancy was not condemned. The Commission construed Article 2 to be subject to an implied limitation to allow a balancing act between the interests of mother and unborn child. . .
MentionedRegina v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs ex parte World Development Movement Ltd QBD 1995
A British consortium looked for assistance in providing a hydro-electric project on the Pergau river. One interested government department advised that it was not economical and an abuse of the overseas aid programme, but the respondent decided to . .
MentionedH v Norway ECHR 1992
Whether fertilised ovum has a right to life under Article 2. . .
MentionedOpen Door and Dublin Well Woman v Ireland ECHR 29-Oct-1992
Hudoc Judgment (Merits and just satisfaction) Lack of jurisdiction (Art. 8); Preliminary objection rejected (victim); Preliminary objection rejected (six month period); Preliminary objection rejected . .
MentionedRegina v Commissioner for Local Administration ex parte Croydon London Borough Council QBD 1989
Delay in application.
Held: The commissioner’s powers cannot depend upon whether the complaint is well founded. He could only act where a complainant did not otherwise have an action at law for a remedy.
As long as no prejudice is . .
CitedRegina v Her Majesty’s Treasury, Ex parte Smedley CA 19-Dec-1984
The applicant sought, as a taxpayer, to object to the proposed payment of andpound;121m to the European Community without an Appropriation Act, but under an Order in Council. The claim was that a draft Order in Council laid by the Treasury before . .
CitedRegina v Criminal Injuries Compensation Board Ex Parte A HL 11-Mar-1999
A police doctor’s statement in a contemporary medical report that her findings were consistent with the claimant’s allegation had not been included in the evidence before the CICB when it rejected her claim for compensation.
Held: The decision . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs ex parte Rees-Mogg Admn 30-Jul-1993
The applicant, a former editor of the Times, sought judicial review of the decision by the respondent to ratify the EU Treaty (Maastricht), saying that it would increase the powers of the European Parliament without it having been approved by . .
CitedRex v Phillips 1811
That a woman had not conceived could not afford a defence to the offence under section II. . .
CitedRegina v Dhingra CC 1991
(Crown Court at Birmingham) A doctor who had fitted a patient, with an IUD was charged with an offence under section 58 of the 1861 Act. Having heard medical evidence from two consultant gynaecologists and legal argument the judge withdrew the case . .
CitedRex v Bourne 1939
An eminent surgeon openly in a public hospital operated to terminate the pregnancy of a 14 year old girl who had become pregnant in consequence of a violent rape.
Held: The court suggested when summing up that there might be a duty in certain . .
CitedSutherland v Stopes HL 1925
Dr Marie Stopes failed in her attempt to reverse the verdict against her in libel proceedings she had brought in relation to a book which criticised what it called her ‘monstrous campaign of birth control’ and opined, looking back to the events of . .
CitedRex v Scudder 1828
. .
CitedRex v Goodhall 1846
Proof of pregnancy was unnecessary to establish an offence under the Act of procuring a miscarriage. . .
CitedBradlaugh v The Queen 1877
Charles Bradlaugh and Mrs Annie Besant were prosecuted for publishing a treatise on contraceptive methods entitled the Fruits of Philosophy which had originally been published in the United States of America in 1832. They were prosecuted for . .
CitedBradlaugh v The Queen CA 1878
Conviction for publishing an obscene libel (abortion manual) overturned. . .
CitedIn Re Besant ChD 18-May-1878
Mrs Besant had been prosecuted for publishing an obscene libel in the form of a book on abortion.
Held: The publication of the book was in itself sufficient grounds for removing Mrs Besant’s seven year old daughter from her mother’s custody. . .
CitedIn Re Besant CA 9-Apr-1879
The appellant challenged an order removing her children after she had been prosecuted for publishing an obscene libel, in the form of a book on abortion.
Held: The appeal was dismissed. The court removed the daughter of Annie Besant and the . .
CitedRegina v Dhingra CC 1991
(Crown Court at Birmingham) A doctor who had fitted a patient, with an IUD was charged with an offence under section 58 of the 1861 Act. Having heard medical evidence from two consultant gynaecologists and legal argument the judge withdrew the case . .
CitedRegina v Dhingra CC 1991
(Crown Court at Birmingham) A doctor who had fitted a patient, with an IUD was charged with an offence under section 58 of the 1861 Act. Having heard medical evidence from two consultant gynaecologists and legal argument the judge withdrew the case . .
CitedFirth v Firth 25-Jun-1941
Langton J said: ‘[Counsel] said that it was a matter of common knowledge that young people, for a period, at any rate, after their marriage had intercourse only with the intervention of contraceptives. On this part of his common knowledge I can only . .
CitedBaxter v Baxter PC 1947
The House considered whether a wife who insisted that her husband always used a condom was thereby guilty of a wilful refusal to consummate the marriage within the meaning of section 7(1)(a).
Held: She was not, for a marriage may be . .
CitedQueen-Empress v Ademma 1886
(Appellate Criminal Court of Madras) A prosecution had been brought under section 312 of the Indian Penal Code, it being an offence ‘voluntarily [to] cause a woman with child to miscarry’. The trial judge had held that the defendant, who had only . .
CitedThe Attorney General (ex rel The Society for the Protection of Unborn Children Ireland Ltd) v Open Door Counselling Ltd and Dublin Wellwoman Centre Ltd 1988
(High Court in Ireland) Hamilton P said: ‘Sections 58 and 59 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 protected and protect the foetus in the womb and having regard to the omission of the words ‘Quick with child’ which were contained in the . .
CitedOpen Door and Dublin Well Woman v Ireland ECHR 29-Oct-1992
Hudoc Judgment (Merits and just satisfaction) Lack of jurisdiction (Art. 8); Preliminary objection rejected (victim); Preliminary objection rejected (six month period); Preliminary objection rejected . .
CitedRegina v Price (Herbert) CACD 1989
A woman went to consult the defendant, a doctor, as she thought she was pregnant and did not wish to have the child. It was common ground that she told the defendant she thought she was some three months pregnant, that she desired not to have the . .
CitedRegina v Trim 1943
(Supreme Court of Victoria) Section 62 of the Crimes Act 1928 made it an offence to do certain acts ‘with intent to procure the miscarriage of any woman’, specifically in the context of an argument (rejected by the court) that it was a defence if . .
CitedMunah Binti Ali v Public Prosecutor 1958
(Court of Appeal of Malaya) Thomson CJ: ‘it is quite clear that the expression ’causes a woman with child to miscarry’ means to cause her to lose from the womb prematurely the products of conception and . . therefore there can be no offence under . .
CitedThompson v Nixon QBD 1966
The court felt bound to follow the interpretation of the meaning of bailee in the 1916 Act from Matthews, even if, given the freedom to do so it would have interpreted it differently: ‘the present case falls four square within the decision in Reg v . .
CitedFitzpatrick v Sterling Housing Association Ltd HL 28-Oct-1999
Same Sex Paartner to Inherit as Family Member
The claimant had lived with the original tenant in a stable and long standing homosexual relationship at the deceased’s flat. After the tenant’s death he sought a statutory tenancy as a spouse of the deceased. The Act had been extended to include as . .
CitedAttorney-General’s Reference (No 3 of 1994) HL 24-Jul-1997
The defendant stabbed a pregnant woman. The child was born prematurely and died. The attack had been directed at the mother, and the proper offence was manslaughter.
Held: The only questions which need to be addressed are (1) whether the act . .
CitedAttorney-General v Edison Telephone Company of London 1880
The 1869 Act gave the Postmaster-General a monopoly of transmitting telegrams. Telegrams were defined as messages transmitted by telegraph. A telegraph was defined to include ‘any apparatus for transmitting messages or other communications by means . .
CitedKing v Bristow Helicopters Ltd; Morris v KLM Royal Dutch Airlines HL 28-Feb-2002
Psychiatric Injury under Warsaw Convention
The applicants were passengers who claimed damages for psychiatric injury, after accidents in aircraft.
Held: The Convention created strict liability on air carriers, but explicitly restricted damages to be payable for ‘bodily injury’. That . .
CitedRegina (Quintavalle) v Secretary of State for Health CA 18-Jan-2002
A cloned cell, a cell produced by cell nuclear replacement came within the definition of embryo under the Act. The Act required that fertilisation was complete.
Held: The act could be applied in a purposive way. The legislative policy was that . .
CitedKing v Bristow Helicopters Ltd; Morris v KLM Royal Dutch Airlines HL 28-Feb-2002
Psychiatric Injury under Warsaw Convention
The applicants were passengers who claimed damages for psychiatric injury, after accidents in aircraft.
Held: The Convention created strict liability on air carriers, but explicitly restricted damages to be payable for ‘bodily injury’. That . .
CitedPreston-Jones v Preston-Jones HL 1951
There are some medical matters of which the court has judicial knowledge, such as the normal period of human gestation. At common law the presumption of legitimacy could only be rebutted by proof beyond reasonable doubt. Proof of adultery in . .
CitedBirmingham City Council v Oakley HL 29-Nov-2000
When considering if premises fell within the section, and were ‘in such a state as to be prejudicial to health’, the court must consider some feature of the premises which was in itself prejudicial. An arrangement of rooms which was unsatisfactory . .
CitedRegina v Burstow, Regina v Ireland HL 24-Jul-1997
The defendant was accused of assault occasioning actual bodily harm when he had made silent phone calls which were taken as threatening.
Held: An assault might consist of the making of a silent telephone call in circumstances where it causes . .

Cited by:
CitedHurst, Regina (on the Application of) v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis v London Northern District Coroner HL 28-Mar-2007
The claimant’s son had been stabbed to death. She challenged the refusal of the coroner to continue with the inquest with a view to examining the responsibility of any of the police in having failed to protect him.
Held: The question amounted . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Crime, Health

Updated: 23 November 2021; Ref: scu.170211

Winch v Jones: CA 1986

The court asked as to the criteria which should be applied when considering an application by a mental patient for leave to bring proceedings under section 139: ‘section 139 protects the defendant unless and until the applicant obtains leave. This in itself is an added protection of considerable value [over and above the ordinary strike out provisions]. As I see it, the section is intended to strike a balance between the legitimate interests of the applicant to be allowed, at his own risk as to costs, to seek the adjudication of the courts upon any claim which is not frivolous, vexatious or an abuse of the process, and the equally legitimate interests of the respondent to such an application not to be subjected to the undoubted exceptional risk of being harassed by baseless claims by those who have been treated under the [Mental Health] Acts. In striking such a balance, the issue is not whether the applicant has established a prima facie case or even whether there is a serious issue to be tried, although that comes close to it. The issue is whether, on the material immediately available to the court, which, of course, can include material furnished by the proposed defendant, the applicant’s complaint appears to be such that it deserves the fuller investigation which will be possible if the intended applicant is allowed to proceed.’ and ‘To be more specific, there are two fundamental difficulties. First, mental patients are liable, through no fault of their own, to have a distorted recollection of facts which can, on occasion, become pure fantasy. Second, the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness is not an exact science and severely divergent views are sometimes possible without any lack of reasonable care on the part of the doctor.’

Sir John Donaldson MR
[1986] QB 296
Mental Health Act 1983 8139
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedSeal v Chief Constable of South Wales Police HL 4-Jul-2007
The claimant had sought to bring proceedings against the respondent, but as a mental patient subject to the 1983 Act, had been obliged by the section first to obtain consent. The parties disputed whether the failure was a procedural or substantial . .
CitedAdorian v The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis CA 23-Jan-2009
The claimant received injuries when arrested. He was later convicted of resisting arrest. The defendant relied on section 329 of the 2003 Act. The claimant said that the force used against him was grossly disproportionate. The commissioner appealed . .
CitedJohnston v Chief Constable of Merseyside Police QBD 20-Nov-2009
The proposed claimant sought leave under the 1983 Act to bring an action for assault and false imprisonment, and further a disapplication of the limitation period to allow a claim out of time. The defendant said that the proposed claimant had been . .
CitedTW v London Borough of Enfield and Another QBD 8-May-2013
The claimant sought damages after being detained under the 1983 Act, and a declaration that the section used was incompatible with her human rights.
Held: The test for allowing proceedings was set at a low level, and even if section 139 does . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Litigation Practice

Updated: 25 November 2021; Ref: scu.226022

A Local Authority v JB: CA 11 Jun 2020

The LA sought a declaration as to the capacity of JB to consent to sexual relations.

Sir Andrew McFarlane P, Singh, Baker LJJ
[2020] EWCA Civ 735, [2020] WLR(D) 336, [2020] 3 WLR 1014, (2020) 23 CCL Rep 449, [2020] COPLR 550, [2021] Fam 37, [2021] 1 All ER 1103, (2020) 175 BMLR 52, [2021] 1 FLR 264
Bailii, WLRD
Mental Capacity Act 2005 3(1)
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromA Local Authority v JB SC 24-Nov-2021
The LA sought a declaration as to JB’s lack of capacity to consent to sexual relations. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 25 November 2021; Ref: scu.651713

Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust v Fixsler and Others: FD 28 May 2021

Application for declaration as to child’s best interests. Hospital wanting to provide only palliative care – family wanting life support

[2021] EWHC 1426 (Fam), [2021] WLR(D) 339, [2021] 4 WLR 95
Bailii, Judiciary, WLRD
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromFixsler and Another v Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust and Another CA 9-Jul-2021
Whether to withdraw life sustaining treatment for a little girl with catastrophic brain injuries. . .
See AlsoManchester University NHS Foundation Trust v Fixsler and Others FD 6-Oct-2021
. .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Children, Health

Updated: 25 November 2021; Ref: scu.663811

AM v South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation and Another: UTAA 6 Aug 2013

The tribunal considered the approach to be taken by the First-tier Tribunal (the FTT) and other decision makers under the Mental Health Act 1983 (the MHA) when treatment and authorisation of a deprivation of liberty of the relevant patient might be given under the Mental Capacity Act 1985.

[2013] UKUT 365 (AAC)
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983, Mental Capacity Act 1985

Health

Updated: 22 November 2021; Ref: scu.516780

Gardner and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Social Care and Others: Admn 5 Nov 2021

The claimants challenged what they said was the Defendants’ failure to protect residents of care homes in England from the risk of serious harm or death from COVID during the first wave of the pandemic between March and June 2020.

Lord Justice Bean
[2021] EWHC 2946 (Admin)
Bailii
England and Wales

Health, Administrative

Updated: 20 November 2021; Ref: scu.669257

Nicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v A Primary Care Trust: CA 31 Jul 2013

The claimant had suffered a severe form of locked-in syndrome, and would wish to die. He sought a declaration that someone who assisted him in his siuicide would not be prosecuted for murder.
Held: The position in law that voluntary euthanasia was murder, and as to whether the doctrine of necessity provided a defence was long and clearly established in law, and it was not proper to depart from it by judcial law making under the guise of article 8.
Nevertheless, the Director of Public Prosecutions’ policy failed adequately under article 8 to make clear whether a helper would be prosecuted in cases where the helper had no close or emotional connection with the victim.
Lord Dyson MR and Elias LJ (majority) held: ‘Para 43(14) is particularly problematic. How does it apply in the case of a medical doctor or nurse who is caring for a patient and out of compassion is willing to assist the patient to commit suicide, but is not, as it were, in the business of assisting individuals to commit suicide and perhaps has never done so before? How much weight is given by the DPP to para 43(14) alone? And if the professional accepts some payment for undertaking the task, will that be likely to involve a finding that he or she is not wholly motivated by compassion, thereby triggering both paragraph 43(6) and paragraph 43(13)? These questions are of crucial importance to healthcare professionals who may be contemplating providing assistance. It is of no less importance to victims who wish to commit suicide, but have no relative or close friend who is willing and able to help them to do so. Suppose that (i) none of the factors set out in para 43 is present (apart from the para 43(14) factor) and (ii) all of the factors set out in para 44 are present. What is the likelihood of a prosecution in such a situation? The Policy does not say. To adopt the language of the Sunday Times case, even in such a situation, the Policy does not enable the healthcare professional to foresee to a reasonable degree the consequences of providing assistance. In our view, the Policy should give some indication of the weight that the DPP accords to the fact that the helper was acting in his or her capacity as a healthcare professional and the victim was in his or her care. In short, we accept the submission of Mr Havers that the Policy does not provide medical doctors and other professionals with the kind of steer . . that it provides to relatives and close friends acting out of compassion’.
Lord Judge CJ, dissenting, said: ‘ . . it seems clear to me that paragraph 14 addresses the risks which can arise when someone in a position of authority or trust, and on whom the victim would therefore depend to a greater or lesser extent, assisting in the suicide in circumstances in which, just because of the position of authority and trust, the person in authority might be able to exercise undue influence over the victim. As I read this paragraph it does not extend to an individual who happens to be a member of a profession, or indeed a professional carer, brought in from outside, without previous influence or authority over the victim, or his family, for the simple purposes of assisting the suicide after the victim has reached his or her own settled decision to end life, when, although emotionally supportive of him, his wife cannot provide the necessary physical assistance.
Naturally, it would come as no surprise at all for the DPP to decide that a prosecution would be inappropriate in a situation where a loving spouse or partner, as a final act of devotion and compassion assisted the suicide of an individual who had made a clear, final and settled termination to end his or her own life. The Policy . . deliberately does not restrict the decision to withhold consent to family members or close friends acting out of love and devotion. The Policy certainly does not lead to what would otherwise be an extraordinary anomaly, that those who are brought in to help from outside the family circle . . are more likely to be prosecuted than a family member when they do no more than replace a loving member of the family, acting out of compassion, who supports the ‘victim’ to achieve his desired suicide. The stranger brought into this situation, who is not profiteering, but rather assisting to provide services which, if provided by the wife, would not attract a prosecution, seems to me most unlikely to be prosecuted. In my respectful judgment this Policy is sufficiently clear to enable AM, or anyone who assists him, to make an informed decision about the likelihood of prosecution.’

Lord Judge CJ, Lord Dyson MR, Elias LJ
[2013] EWCA Civ 961, [2013] WLR(D) 326
Bailii, WLRD
European Convention on Human Rights 8
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRegina (on the Application of Pretty) v Director of Public Prosecutions and Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 29-Nov-2001
The applicant was terminally ill, and entirely dependent upon her husband for care. She foresaw a time when she would wish to take her own life, but would not be able to do so without the active assistance of her husband. She sought a proleptic . .
CitedPretty v The United Kingdom ECHR 29-Apr-2002
Right to Life Did Not include Right to Death
The applicant was paralysed and suffered a degenerative condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to assist her suicide by accompanying her to Switzerland. English law would not excuse such behaviour. She argued that the right to die is not . .
CitedPurdy, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions HL 30-Jul-2009
Need for Certainty in Scope of Offence
The appellant suffered a severe chronic illness and anticipated that she might want to go to Switzerland to commit suicide. She would need her husband to accompany her, and sought an order requiring the respondent to provide clear guidelines on the . .
Appeal fromNicklinson, Regina (on The Application of) v Ministry of Justice Admn 16-Aug-2012
The claimants each suffered ‘locked in syndrome’ after catastrophic health events, and were unable to commit suicide as they would have wished. In one case, the claimant would have needed assistance to travel to a clinic in Switzerland where he . .
See AlsoNicklinson v Ministry of Justice and Others QBD 12-Mar-2012
The claimant suffered locked-in syndrome and sought relief in a form which would allow others to assist him in committing suicide. The court considered whether the case should be allowed to proceed rather than to be struck out as hopeless.
Cited by:
Appeal fromNicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) SC 25-Jun-2014
Criminality of Assisting Suicide not Infringing
The court was asked: ‘whether the present state of the law of England and Wales relating to assisting suicide infringes the European Convention on Human Rights, and whether the code published by the Director of Public Prosecutions relating to . .
At CANicklinson and Lamb v United Kingdom ECHR 16-Jul-2015
The applicants, suffering life threatening and severely disabling conditions, complained of laws which would allow the criminal prosecutions of those assisting them to end their lives. . .
CitedKenward and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v The Director of Public Prosecutions and Another Admn 4-Dec-2015
The claimants challenged the policy issued by the DPP on assisted suicide following the Nicklinson case.
Held: The request for judicial review was refused.
Sir Brian Leveson P said: ‘It is important not to misunderstand the effect either . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Crime, Health, Human Rights

Updated: 18 November 2021; Ref: scu.514242

Modaresi, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health: SC 24 Jul 2013

The Court was asked: ‘As: (i) a public body with obligations in public law and (ii) a public authority under the Human Rights Act 1998 can the Secretary of State for Health ‘the S/S’ lawfully refuse to refer a patient’s case to the First-tier Mental Health Review Tribunal ‘MHRT’ under section 67(1) of the Mental Health Act 1983 ‘MHA’ in circumstances where the MHRT has unlawfully declined to hear that patient’s application to it under section 66(1)-(2) and where the patient requests that there be a section 67(1) referral?’
Held: The appeal failed. In the particular circumstances, the Secretary of State’s response to the solicitors’ letter of 7 January 2011 was both lawful and reasonable, and ‘A competent tribunal had made a decision on a procedural matter, and the claimant had both a right of appeal and access to solicitor’s advice on its merits. The Secretary of State was under no duty to do the solicitor’s work for him, even if it would have been appropriate for him to second-guess the decision of the tribunal on this point. It had been open to the appellant to ask the tribunal to review its decision, if thought wrong, or to appeal. Failing such a challenge, it is hard to see why the Secretary of State was not entitled to proceed on the basis of that decision of a competent tribunal. In any event the argument does not lead anywhere. If the Secretary of State’s decision were to be set aside solely on the basis that the original application was in fact made in time, it would not help the appellant. Rather it would further undermine her case against the Secretary of State under article 5(4) or analogous common law principles, since it would show that there had been a right of access to the tribunal all along, and therefore no breach by the Secretary of State of any implied duty to provide one under section 67. ‘

Lord Neuberger, President, Lady Hale, Lord Wilson, Lord Sumption, Lord Carnwath
[2013] PTSR 1031, [2013] WLR(D) 309, UKSC 2012/0069, [2013] UKSC 53
Bailii Summary, WLRD, Bailii, SC Summary, SC
Human Rights Act 1998, Mental Health Act 1983 67(1)
England and Wales
Citing:
At first instanceModaresi, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Others Admn 3-Mar-2011
The claimant sought judicial review of her detention under section 2 of the 1983 Act.
Held: The request was rejected. The tribunal had been correct to treat the original application as out of time. The Secretary of State’s decision was neither . .
CitedMucelli v Government of Albania (Criminal Appeal From Her Majesty’s High Court of Justice) HL 21-Jan-2009
The House was asked whether someone who wished to appeal against an extradition order had an obligation also to serve his appellant’s notice on the respondent within the seven days limit, and whether the period was capable of extension by the court. . .
Appeal fromModaresi, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Others CA 23-Nov-2011
The appellant had been detained under the 1983 Act. Her appeal had been declined as out of time, and she now appealed against rejection of her request for judicial review.
Held: The appeal failed, even though the application to the tribunal . .
CitedPadfield v Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food HL 14-Feb-1968
Exercise of Ministerial Discretion
The Minister had power to direct an investigation in respect of any complaint as to the operation of any marketing scheme for agricultural produce. Milk producers complained about the price paid by the milk marketing board for their milk when . .
CitedPritam Kaur v S Russell and Sons Ltd CA 2-Jun-1972
The plaintiff sought damages following the death of her husband when working for the defendant. The limitation period expired on Saturday 5 September 1970. The writ was issued on the Monday following.
Held: The appeal succeeded. The writ was . .
CitedWinterwerp v The Netherlands ECHR 24-Oct-1979
A Dutch national detained in hospital complained that his detention had divested him of his capacity to administer his property, and thus there had been determination of his civil rights and obligations without the guarantee of a judicial procedure. . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for the Home Department, Ex Parte Pierson HL 21-May-1997
The Home Secretary may not later extend the tariff for a lifer after it had been set by an earlier Home Secretary merely to satisfy needs of retribution and deterrence. ‘A power conferred by Parliament in general terms is not to be taken to . .
CitedMH v Secretary of State for the Department of Health and others HL 20-Oct-2005
The appellant, detained for assessment under section 2, was too disabled to make an application to the court on her own behalf. After a dispute between her mother and the medical officer over her treatment, an application was made to the county . .
CitedRegina (RB) v First Tier Tribunal (Review) UTAA 28-May-2010
The tribunal may review its own decision, where for example a clear error has been made (section 9). . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Human Rights

Updated: 17 November 2021; Ref: scu.513676

Regina (on the Application IH) v Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust and Others: Admn 5 Dec 2001

Whether the 1983 Act, and in particular its provisions governing the conditional discharge and deferral of conditional discharge of ‘restricted patients’, are compatible with Article 5 of the European Convention on Human Rights.

[2001] EWHC Admin 1037
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983, European Convention on Human Rights
England and Wales
Citing:
Appealed toRegina (IH) v Secretary of State for the Home Department and Another CA 15-May-2002
The applicant was a restricted mental patient. His conditional release had been ordered, but required a consultant psychiatrist to be found who would agree to supervise him. None such could be found, and his detention continued. After two years he . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromRegina (IH) v Secretary of State for the Home Department and Another CA 15-May-2002
The applicant was a restricted mental patient. His conditional release had been ordered, but required a consultant psychiatrist to be found who would agree to supervise him. None such could be found, and his detention continued. After two years he . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Human Rights

Updated: 17 November 2021; Ref: scu.167344

Regina (Kenneally) v Snaresbrook Crown Court: Admn 27 Nov 2001

That a mentally disturbed defendant may cause embarrassment by his behaviour in court was no reason for him not to be brought to court to be present when an order detaining him under the Act was to be made. The words of section 51(5) must be construed restrictively, and it was not to be applied where all that was involved was possible inconvenience for the court and distress for the detainee. The court has power to quash an order made by the Crown court where it is made without jurisdiction and there is no alternative remedy. The word ‘inappropriate’ must be construed restrictively: ‘A high degree of disablement or relevant disorder must be present. The section does not apply in a situation in which all that is involved is possible inconvenience for the court and inevitable distress for the defendant and others likely to be concerned in a trial, if a trial is held.’

Lord Justice Pill, Mrs Justice Rafferty and Mr Justice Tomlinson
Times 17-Dec-2001, [2001] EWHC Admin 968, [2002] QB 1169, [2002] 2 WLR 1430, [2002] MHLR 53, [2002] ACD 46,
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983 51
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedRegina (Crown Prosecution Service) v Guildford Crown Court QBD 4-Jul-2007
The defendant had been convicted of rape. The judge had decided that an extended sentence was appropriate, and added four years to the seven year sentence under section 227. However the judge had no jurisdiction to do so, he retired on the same day . .
CitedJuncal, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department and others CA 25-Jul-2008
The claimant appealed dismissal of his claim for wrongful imprisonment having been detained in 1997 on being found unfit to plead to an offence of violence.
Held: Parliament had a legitimate concern for the protection of the public, and . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Criminal Practice, Health

Updated: 17 November 2021; Ref: scu.167113

A Hospital NHS Trust v LP and Another: FD 25 Jul 2019

‘welfare of a thirteen-year-old boy called P. Yesterday, very sadly, P was involved in a very serious road traffic accident in which he sustained multiple injuries which are life threatening, those injuries are set out in the report of one of his treating doctors that is before the court.
I am required to decide on an urgent basis whether it is in P’s best interest, should his condition deteriorate suddenly, to be treated by way of blood or products in circumstances where consent for such treatment cannot be forthcoming either from P, by reason of him being in an induced coma, or from his mother and father, who are committed and conscientious Jehovah’s Witnesses. The parents are aware that the application is being made and have attended this hearing by telephone from the hospital.’

Mr Justice MacDonald
[2019] EWHC 2989 (Fam)
Bailii
England and Wales

Health

Updated: 16 November 2021; Ref: scu.648642

An NHS Foundation Trust v AB and Others: FD 21 Oct 2020

‘application by an NHS Foundation Trust for a declaration that AB by reason of her minority lacks capacity to consent to or refuse cataract surgery and associated care and treatment, and an order that is in AB’s best interests for her to undergo cataract surgery in both eyes, and that to the extent that admitting AB to the hospital for the surgery and consequential care is against her wishes and constitutes a deprivation of her liberty, such deprivation is lawful.’

Mrs Justice Lieven DBE
[2020] EWHC 3221 (Fam)
Bailii
England and Wales

Health

Updated: 16 November 2021; Ref: scu.656329

Regina v Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust (ex parte Glass): CA 21 Jul 1999

The courts can not intervene between a parent and her child’s doctors to control future medical care of the child. Such decisions must be made as they presented themselves. In such cases the child’s best interests took precedence over strict legalistic procedures. The court has power to give appropriate remedies even though an incorrect procedures may have been followed. The general rule is that Declarations should be sought and considered in the light of circumstances as they are and not as they may be. Any departure from that approach would have to be justified.

Lord Woolf MR
Times 26-Jul-1999, [1999] EWCA Civ 1914, [1999] 2 FLR 905
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromRegina v Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust ex parte Glass Admn 22-Apr-1999
Application with regard to continuation or otherwise of life saving treatment for a child. . .

Cited by:
CitedWyatt v Portsmouth NHS Trust and Another FD 21-Apr-2005
Charlotte Wyatt had been born very premature and so severely disabled that her doctors sought and obtained an order that she should not be revived if she died. She had survived several months longer than expected and her parents had noticed . .
Appeal fromGlass v The United Kingdom ECHR 9-Mar-2004
The applicant’s adult son was disabled. There was a disagreement with the hospital about his care. The hospital considered that to alleviate his distress, he should not be resuscitated. The family wanted to take him home, fearing euthanasia. The . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Children

Updated: 15 November 2021; Ref: scu.146829

Wyatt v Portsmouth NHS Trust and Another: FD 21 Apr 2005

Charlotte Wyatt had been born very premature and so severely disabled that her doctors sought and obtained an order that she should not be revived if she died. She had survived several months longer than expected and her parents had noticed improvements. They sought a revocation of the order.
Held: Charlotte had survived and made some small progress. Her doctors still however expected her to die. A doctor appointed by her family asserted that she might be treated, though still with very substantial difficulties. This amounted to a fundamental clash of philosophies of the doctors. In this case and after careful and anxious consideration, the judge was convinced by the majority medical opinion, and declined to make the order sought. Applying Glass, it would be wrong to await developments. The declaration should continue.
Hedley J said: ‘The infinite variety of the human condition never ceases to surprise and it is that fact that defeats any attempt to be more precise in a definition of best interests’

Hedley J
[2005] EWHC 693 (Fam)
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoPortsmouth NHS Trust v Wyatt and others FD 7-Oct-2004
Charlotte Wyatt was born prematurely, and depended for day to day her life on medical support. Her doctors asked to be permitted not to resuscitate her again if she needed it. Her parents asked that she be given whatever chance was available for her . .
CitedRe L (a child) (Medical Treatment: Benefit) FD 1-Nov-2004
(Date) . .
CitedRegina v Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust (ex parte Glass) CA 21-Jul-1999
The courts can not intervene between a parent and her child’s doctors to control future medical care of the child. Such decisions must be made as they presented themselves. In such cases the child’s best interests took precedence over strict . .
CitedGlass v The United Kingdom ECHR 9-Mar-2004
The applicant’s adult son was disabled. There was a disagreement with the hospital about his care. The hospital considered that to alleviate his distress, he should not be resuscitated. The family wanted to take him home, fearing euthanasia. The . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromWyatt and Another v Portsmouth Hospital NHS and Another CA 12-Oct-2005
The appellants’ daughter had been born with very severe disabilities. Her doctors obtained an order allowing them a discretion not to ventilate her to keep her alive if necessary. She had improved, but the family now sought leave to appeal an order . .
CitedAintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust v James SC 30-Oct-2013
The hospital where a gravely ill man had been treated had asked for a declaration that it would be in his best interests to withhold certain life-sustaining treatments from him. When can it be in the best interests of a living patient to withhold . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Updated: 15 November 2021; Ref: scu.224516

Re L (a child) (Medical Treatment: Benefit): FD 1 Nov 2004

(Date)

Dame Elizabeth Butler Sloss
[2004] EWHC 2713 (Fam), [2005] 1 FLR 491
England and Wales
Citing:
ApprovedPortsmouth NHS Trust v Wyatt and others FD 7-Oct-2004
Charlotte Wyatt was born prematurely, and depended for day to day her life on medical support. Her doctors asked to be permitted not to resuscitate her again if she needed it. Her parents asked that she be given whatever chance was available for her . .

Cited by:
CitedWyatt v Portsmouth NHS Trust and Another FD 21-Apr-2005
Charlotte Wyatt had been born very premature and so severely disabled that her doctors sought and obtained an order that she should not be revived if she died. She had survived several months longer than expected and her parents had noticed . .
CitedWyatt and Another v Portsmouth Hospital NHS and Another CA 12-Oct-2005
The appellants’ daughter had been born with very severe disabilities. Her doctors obtained an order allowing them a discretion not to ventilate her to keep her alive if necessary. She had improved, but the family now sought leave to appeal an order . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Children, Health

Updated: 15 November 2021; Ref: scu.226136

Radu v Germany (Legal Summary): ECHR 16 May 2013

ECHR Article 5-1-a
After conviction
Applicant’s continued placement in psychiatric hospital after expiry of his prison term: no violation
Facts – In 1995 the applicant was convicted of homicide and sentenced to eight and a half years’ imprisonment and placement in a psychiatric hospital on grounds of diminished responsibility. In making the order for the applicant’s placement, the sentencing court relied on expert evidence indicating that the applicant suffered from a serious personality disorder characterised by violent outbursts and diminished capability to control his acts and was likely to kill again if he found himself in a similar conflict situation. No appeal was lodged against that order, which therefore became final. After spending four years in prison, the applicant was transferred to a psychiatric hospital in 1998. However, in subsequent proceedings for review of the applicant’s detention, the medical director of the hospital concluded that the applicant’s placement was wrongful as, although he had an ‘accentuated personality’ and was very likely to reoffend if released, the applicant was not in fact suffering from a persisting pathological mental disorder and lacked the motivation to complete a course of therapy. The court dealing with the execution of sentences then ordered his return to prison, where he served the remainder of his prison sentence. In the meantime, however, the court of appeal upheld a decision by the regional court not to declare the applicant’s placement in a psychiatric hospital terminated, despite further expert psychiatric evidence confirming the medical director’s view that the applicant had not been suffering from a serious personality disorder diminishing his criminal responsibility at the time the offence was committed. The court of appeal considered that even though the sentencing court’s order for the applicant’s placement in a psychiatric hospital was the result of an erroneous legal qualification, that qualification could not be corrected by the courts dealing with the execution of sentences as to do so would violate the constitutional principle of the finality of judicial decisions. Accordingly, after completing his prison sentence in October 2003 the applicant was transferred to a psychiatric hospital. The domestic courts came to a like conclusion on a further review of the applicant’s psychiatric placement in 2006 and the Federal Constitutional Court declined to consider the applicant’s constitutional complaint.
In his application to the European Court, the applicant complained that his continued confinement in a psychiatric hospital had violated his right to liberty. His detention had been prolonged despite the fact that it had been established that he did not suffer and had in fact never suffered from a condition diminishing or excluding his criminal responsibility.
Law – Article 5-1 (a): The Court firstly had to establish whether there was a sufficient causal connection between the applicant’s conviction by the sentencing court in 1995 and his continuing deprivation of liberty from 2006 onwards. In that connection, it noted that both the sentencing court and the courts dealing with the execution of sentences agreed that the applicant suffered from a personality disorder and was likely to commit further offences if released. Further, even though they disagreed on the legal qualification of that disorder, the courts dealing with the execution of sentences had accepted that the classification by the sentencing court had acquired legal force and could not be changed. In that, connection, the Court noted that a court’s reliance on the findings in a final judgment of a criminal court to justify a person’s detention, even if such findings were or may have been wrong, did not, as a rule, raise an issue under Article 5-1: a flawed conviction would render a detention unlawful only if the conviction were the result of a flagrant denial of justice, which was not the case here. Given that the courts dealing with the execution of sentences had pursued the aims of protecting the public and providing treatment for the applicant’s personality disorder, the Court was satisfied that their decision not to release the applicant had been based on grounds consistent with the aims pursued by the sentencing court when ordering his detention in a psychiatric hospital. There therefore remained a sufficient causal connection for the purposes of sub-paragraph (a) of Article 5-1 between the applicant’s conviction in 1995 and his continuing detention in a psychiatric hospital. Such continuation of the applicant’s detention had a legal basis in domestic law, which under the domestic jurisprudence had been foreseeable in his case. Furthermore, the domestic courts had given detailed reasons for their decisions and their interpretation of the applicable provision of domestic law was aimed at protecting the finality of the sentencing court’s judgment, which could not be seen as contravening as such the purpose of Article 5. Finally, the applicant had not been arbitrarily deprived of his liberty since the domestic courts’ application of the domestic law did not render his release impossible as soon as it could be concluded that he would not commit any further unlawful acts. As the applicant had not yet met that condition, the execution of the detention order against him had not been suspended. Therefore, the order for the applicant’s continued confinement in a psychiatric hospital was ‘lawful’ and ‘in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law’, as required by Article 5-1.
Conclusion: no violation (five votes to two).

20084/07 – Legal Summary, [2013] ECHR 604
Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights
Human Rights
Citing:
See AlsoRadu v Germany ECHR 3-Jul-2012
. .

Cited by:
SummaryRadu v Germany ECHR 16-May-2013
. .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Prisons, Health

Updated: 15 November 2021; Ref: scu.512073

CM v The Executor of The Estate of EJ and Others: FD 14 Jun 2013

CM, a medical doctor stoppd in the street and atended a woman who had fallen from a building, and later died. In caring for her, she had contact with the lady’s blood. Her own hands had broken skin, anf being afraid of blood borne disease sought an order for blood to be taken for analysis.
Held: Granted

Cobb J
[2013] EWHC 1680 (Fam)
Bailii
Human Tissue Act 2004
England and Wales

Coroners, Health

Updated: 14 November 2021; Ref: scu.510875

Afework, Regina (on The Application of) v London Borough of Camden: Admn 13 Jun 2013

Judgment on the claimant’s application for permission to apply for judicial review as to whether the defendant local authority is duty bound by virtue of the terms of section 117 of the Mental Health Act 1983, to provide the claimant, in his particular circumstances, with accommodation free-of-charge.

Mostyn J
[2013] EWHC 1637 (Admin)
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983 117

Health, Local Government

Updated: 14 November 2021; Ref: scu.510803

Evans v United Kingdom: ECHR 7 Mar 2006

The claimant had entered into fertilisation treatment with her boyfriend. They both signed an agreement under which the fertilised sperm were only later to be implanted with the agreement of both. The couple separated, and the potential father withdrew his consent to the treatment, and the woman was refused implantation. She complained of interference with her article 8 rights.
Held: Her claim failed. The Court will generally allow the national authorities a wide margin of appreciation when it comes to striking a balance between competing Convention rights.
The 1990 Act had been passed after detailed consideration and consultation. It had been explained to the applicant that the completion of the treatment depended upon the continuing consent of her partner, and she had signed to agree to this. An embryo did not itself have a right to life. Where a particularly important facet of an individual’s existence or identity is at stake, the margin allowed to the State will be restricted.

C.L. Rozakis, P
Times 17-Mar-2006, 6339/05, [2006] ECHR 200, [2007] ECHR 264, [2007] ECHR 265, (2008) 46 EHRR 34, [2007] 2 FCR 5, [2007] 1 FLR 1990, (2007) 95 BMLR 107, [2007] Fam Law 588, 22 BHRC 190
Worldlii, Bailii, Bailii, Bailii PR
European Convention on Human Rights 8, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990
Human Rights
Cited by:
See AlsoEvans v The United Kingdom ECHR 22-Nov-2006
. .
See AlsoEvans v United Kingdom ECHR 10-Apr-2007
The claimant said that the English law on assisted conception infringed her right to family life. She had began treatment with her partner, and was given a cycle of in-vitro fertilisation before her cancerous condition required removal of her . .
CitedEweida And Others v The United Kingdom ECHR 15-Jan-2013
Eweida_ukECHR2013
The named claimant had been employed by British Airways. She was a committed Christian and wished to wear a small crucifix on a chain around her neck. This breached the then dress code and she was dismissed. Her appeals had failed. Other claimants . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Family, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 12 November 2021; Ref: scu.239579

Masterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1): CA 19 Dec 2002

Capacity for Litigation

The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the time to accept the offer.
Held: There is no definition of mental capacity of universal application, but rather the issue of capacity must be looked at in the context of each decision to be made. A person may be capable in law of one kind of decision, but not of another. There was no precedent case dealing with the capacity to conduct and settle proceedings. A person may have that capacity but not necessarily the capacity to administer an award once received. A medical expert asked to advise, should answer against the particular background issue. The issue might be properly addressed in the court forms.
Capacity should be judged in a common sense way, bearing in mind the need to allow people the right to manage their own affairs. The test under the Civil Procedure Rules provided the need for a party to be able to understand the issues, with such professional assistance as was appropriate. A person is not to be regarded as incapable of managing his affairs because, in order to do so, he will need to take advice, or because he may not take it, when given, or because he is vulnerable to exploitation, or at risk of taking rash or irresponsible decisions.
Kennedy LJ said: ‘What, however, does seem to me to be of some importance is the issue-specific nature of the test; that is to say the requirement to consider the question of capacity in relation to the particular transaction (its nature and complexity) in respect of which the decisions as to capacity fall to be made. It is not difficult to envisage claimants in personal injury actions with capacity to deal with all matters and take all ‘lay client’ decisions related to their actions up to and including a decision whether or not to settle, but lacking capacity to decide (even with advice) how to administer a large award. In such a case I see no justification for the assertion that the claimant is to be regarded as a patient from the commencement of proceedings. Of course, as Boreham J said in White’s case [White v Fell (unreported) 12th November 1987), capacity must be approached in a common sense way, not by reference to each step in the process of litigation, but bearing in mind the basic right of any person to manage his property and affairs for himself, a right with which no lawyer and no court should rush to interfere.’
Chadwick LJ said: ‘English law requires that a person must have the necessary mental capacity if he is to do a legally effective act or make a legally effective decision for himself . .
The authorities are unanimous in support of two broad propositions. First, that the mental capacity required by the law is capacity in relation to the transaction which is to be effected. Second, that what is required is the capacity to understand the nature of that transaction when it is explained . .
The authorities to which I have referred provide ample support for the proposition that, at common law at least, the test of mental capacity is issue-specific: that, as Kennedy LJ has pointed out, the test has to be applied in relation to the particular transaction (its nature and complexity) in respect of which the question whether a party has capacity falls to be decided. It is difficult to see why, in the absence of some statutory or regulatory provision which compels a contrary conclusion, the same approach should not be adopted in relation to the pursuit or defence of litigation . .
For the purposes of Order 80 – and, now, CPR Pt 21 – the test to be applied, as it seems to me, is whether the party to legal proceedings is capable of understanding, with the assistance of such proper explanation from legal advisers and experts in other disciplines as the case may require, the issues on which his consent or decision is likely to be necessary in the course of those proceedings. If he has capacity to understand that which he needs to understand in order to pursue or defend a claim, I can see no reason why the law – whether substantive or procedural – should require the interposition of a next friend or guardian ad litem (or, as such a person is now described in the Civil Procedure Rules, a litigation friend).’

Lord Justice Potter, Lord Justice Kennedy, Lord Justice Chadwick
Times 28-Dec-2002, [2002] EWCA Civ 1889, [2003] 1 WLR 1511, (2003) 73 BMLR 1, [2003] Lloyds Rep Med 244, [2003] PIQR P20, [2003] WTLR 259, [2003] CP Rep 29, [2003] 3 All ER 162, (2004) 7 CCL Rep 5
Bailii
Civil Procedure Rules 21, Rules of the Supreme Court 80, Mental Health Act 1983
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedIn re F (Mental Patient: Sterilisation) HL 4-May-1989
Where a patient lacks capacity, there is the power to provide him with whatever treatment or care is necessary in his own best interests. Medical treatment can be undertaken in an emergency even if, through a lack of capacity, no consent had been . .
CitedRe Cumming CA 1852
Knight Bruce LJ said: ‘It is the right of an English person to require that the free use of his property, and personal freedom, shall not be taken from him on the ground of alleged lunacy, without being allowed the opportunity of establishing his . .
CitedIn re MB (Medical Treatment) CA 26-Mar-1997
The patient was due to deliver a child. A delivery by cesarean section was necessary, but the mother had a great fear of needles, and despite consenting to the operation, refused the necessary consent to anesthesia in any workable form.
Held: . .
CitedRe C (Adult: Refusal of Treatment) FD 1994
C had been admitted to a secure hospital as a patient under Part III of the Mental Health Act 1983 because of his paranoid schizophrenia. He now sought an injunction to prevent the amputation of his gangrenous foot without his written consent. The . .
CitedWhite v Fell 12-Nov-1987
The court was asked to decide whether the claimant had been incapable of managing her property and affairs in the context of a Limitation Act defence.
Held: There are three features to which it is appropriate to have regard when assessing a . .
CitedBanks v Goodfellow QBD 1870
Test for Capacity to Execute Will
The testator suffered from delusions, but not so badly or in such a way as was found to affect his capacity or to influence his testamentary disposition. The judge had given the following direction: ‘The question is whether . . the testator was . .
CitedWinterwerp v The Netherlands ECHR 24-Oct-1979
A Dutch national detained in hospital complained that his detention had divested him of his capacity to administer his property, and thus there had been determination of his civil rights and obligations without the guarantee of a judicial procedure. . .
CitedW v L CA 1974
For civil patients, it matters a great deal whether the classification of their condition is ‘severe subnormality’ or just ‘subnormality’ or whether it is ‘mental illness’ or ‘psychopathic disorder’. Lawton LJ discussed the construction of the . .
CitedKirby v Leather CA 1965
The plaintiff crashed into a van whilst riding his moped and suffered serious brain damage. An inquiry as to a party’s competence to conduct a case had to focus on his capacity to conduct the proceedings. In this case the plaintiff ‘was not capable . .
CitedBall v Mallin HL 1829
A person must have the necessary mental capacity if he is to execute a voluntary deed. The House upheld a direction to the jury that what was required was that a person ‘should be capable of understanding what he did by executing the deed in . .
CitedCharles Harwood v Maria Baker PC 1840
The Board emphasised the importance that the Court of Probate should be satisfied that a testatrix had the necessary capacity when she executed the will if the evidence showed that she had lost capacity shortly afterwards. The infirmity of the . .
CitedMolton v Camroux CExC 1848
A person of unsound mind bought an annuity from a life assurance society. The society granted the annuities in the ordinary course of its business. The contracts were challenged.
Held: The court referred to the argument that a plea of insanity . .
CitedDurham v Durham, Hunter v Edney (Orse Hunter), Cannon v Smalley (Orse Cannon) 1885
The burden of establishing that a party to a marriage had lacked capacity through insanity, lay on the party making the assertion. The court is to decide whether the respondent was capable of understanding the nature of the contract, and the duties . .
CitedImperial Loan Co v Stone CA 1892
Contract without Capacity – Voidable not Void
A person of unsound mind was sued on a promissory note. He had signed it as surety. The jury found that he was insane when he signed the note but there was no finding as to the creditor’s knowledge of such insanity. The judge entered a verdict . .
CitedManches v Trimborn 1946
The answer to the question whether the mental capacity necessary in order to render the consent of the party concerned a real consent was present in any particular case would depend on the nature of the transaction. . .
CitedIn re Estate of Park (deceased), Park v Park CA 2-Jan-1953
The deceased had remarried. His beneficiaries asserted that he had lacked capacity and that the marriage was ineffective.
Held: The test of capacity to marry is whether he or she was capable of understanding the nature of the contract, was . .
CitedGibbons v Wright 1954
(High Court of Australia) Sir Owen Dixon discussed the principle that mental capacity at law varied with the transaction at issue: ‘the mental capacity required by the law in respect of any instrument is relative to the particular transaction which . .
CitedMason v Mason 1972
The court considered the mental capacity required of somebody to give their consent to a decree of divorce. . .
CitedIn Re Beaney deceased ChD 1978
A gift made inter vivos by a mother of three children to one of them alone of the mother’s only asset of value, at a time when she was in an advanced state of senile dementia, was void because the claims of the donee’s siblings and the extent of the . .
CitedRe K (Enduring Powers of Attorney), In re F ChD 1988
The court allowed an appeal against the decision of the Master of the Court of Protection refusing registration to an enduring power of attorney on the ground that the donor, although capable of understanding the nature of the power, was herself . .
CitedBeal v Smith 1873
Lord Justice James discussed the practice in the Court of Chancery on claims brought by people without mental capacity: ‘The law of the Court of Chancery undoubtedly is that in certain cases where there is a person of unsound mind, not so found by . .
CitedHart v O’Connor PC 22-Apr-1985
Effect of insanity on making of contract
(New Zealand) The parties disputed the effect in law of an agreement for the sale of land. The transferor had proved not to be of sound mind.
Held: The validity of a contract entered into by a lunatic who is ostensibly sane is to be judged by . .
CitedIn Re CAF 1962
When considering a person’s capacity to manage and administer his property and affairs, it is necessary to have regard to the complexity and importance of that person’s property and affairs. . .
CitedIn re S (F G) (Mental Health Patient) 1973
The court considered the relationship between the jurisdiction of the Court of Protection to order and give directions for, or to authorise, legal proceedings in the name or on behalf of, a patient within the meaning of section 101 of the 1959 Act . .

Cited by:
CitedPhillips, Harland (Administrators of the Estate of Michailidis), Papadimitriou; Symes (A Bankrupt), Robin Symes Limited (In Administrative Receivership), Domercq etc ChD 30-Jul-2004
Under the Ciivil Procedure Rules, experts have acquired greater responsibilities to the court. Those responsibilities transcend their perceived obligations to the parties whom they give evidence. . .
CitedDixon v Were QBD 26-Oct-2004
The claimant and others were being driven by the defendant. All had drunk, and none wore seat belts. The claimant sought damages for his injuries. General damages were agreed, and the issue was as to loss of future earnings.
Held: The claimant . .
CitedHoff and others v Atherton CA 19-Nov-2004
Appeals were made against pronouncements for the validity of a will and against the validity of an earlier will. The solicitor drawing the will was to receive a benefit, and had requested an independent solicitor to see the testatrix and ensure that . .
CitedSheffield City Council v E; Re E (An Alleged Patient) FD 2-Dec-2004
The council sought an order to prevent E, a patient from contracting a marriage which it considered unwise. As a preliminary issue the parties sought guidance as to the questions to be put to the expert as to capacity.
Held: The woman suffered . .
See AlsoMasterman-Lister v Brutton and Co and Another (2) CA 16-Jan-2003
The claimant had been funded for a personal injury claim under legal aid. He appealed against a decision that he was not a ‘patient’ and that he had been fully capable of managing and administering his affairs for many years. He lost. The . .
CitedA v The Archbishop of Birmingham QBD 30-Jun-2005
Assessment of damages following child abuse by Catholic priest.
Held: General damages of andpound;50,000 were in line with Coxon and were approved. A had not been shown to be, and is not, incapable of managing his affairs. The court differed . .
CitedE v Channel Four, News International Ltd and St Helens Borough Council FD 1-Jun-2005
The applicant sought an order restraining publication by the defendants of material, saying she did not have capacity to consent to the publication. She suffered a multiple personality disorder. She did herself however clearly wish the film to be . .
CitedBailey v Warre CA 7-Feb-2006
The claimant had been severely injured in a road traffic accident. His claim was compromised and embodied in a court order, but later a question was raised as to whether he had had mental capacity at the time to make the compromise he had.
AppliedLindsay v Wood QBD 16-Nov-2006
The claimant suffered severe brain injury in a crash. The parties sought guidance form the court as to his legal capacity.
Held: The fact that a party may be particularly susceptible to exploitation was a relevant element when considering his . .
CitedS v Floyd, Equality and Human Rights Commission CA 18-Mar-2008
The court considered the relationship between the two Acts. The assured tenant had fallen into arrears, and was subject to an order for possession. He claimed that his disability required the court not to make an order for possession against her, . .
CitedIn re PS (an Adult), Re; City of Sunderland v PS by her litigation friend the Offcial Solcicitor and CA; Re PS (Incapacitated or Vulnerable Adult) FD 9-Mar-2007
The patient an elderly lady with limited mental capacity was to be returned from hospital, but her daughter said she was to come home. The local authority sought to prevent this, wanting to return her to a residential unit where she had lived for . .
CitedMcFaddens (A Firm) v Platford TCC 30-Jan-2009
The claimant firm of solicitors had been found negligent, and now sought a contribution to the damages awarded from the barrister defendant. They had not managed properly issues as to their clients competence to handle the proceedings.
Held: . .
CitedHaithwaite v Thomson Snell and Passmore (A Firm) QBD 30-Mar-2009
The claimant sought damages from his former solicitors for admitted professional negligence. The court considered the loss suffered in the handling of his claim against a health authority. The solicitors received advice after issuing that the . .
CitedDunhill v Burgin CA 3-Apr-2012
The claimant had been severely injured in a road traffic accident, and had settled her claim for damages. It was not appreciated at the time that she lacked capacity to make such a decision. The court was now asked what it should consider on . .
CitedBailey v Warren CA 7-Feb-2006
The appellant had been severely injured in a road traffic accident. He settled his claim for damages before action, but his solicitors failed to make proper arrangements to allow for his lack of mental capacity. A claim for damages was then brought . .
CitedCS v ACS and Another FD 16-Apr-2015
Rule Against Appeal was Ultra Vires
W had applied to have set aside the consent order made on her ancillary relief application accusing the husband of material non-disclosure. She complained that her application to have the order varied had been refused on the ground that her only . .
CitedDunhill v Burgin SC 12-Mar-2014
Lack of Capacity – Effect on Proceedings
The Court was asked ‘First, what is the test for deciding whether a person lacks the mental capacity to conduct legal proceedings on her own behalf (in which case the Civil Procedure Rules require that she has a litigation friend to conduct the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Litigation Practice, Civil Procedure Rules

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.178553

Regina v C: HL 30 Jul 2009

Consent to Sex Requires Capacity

The prosecution appealed against the reversal of the defendant’s conviction for a sexual assault of a woman said to be unable to communicate her refusal to sex because of her mental disorder.
Held: The appeal was allowed, and the conviction restored. The case law on capacity has for some time recognised that, to be able to make a decision, the person concerned must not only be able to understand the information relevant to making it but also be able to ‘weigh [that information] in the balance to arrive at [a] choice’.
However the 2003 Act ‘puts the matter beyond doubt. A person is unable to refuse if he lacks the capacity to choose whether to agree to the touching ‘whether because he lacks sufficient understanding of the nature or reasonably foreseeable consequences of what is being done, or for any other reason’.
Provided that the inability to refuse is ‘because of or for a reason related to a mental disorder’, and the other ingredients of the offence are made out, the perpetrator is guilty.
The words ‘for any other reason’ are clearly capable of encompassing a wide range of circumstances in which a person’s mental disorder may rob them of the ability to make an autonomous choice, even though they may have sufficient understanding of the information relevant to making it.’
and ‘Once it is accepted that choice is an exercise of free will, and that mental disorder may rob a person of free will in a number of different ways and in a number of different situations, then a mentally disordered person may be quite capable of exercising choice in one situation but not in another. The complainant here, even in her agitated and aroused state, might have been quite capable of deciding whether or not to have sexual intercourse with a person who had not put her in the vulnerable and terrifying situation in which she found herself on 27 June 2007. The question is whether, in the state that she was in that day, she was capable of choosing whether to agree to the touching demanded of her by the defendant.’

Lord Hope of Craighead, Lord Rodger of Earlsferr, Baroness Hale of Richmond, Lord Brown of Eaton-under-Heywood, Lord Mance
[2009] UKHL 42, Times 07-Aug-2009, [2010] 1 Cr App R 7, [2010] Crim LR 75, [2009] 4 All ER 1033, [2009] 1 WLR 1786
Bailii
Sexual Offences Act 2003 30(2)(b)
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromC, Regina v CACD 2008
The defendant appealed against his conviction for sexual assault on a female when she suffered a mental condition which prevented her indicating her refusal of the touching.
Held: The complainant’s irrational fear due to her mental disorder . .
CitedX City Council v MB and others; re MAB FD 13-Feb-2006
The adult patient was autistic. The doctors said that he lacked capacity, and the authority sought to prevent his return to Pakistan with, they thought, a view to being married. . .
CitedNHS Trust v T (adult patient: refusal of medical treatment) FD 28-May-2004
The patient had a history of self harming leading to dangerously low haemoglobin levels. She knew that if she refused a blood transfusion she might die; nevertheless she believed that her blood was evil and that the healthy blood given her in a . .
CitedRe C (Adult: Refusal of Treatment) FD 1994
C had been admitted to a secure hospital as a patient under Part III of the Mental Health Act 1983 because of his paranoid schizophrenia. He now sought an injunction to prevent the amputation of his gangrenous foot without his written consent. The . .
CitedIn re MB (Medical Treatment) CA 26-Mar-1997
The patient was due to deliver a child. A delivery by cesarean section was necessary, but the mother had a great fear of needles, and despite consenting to the operation, refused the necessary consent to anesthesia in any workable form.
Held: . .
CitedLocal Authority X v MM and Another; re MM (An Adult) FD 21-Aug-2007
The test for capacity to consent to sexual relations must be the same in its essentials as the test in the criminal law; more importantly ‘a woman either has capacity, for example, to consent to ‘normal’ penetrative vaginal intercourse, or she does . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Crime, Health

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.368924

X City Council v MB and others; re MAB: FD 13 Feb 2006

The adult patient was autistic. The doctors said that he lacked capacity, and the authority sought to prevent his return to Pakistan with, they thought, a view to being married.

Munby J
[2006] EWHC 168 (Fam), [2006] 2 FLR 968.
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRegina v Linekar CACD 21-Oct-1994
L appealed against his conviction for rape. His victim was a woman working as a prostitute. He said that he had simply made off afterwards without payment. He was convicted on the basis that he had procured the act by a false pretence by him that he . .
CitedBaxter v Baxter PC 1947
The House considered whether a wife who insisted that her husband always used a condom was thereby guilty of a wilful refusal to consummate the marriage within the meaning of section 7(1)(a).
Held: She was not, for a marriage may be . .

Cited by:
CitedLocal Authority X v MM and Another; re MM (An Adult) FD 21-Aug-2007
The test for capacity to consent to sexual relations must be the same in its essentials as the test in the criminal law; more importantly ‘a woman either has capacity, for example, to consent to ‘normal’ penetrative vaginal intercourse, or she does . .
AppliedC, Regina v CACD 2008
The defendant appealed against his conviction for sexual assault on a female when she suffered a mental condition which prevented her indicating her refusal of the touching.
Held: The complainant’s irrational fear due to her mental disorder . .
CitedRegina v C HL 30-Jul-2009
Consent to Sex Requires Capacity
The prosecution appealed against the reversal of the defendant’s conviction for a sexual assault of a woman said to be unable to communicate her refusal to sex because of her mental disorder.
Held: The appeal was allowed, and the conviction . .
CitedD Borough Council v AB CoP 28-Jan-2011
The court was asked whether A, an adult male with learning disability had capacity to consent to sexual relations, and in particular what test was to be applied. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Family

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.245699

Crowter and Others, Regina (On the Application Of) v Secretary of State for Health And Social Care: Admn 23 Sep 2021

Foetus has no Established Human Rights

The Claimants sought a declaration that section 1(1)(d) of the Abortion Act 1967, as amended, is incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights (‘ECHR’), as well as some other remedies. The claimant had Down’s Syndrome, and complained the readiness to abort foetuses with identified Down’s genes – more than 50% were aborted.
Held: Section 1(1)(d) does not interfere with the Claimants’ Article 8 rights nor did it fall within the ambit of Article 8 for the purposes of Article 14.
There is no positive decision of the European Court of Human Rights (or even the former Commission) which decides that a foetus is protected by the Convention rights, including in particular Article 3. In accordance with the Ullah principle, the domestic courts must follow the clear and constant jurisprudence in Strasbourg but, in the present context, the clear and constant jurisprudence is not in favour of the submission made

Lord Justice Singh and Mrs Justice Lieven
[2021] EWHC 2536 (Admin), CO/2066/2020
Bailii, Judiciary Summary, Judiciary
Abortion Act 1967 1(1)(d), European Convention on Human Rights, Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 1, UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2006, Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women 1979, Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedPaton v United Kingdom ECHR 1980
An abortion conducted in the tenth week of pregnancy was not condemned. The Commission construed Article 2 to be subject to an implied limitation to allow a balancing act between the interests of mother and unborn child. . .
CitedIn re MB (Medical Treatment) CA 26-Mar-1997
The patient was due to deliver a child. A delivery by cesarean section was necessary, but the mother had a great fear of needles, and despite consenting to the operation, refused the necessary consent to anesthesia in any workable form.
Held: . .
CitedAttorney-General’s Reference (No 3 of 1994) HL 24-Jul-1997
The defendant stabbed a pregnant woman. The child was born prematurely and died. The attack had been directed at the mother, and the proper offence was manslaughter.
Held: The only questions which need to be addressed are (1) whether the act . .
CitedHuman Rights Commission for Judicial Review (Northern Ireland : Abortion) SC 7-Jun-2018
The Commission challenged the compatibility of the NI law relating to banning nearly all abortions with Human Rights Law. It now challenged a decision that it did not have standing to bring the case.
Held: (Lady Hale, Lord Kerr and Lord Wilson . .
CitedBoso v Italy ECHR 5-Sep-2002
The applicant was married. In 1984 his wife, who was pregnant, decided to have an abortion despite his opposition. Her pregnancy was terminated on 10 October 1984.
On 8 November 1984 the applicant brought an action against his wife in the San . .
CitedRR v Poland ECHR 26-May-2011
The applicant learned of possible malformation of the foetus from an ultrasound at the 18-week stage. Her repeated requests for genetic tests were met with procrastination, confusion and a lack of proper counselling and information, and it was not . .
CitedVo v France ECHR 8-Jul-2004
Hudoc Preliminary objection rejected (ratione materiae, non-exhaustion of domestic remedies) ; No violation of Art. 2
A doctor by negligence had caused the termination of a pregnancy at the 20 to 24 weeks . .
CitedSC, CB and 8 Children, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and Others SC 9-Jul-2021
The Supreme Court was asked to decide whether the ‘two child limit’, a provision of primary legislation which restricts payment of amounts of subsistence benefit for children to the first two children in a family, is incompatible with the . .
CitedRegina v Special Adjudicator ex parte Ullah; Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 17-Jun-2004
The applicants had had their requests for asylum refused. They complained that if they were removed from the UK, their article 3 rights would be infringed. If they were returned to Pakistan or Vietnam they would be persecuted for their religious . .
CitedA, B And C v Ireland ECHR 16-Dec-2010
Grand Chamber – The Court considered the prohibition of abortion in Ireland: ‘The first two applicants principally complained under Article 8 about, inter alia, the prohibition of abortion for health and well-being reasons in Ireland and the third . .
CitedThe Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission, Re Judicial Review QBNI 30-Nov-2015
The Court concludes that in Northern Ireland:
(i) There is no general right to abortion whether under the common law or under statute.
(ii) The Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission (‘the Commission’) has legal standing under the . .
CitedJepson v Chief Constable of West Mercia Police Admn 2003
An abortion had been carried out of a foetus which was of more than 24 weeks’ gestation. The foetus had been diagnosed as suffering from a bilateral cleft lip and palate. The abortion was carried out pursuant to section 1(1)(d) of the 1967 Act. The . .
DistinguishedPaton v British Pregnancy Advisory Service Trustees QBD 1979
Sir George Baker P said: ‘The case put to me finally by Mr. Rankin . . is that while he cannot say here that there is any suggestion of a criminal abortion nevertheless if doctors did not hold their views, or come to their conclusions, in good faith . .
CitedIn re P and Others, (Adoption: Unmarried couple) (Northern Ireland); In re G HL 18-Jun-2008
The applicants complained that as an unmarried couple they had been excluded from consideration as adopters.
Held: Northern Ireland legislation had not moved in the same way as it had for other jurisdictions within the UK. The greater . .
CitedCarson and Others v The United Kingdom ECHR 16-Mar-2010
(Grand Chamber) The court ruled admissible claims against the United Kingdom by 13 persons entitled to British State pensions for violation of article 14 of the Convention in combination with article 1 of the First Protocol. All the claimants had . .
CitedAksu v Turkey ECHR 15-Mar-2012
Dangers of negative sterotyping . .
CitedMcConnell and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v The Registrar General for England and Wales CA 29-Apr-2020
Whether the First Appellant, Alfred McConnell (whose name was at one time anonymised to TT), a transgender man and holder of a gender recognition certificate, is entitled to be registered as the ‘father’, or otherwise ‘parent’ or ‘gestational . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Human Rights

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.668232

Nicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of): SC 25 Jun 2014

Criminality of Assisting Suicide not Infringing

The court was asked: ‘whether the present state of the law of England and Wales relating to assisting suicide infringes the European Convention on Human Rights, and whether the code published by the Director of Public Prosecutions relating to prosecutions of those who are alleged to have assisted a suicide is lawful. ‘
Held: The first appeal (of Nicklinson) failed (Majority seven to to two) The question of whether the current law on assisted suicide is incompatible with Article 8 lies within the United Kingdom’s margin of appreciation, and is therefore a question for the United Kingdom to decide, and the court did have the constitutional authority to make a declaration of incompatibility of section 2 of the 1961 Act with those article 8 rights. However the issues were inherently ones far better to be decided by Parliament, and Parliament’s assessment should be respected.
In the second appeal, the DPP succeeded in having the decision in favour of AM reversed. Several factors, the judgment by the DPP, the variety of cases, and the need to vary the weight to be attached to them according to the circumstances of each individual case were all proper and constitutionally necessary features of the system of prosecution in the public interest.
Lord Neuberger PSC succinctly described the responsibility of the DPP: ‘The DPP always has the right to decide that it is not in the public interest to prosecute, even where it is clear that an offence was committed; and the DPP has power to stay a private prosecution if satisfied, inter alia, that it is not in the public interest for the prosecution to proceed. All that section 2(4) does, therefore, is to rule out the bringing of a private prosecution for encouraging or assisting a suicide without the DPP’s prior consent (although it is worth noting that, before the creation of the Crown Prosecution Service (‘CPS’), it would have prevented the police prosecuting without the consent of the DPP).’
Lord Neuberger also said: ‘Where the legislature has enacted a statutory provision which is within the margin of appreciation accorded to member states, it would be wrong in principle and contrary to the approach adopted in In re G, for a national court to frank the provision as a matter of course simply because it is rational. However, where the provision enacted by Parliament is both rational and within the margin of appreciation accorded by the Strasbourg court, a court in the United Kingdom would normally be very cautious before deciding that it infringes a Convention right. As Lord Mance said in In re G, the extent to which a United Kingdom court should be prepared to entertain holding that such legislation is incompatible must depend on all the circumstances, including the nature of the subject-matter, and the extent to which the legislature or judiciary could claim particular expertise or competence.’

Lord Neuberger, President, Lady Hale, Deputy President, Lord Mance, Lord Kerr, Lord Clarke, Lord Wilson, Lord Sumption, Lord Reed, Lord Hughes
36 BHRC 465, [2015] 1 AC 657, 139 BMLR 1, [2014] WLR(D) 298, [2014] 3 FCR 1, [2014] HRLR 17, [2014] 3 WLR 200, [2014] 3 All ER 843, (2014) 139 BMLR 1, UKSC 2013/0235, [2014] UKSC 38, [2014] 3 WLR 200
WLRD, SC, SC Summary, Bailii Summary, Bailii
Homicide Act 1957, Suicide Act 1961 2, Coroners and Justice Act 2009, European Convention on Human Rights 8
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoNicklinson v Ministry of Justice and Others QBD 12-Mar-2012
The claimant suffered locked-in syndrome and sought relief in a form which would allow others to assist him in committing suicide. The court considered whether the case should be allowed to proceed rather than to be struck out as hopeless.
At AdminNicklinson, Regina (on The Application of) v Ministry of Justice Admn 16-Aug-2012
The claimants each suffered ‘locked in syndrome’ after catastrophic health events, and were unable to commit suicide as they would have wished. In one case, the claimant would have needed assistance to travel to a clinic in Switzerland where he . .
Appeal fromNicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v A Primary Care Trust CA 31-Jul-2013
The claimant had suffered a severe form of locked-in syndrome, and would wish to die. He sought a declaration that someone who assisted him in his siuicide would not be prosecuted for murder.
Held: The position in law that voluntary euthanasia . .
CitedRex v Croft CCA 1944
A person who was present at the suicide of another and who assisted or encouraged the suicide, is guilty of murder as a principal in the second degree. The survivor of a suicide pact was properly convicted of murder. The court considered liability . .
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland HL 4-Feb-1993
Procedures on Withdrawal of Life Support Treatment
The patient had been severely injured in the Hillsborough disaster, and had come to be in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). The doctors sought permission to withdraw medical treatment. The Official Solicitor appealed against an order of the Court . .
CitedInglis, Regina v CACD 12-Nov-2010
The appellant was mother of the victim. He had suffered catastrophic injuries. She had tried to end his life in a ‘mercy killing’, but was discovered, charged with attempted murder, and released on bail. On a second occasion she injected him with a . .
CitedAintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust v James SC 30-Oct-2013
The hospital where a gravely ill man had been treated had asked for a declaration that it would be in his best interests to withhold certain life-sustaining treatments from him. When can it be in the best interests of a living patient to withhold . .
CitedIn Re B (A Minor) (Wardship: Medical Treatment) CA 1981
The child was born with Down’s Syndrome and an intestinal blockage. She needed the obstruction to be relieved if she was to survive. If the operation were performed, the child might die within a few months but it was probable that her life . .
CitedIn re F (Mental Patient: Sterilisation) HL 4-May-1989
Where a patient lacks capacity, there is the power to provide him with whatever treatment or care is necessary in his own best interests. Medical treatment can be undertaken in an emergency even if, through a lack of capacity, no consent had been . .
CitedIn re J (a Minor) (Wardship: Medical treatment) CA 1-Oct-1990
J was born at 27 weeks’, weighing only 1.1kg. He suffered very severe and permanent brain damage at the time of his birth, the brain tissue then lost being irreplaceable. He was epileptic and the medical evidence was that he was likely to develop . .
CitedMs B v An NHS Hospital Trust FD 22-Mar-2002
The applicant had come to suffer from a completely disabling condition, and requested that her life support machine be turned off. She did not want to live on a ventilator, and had made a living will. She was found at first to have capacity to make . .
CitedIn re B (Consent to treatment: Capacity) FD 22-Mar-2002
The claimant had suffered catastrophic injuries, leaving her unable to breathe without artificial help. She eventually decided that she wanted to refuse treatment. The health authority took this as an indication of lack of capacity, and refused to . .
CitedIn Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation) CA 22-Sep-2000
Twins were conjoined (Siamese). Medically, both could not survive, and one was dependent upon the vital organs of the other. Doctors applied for permission to separate the twins which would be followed by the inevitable death of one of them. The . .
CitedRegina (on the Application of Pretty) v Director of Public Prosecutions and Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 29-Nov-2001
The applicant was terminally ill, and entirely dependent upon her husband for care. She foresaw a time when she would wish to take her own life, but would not be able to do so without the active assistance of her husband. She sought a proleptic . .
CitedIn re B (Consent to treatment: Capacity) FD 22-Mar-2002
The claimant had suffered catastrophic injuries, leaving her unable to breathe without artificial help. She eventually decided that she wanted to refuse treatment. The health authority took this as an indication of lack of capacity, and refused to . .
CitedKoch v Germany ECHR 19-Jul-2012
Article 8-1
Respect for private life
Refusal by the German courts to examine the merits of an application by a man whose wife had just committed suicide in Switzerland after having attempted unsuccessfully to obtain authorisation to . .
CitedGross v Switzerland ECHR 14-May-2013
gross_switzerlandECHR2013
ECHR Article 8
Positive obligations
Article 8-1
Respect for private life
Lack of clear legal guidelines regulating the prescription of a drug to enable individual not suffering from a . .
CitedHasan and Chaush v Bulgaria ECHR 26-Oct-2000
The Grand Chamber considered executive interference in the appointment of the Chief Mufti of the Bulgarian Muslims: ‘Where the organisation of the religious community is at issue, Article 9 must be interpreted in the light of Article 11 of the . .
CitedPretty v The United Kingdom ECHR 29-Apr-2002
Right to Life Did Not include Right to Death
The applicant was paralysed and suffered a degenerative condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to assist her suicide by accompanying her to Switzerland. English law would not excuse such behaviour. She argued that the right to die is not . .
CitedHirst v United Kingdom (2) ECHR 6-Oct-2005
(Grand Chamber) The applicant said that whilst a prisoner he had been banned from voting. The UK operated with minimal exceptions, a blanket ban on prisoners voting.
Held: Voting is a right not a privilege. It was a right central in a . .
CitedPurdy, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions HL 30-Jul-2009
Need for Certainty in Scope of Offence
The appellant suffered a severe chronic illness and anticipated that she might want to go to Switzerland to commit suicide. She would need her husband to accompany her, and sought an order requiring the respondent to provide clear guidelines on the . .
CitedRegina v Howe etc HL 19-Feb-1986
The defendants appealed against their convictions for murder, saying that their defences of duress had been wrongly disallowed.
Held: Duress is not a defence available on a charge of murder. When a defence of duress is raised, the test is . .
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland CA 9-Dec-1992
The official Solicitor appealed against a decision that doctors could withdraw medical treatment including artificial nutrition, from a patient in persistent vegetative state.
Held: The doctors sought permission to act in accordance with . .
CitedWoolwich Equitable Building Society v Inland Revenue Commissioners (2) HL 20-Jul-1992
The society had set out to assert that regulations were unlawful in creating a double taxation. It paid money on account of the tax demanded. It won and recovered the sums paid, but the revenue refused to pay any interest accrued on the sums paid. . .
CitedRodriguez v Attorney General of Canada 30-Sep-1993
Canlii (Supreme Court of Canada) Constitutional law – Charter of Rights – Life, liberty and security of the person – Fundamental justice – Terminally ill patient seeking assistance to commit suicide – Whether . .
CitedBuckley v The United Kingdom ECHR 25-Sep-1996
The Commission had concluded, by a narrow majority, that the measures taken by the respondent in refusing planning permission and enforcing planning orders were excessive and disproportionate, even allowing a margin of appreciation enjoyed by the . .
CitedBellinger v Bellinger HL 10-Apr-2003
Transgendered Male/Female not to marry as Female
The parties had gone through a form of marriage, but Mrs B had previously undergone gender re-assignment surgery. Section 11(c) of the 1973 Act required a marriage to be between a male and a female. It was argued that the section was incompatible . .
CitedRegina v Kennedy HL 17-Oct-2007
The defendant had been convicted of manslaughter. He had supplied a class A drug to a friend who then died taking it. The House was asked ‘When is it appropriate to find someone guilty of manslaughter where that person has been involved in the . .
CitedCountryside Alliance and others, Regina (on the Application of) v Attorney General and Another HL 28-Nov-2007
The appellants said that the 2004 Act infringed their rights under articles 8 11 and 14 and Art 1 of protocol 1.
Held: Article 8 protected the right to private and family life. Its purpose was to protect individuals from unjustified intrusion . .
CitedIn re P and Others, (Adoption: Unmarried couple) (Northern Ireland); In re G HL 18-Jun-2008
The applicants complained that as an unmarried couple they had been excluded from consideration as adopters.
Held: Northern Ireland legislation had not moved in the same way as it had for other jurisdictions within the UK. The greater . .
CitedGreens v The United Kingdom ECHR 23-Nov-2010
The applicants alleged a violation of article 3 in the refusal to allow them to enrol on the electoral register whilst serving prison sentences.
Held: Where one of its judgments raises issues of general public importance and sensitivity, in . .
CitedSinclair Collis Ltd, Regina (on The Application of) v The Secretary of State for Health CA 17-Jun-2011
The claimants sought to challenge the validity of rules brought in under the 2009 Act as to the placement of cigarette vending machines in retail outlets. They said it was a a national measure restricting the free movement of goods. The . .
CitedA, B And C v Ireland ECHR 16-Dec-2010
Grand Chamber – The Court considered the prohibition of abortion in Ireland: ‘The first two applicants principally complained under Article 8 about, inter alia, the prohibition of abortion for health and well-being reasons in Ireland and the third . .
CitedHaas v Switzerland ECHR 20-Jan-2011
The applicant was severely bipolar, and wanted to obtain a lethal dose of a drug to kill himself, but could not do so, because Swiss law required him to get a prescription, and, before he could do that, he needed a psychiatric assessment. Relying on . .
CitedLautsi v Italy ECHR 18-Mar-2011
(Grand Chamber) The applicants complained that the presence in all state schoolrooms of a crucifix on the wall infringed the principle of secularism. The routine presence in state school classrooms of a crucifix, which was not used for worship, . .
CitedAXA General Insurance Ltd and Others v Lord Advocate and Others SC 12-Oct-2011
Standing to Claim under A1P1 ECHR
The appellants had written employers’ liability insurance policies. They appealed against rejection of their challenge to the 2009 Act which provided that asymptomatic pleural plaques, pleural thickening and asbestosis should constitute actionable . .
CitedQuila and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department SC 12-Oct-2011
Parties challenged the rule allowing the respondent to deny the right to enter or remain here to non EU citizens marrying a person settled and present here where either party was under the age of 21. The aim of the rule was to deter forced . .
CitedAbdullah Yasa And Others v Turkey ECHR 16-Jul-2013
Article 3
Degrading treatment
Inhuman treatment
Serious injury to nose caused by tear gas canister fired by police officer: violation
Article 46
Article 46-2
Execution of judgment
Measures of a general . .
CitedSidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital and the Maudsley Hospital HL 21-Feb-1985
The plaintiff alleged negligence in the failure by a surgeon to disclose or explain to her the risks inherent in the operation which he had advised.
Held: The appeal failed. A mentally competent patient has an absolute right to refuse to . .
CitedWeber and Saravia v Germany ECHR 29-Jun-2006
(Admissibility) ‘The first applicant is a freelance journalist who works for various German and foreign newspapers, radio and television stations on a regular basis. In particular, she investigates matters that are subject to the surveillance of the . .
CitedHuang v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 21-Mar-2007
Appellate Roles – Human Rights – Families Split
The House considered the decision making role of immigration appellate authorities when deciding appeals on Human Rights grounds, against refusal of leave to enter or remain, under section 65. In each case the asylum applicant had had his own . .
CitedGillan and Quinton v The United Kingdom ECHR 12-Jan-2010
The claimants had been stopped by the police using powers in the 2000 Act. They were going to a demonstration outside an arms convention. There was no reason given for any suspicion that the searches were needed.
Held: The powers given to the . .

Cited by:
CitedRecovery of Medical Costs for Asbestos Diseases (Wales) Bill (Reference By The Counsel General for Wales) SC 9-Feb-2015
The court was asked whether the Bill was within the competence of the Welsh Assembly. The Bill purported to impose NHS charges on those from whom asbestos related damages were recovered.
Held: The Bill fell outside the legislative competence . .
At SCNicklinson and Lamb v United Kingdom ECHR 16-Jul-2015
The applicants, suffering life threatening and severely disabling conditions, complained of laws which would allow the criminal prosecutions of those assisting them to end their lives. . .
At HLNicklinson and Lamb v The United Kingdom ECHR 23-Jun-2015
ECHR Article 8-1
Respect for private life
Ban on assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia: inadmissible
Facts – The first applicant is the wife of Tony Nicklinson, now deceased, who suffered . .
CitedKenward and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v The Director of Public Prosecutions and Another Admn 4-Dec-2015
The claimants challenged the policy issued by the DPP on assisted suicide following the Nicklinson case.
Held: The request for judicial review was refused.
Sir Brian Leveson P said: ‘It is important not to misunderstand the effect either . .
CitedGaughran v Chief Constable of The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland) SC 13-May-2015
The court was asked as to to the right of the Police Service of Northern Ireland to retain personal information and data lawfully obtained from the appellant following his arrest for the offence of driving with excess alcohol.
Held: The appeal . .
CitedHuman Rights Commission for Judicial Review (Northern Ireland : Abortion) SC 7-Jun-2018
The Commission challenged the compatibility of the NI law relating to banning nearly all abortions with Human Rights Law. It now challenged a decision that it did not have standing to bring the case.
Held: (Lady Hale, Lord Kerr and Lord Wilson . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Crime, Human Rights

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.527183

Gross v Switzerland: ECHR 14 May 2013

gross_switzerlandECHR2013

ECHR Article 8
Positive obligations
Article 8-1
Respect for private life
Lack of clear legal guidelines regulating the prescription of a drug to enable individual not suffering from a terminal illness to commit suicide: violation
Facts – For many years, the applicant had expressed the wish to end her life as she was becoming increasingly frail with the passage of time and was unwilling to continue suffering the decline of her physical and mental faculties. She was found to be able to form her own judgement. Following a failed suicide attempt, she decided that she wished to end her life by taking a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital. However, four medical practitioners declined to issue the requested prescription. At least two of them declined her request on the grounds that they considered they were prevented from doing so by the medical practitioners’ code of conduct or feared lengthy judicial proceedings and, possibly, negative professional consequences. The administrative courts rejected the applicant’s appeal.
Law – Article 8: The applicant’s wish to be provided with a dose of sodium pentobarbital allowing her to end her life fell within the scope of her right to respect for her private life under Article 8 of the Convention. The case primarily raised the question whether the State had failed to provide sufficient guidelines defining whether medical practitioners were authorised to issue a medical prescription to a person in the applicant’s condition and, if so, under what circumstances.
In Switzerland inciting and assisting suicide were punishable only where the perpetrator of such acts was driven to commit them by ‘selfish motives’. Under the case-law of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court, a doctor was entitled to prescribe sodium pentobarbital in order to allow his patient to commit suicide, provided that specific conditions laid down in the Federal Supreme Court’s case-law were fulfilled. The Federal Supreme Court, in its case-law on the subject, had referred to the medical ethics guidelines on the care of patients at the end of their life, which had been issued by a non-governmental organisation and did not have the formal quality of law. Furthermore, the guidelines only applied to patients whose doctor had arrived at the conclusion that a process had started which, as experience had indicated, would lead to death within a matter of days or a few weeks. As the applicant was not suffering from a terminal illness, her case clearly did not fall within the scope of application of those guidelines. The Government had not submitted any other material containing principles or standards which could serve as guidelines. This lack of clear legal guidelines was likely to have a chilling effect on doctors who would otherwise have been inclined to provide someone such as the applicant with the requested medical prescription. The uncertainty as to the outcome of her request in a situation concerning a particularly important aspect of her life must have caused the applicant a considerable degree of anguish. This state of anguish and uncertainty would not have occurred if there had been clear, State-approved guidelines defining the circumstances under which medical practitioners were authorised to issue the requested prescription in cases where an individual had come to a serious decision, in the exercise of his or her free will, to end his or her life, but where death was not imminent as a result of a specific medical condition. The Court acknowledged that there may be difficulties in finding the necessary political consensus on such controversial questions with a profound ethical and moral impact. However, these difficulties were inherent in any democratic process and could not absolve the authorities from fulfilling their task therein. The foregoing considerations were sufficient to conclude that Swiss law, while providing the possibility of obtaining a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital on medical prescription, did not provide sufficient guidelines ensuring clarity as to the extent of this right.
As regards the substance of the applicant’s request to be granted authorisation to acquire a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital, it was primarily up to the domestic authorities to issue comprehensive and clear guidelines. Accordingly, the Court confined itself to the conclusion that the absence of clear and comprehensive legal guidelines had violated the applicant’s right to respect for her private life under Article 8 of the Convention, without in any way taking up a stance on the substantive content of such guidelines.
Conclusion: violation (four votes to three).

67810/10 – Chamber Judgment, [2013] ECHR 429, 67810/10 – Legal Summary, [2013] ECHR 580, [2014] ECHR 1362
Bailii, Bailii, Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 8-1
Cited by:
See AlsoGross v Switzerland ECHR 30-Sep-2014
ECHR Relying on Article 8 of the Convention, the applicant alleged, in particular, that her right to decide how and when to end her life had been breached. . .
CitedNicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) SC 25-Jun-2014
Criminality of Assisting Suicide not Infringing
The court was asked: ‘whether the present state of the law of England and Wales relating to assisting suicide infringes the European Convention on Human Rights, and whether the code published by the Director of Public Prosecutions relating to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Health

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.511075

Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd and others: CA 25 Jun 2004

The applicant challenged the decision of the court that the sperm donor who had fertilised her eggs to create embryos stored by the respondent IVF clinic, could withdraw his consent to their continued storage or use.
Held: The judge worked within a strict statutory framework. His task was to calculate the application of that law, and then to check its compliance with Human Rights law. The 1990 Act said that the embryos could only be stored or used with the consent of both parties. Once mutuality is required at the point where treatment services are being provided, the requirement of continuing consent is inescapable. The refusal of treatment was an interference with the right to private life of the applicant, but nevertheless it was proportionate. There are two pillars in the 1990 Act, the interests of the child and the consent of the two persons who are to be the parents of the child and consent to be treated together or to the use of their genetic material. The appeal failed.

Lord Justice Sedley Lord Justice Thorpe Lady Justice Arden
[2004] EWCA Civ 727, Times 30-Jun-2004, [2004] Fam Law 647, [2004] 2 FLR 766, [2004] 2 FCR 530, [2004] 3 All ER 1025, (2004) 78 BMLR 181, [2005] Fam 1, [2004] 3 WLR 681
Bailii
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, European Convention on Human Rights 8
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromEvans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd and others; Hadley v Midland Fertility Services Ltd and Others FD 1-Oct-2003
The claimants and their former partners had undergone fertility treatment resulting in frozen embryos being kept pending possible implantation. The relationship had in each case failed, and the potential fathers had refused consent, but the . .
CitedIn re MB (Medical Treatment) CA 26-Mar-1997
The patient was due to deliver a child. A delivery by cesarean section was necessary, but the mother had a great fear of needles, and despite consenting to the operation, refused the necessary consent to anesthesia in any workable form.
Held: . .
CitedRe F (In Utero) 1988
A foetus prior to the moment of birth does not have independent rights or interests. . .
CitedPaton v United Kingdom ECHR 1980
An abortion conducted in the tenth week of pregnancy was not condemned. The Commission construed Article 2 to be subject to an implied limitation to allow a balancing act between the interests of mother and unborn child. . .
CitedIn re R (Parental responsibility: IVF baby) CA 19-Feb-2003
The mother and father of the child were not married, but had consented to the terms of their infertility treatment. The father donated his sperm, but the mother was only inseminated after they had separated. The mother appealed a declaration of . .
CitedU v Centre for Reproductive Medicine CA 24-Apr-2002
The claimant appealed a refusal to grant an order preventing the destruction of the sperm of her late husband held by the respondent fertility clinic. The clinic had persuaded her husband to sign a form of consent for this purpose. The claimant said . .
CitedCarltona Ltd v Commissioners of Works CA 1943
Ministers May Act through Civil Servants
The plaintiffs owned a factory which was to be requisitioned. They sought a judicial review of the lawfulness of the order making the requisition, saying that the 1939 Regulations had been implemented not by the Minister as required, but by an . .
CitedWilson v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry; Wilson v First County Trust Ltd (No 2) HL 10-Jul-2003
The respondent appealed against a finding that the provision which made a loan agreement completely invalid for lack of compliance with the 1974 Act was itself invalid under the Human Rights Act since it deprived the respondent of its property . .
CitedQuintavalle, Regina (on the Application of) v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority CA 16-May-2003
A licence was sought so that a couple could have a child who would be tissue typed to establish his suitability to provide an umbilical cord after his birth to help treat his future brother. A licence had been granted subject to conditions, and the . .
CitedBlack-Clawson International Ltd v Papierwerke Waldhof Aschaffenburg AG HL 5-Mar-1975
Statute’s Mischief May be Inspected
The House considered limitations upon them in reading statements made in the Houses of Parliament when construing a statute.
Held: It is rare that a statute can be properly interpreted without knowing the legislative object. The courts may . .
CitedCarson and Reynolds v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions CA 17-Jun-2003
The claimant Reynolds challenged the differential treatment by age of jobseeker’s allowance. Carson complained that as a foreign resident pensioner, her benefits had not been uprated. The questions in each case were whether the benefit affected a . .
CitedHandyside v The United Kingdom ECHR 7-Dec-1976
The appellant had published a ‘Little Red Schoolbook’. He was convicted under the 1959 and 1964 Acts on the basis that the book was obscene, it tending to deprave and corrupt its target audience, children. The book claimed that it was intended to . .
CitedPretty v The United Kingdom ECHR 29-Apr-2002
Right to Life Did Not include Right to Death
The applicant was paralysed and suffered a degenerative condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to assist her suicide by accompanying her to Switzerland. English law would not excuse such behaviour. She argued that the right to die is not . .
CitedRegina (P) v Secretary of State for the Home Department, Regina (Q) v Same QBD 1-Jun-2001
The Prison Service’s policy of refusing to allow children over the age of eighteen months to stay with their mother in prison was lawful. The impairment of family life was an inevitable and inherent part of the imposition of a sentence of . .
CitedRegina v Director of Public Prosecutions, ex parte Kebilene and others HL 28-Oct-1999
(Orse Kebeline) The DPP’s appeal succeeded. A decision by the DPP to authorise a prosecution could not be judicially reviewed unless dishonesty, bad faith, or some other exceptional circumstance could be shown. A suggestion that the offence for . .
CitedIn Re W and B (Children: Care Plan) In Re W (Child: Care Plan) CA 7-Jun-2001
Courts should take additional powers under the Act for the management and implementation of care plans made in care proceedings. In these cases, an order had been made on the basis of a care plan which subsequently proved impossible to implement, . .

Cited by:
CitedYearworth and others v North Bristol NHS Trust CA 4-Feb-2009
The defendant hospital had custody of sperm samples given by the claimants in the course of fertility treatment. The samples were effectively destroyed when the fridge malfunctioned. Each claimant was undergoing chemotherapy which would prevent them . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Human Rights

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.198405

Re X (A Child): FD 29 Oct 2020

Limited transfusion against young adults wishes

The Court was asked whether a blood transfusion should be administered to a young woman who was almost, not quite, 16, against her profound religious beliefs. X is a Jehovah’s Witness. She has explained to me, in very powerful and moving words, the basis of her belief and the fact that, recently, she was baptized in accordance with the teachings and the beliefs of her church.
Held: Though the opportunity to consider the issue properly was limited by its urgency, an order was made to allow a limited transfusion. ‘ in the final analysis, there may be situations, particularly where serious risk to health or life itself is concerned, where the duty of the court, although having regard to the views of a Gillick competent child, is to decline to give effect to them.
The overriding obligation of the court is to act in the best interests of X . . in the final analysis, the court has to take its own decision as to what is in the best interests of a young person and that, in an appropriate case, even if that young person is Gillick competent, it may be appropriate for the court to decide, with regret, but nonetheless firmly, not to give effect to the strongly held views and the strongly held religious beliefs of that young person. That is something the court is very slow to do. It is something the court is very reluctant to do and it will do it only – I put the matter descriptively rather than definitively – where there is clear evidence of a serious risk to health or possible death if the court does not intervene.

Sir James Munby
[2020] EWHC 3003 (Fam)
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
No longer reflects the lawRe W (a minor) (medical treatment: courts jurisdiction) CA 1992
An application was made for a declaration allowing a hospital to treat a girl aged 16 years suffering from anorexia nervosa against her wishes.
Held: The order was made. It is a feature of anorexia nervosa that it is capable of destroying the . .
No longer reflects the lawIn Re R (A Minor) (Wardship: Consent to Treatment) CA 1992
A doctor may not operate without on a child the consent of the person apparently legally able to give consent: ‘It is trite that in general a doctor is not entitled to treat a patient without the consent of someone who is authorised to give that . .
CitedRe T (Minors) (Custody: Religious Upbringing) CA 1975
(From 1975) Scarman LJ discussed the way courts should allow for religious beliefs (here the Jehovah’s Witnesses) in the context of a child’s welfare, saying that they deserved respect where they were not ‘immoral or socially obnoxious’ and: ‘there . .
CitedAC v Manitoba (Director of Child and Family Services) 26-Jun-2009
(Supreme Court of Canada) Constitutional law – Charter of Rights – Liberty and security of person – Fundamental justice – Medical treatment – Child under 16 years of age refusing blood transfusions because her religion requires that she abstain from . .
CitedIn re G (Children) (Education: Religious Upbringing) CA 4-Oct-2012
The parents, both once ultra orthodox Jews disputed the education of their children after their separation, and after the mother, though still Orthodox, ceased to be a member of the Chareidi community. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Children, Health, Human Rights

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.656334

Re C (Adult: Refusal of Treatment): FD 1994

C had been admitted to a secure hospital as a patient under Part III of the Mental Health Act 1983 because of his paranoid schizophrenia. He now sought an injunction to prevent the amputation of his gangrenous foot without his written consent. The patient’s persecutory delusions might have prevented him from weighing the information relevant to having his leg amputated because of gangrene, which he was perfectly capable of understanding, but they did not.
Held: A person may have capacity to manage his affairs notwithstanding that he has schizophrenia, and did in this case.
Thorpe J said: ‘For the patient offered amputation to save life, there are three stages to the decision (1) to take in and retain treatment information, (2) to believe it and (3) to weigh that information, balancing risks and needs.’ and ‘the question to be decided is whether it has been established that C’s capacity is so reduced by his chronic mental illness that he does not sufficiently understand the nature, purpose and effects of the proffered amputation.’ and ‘Although his general capacity is impaired by schizophrenia, it has not been established that he does not sufficiently understand the nature, purpose and effects of the treatment he refuses. Indeed, I am satisfied that he has understood and retained the relevant treatment information, that in his own way he believes it, and that in the same fashion he has arrived at a clear choice.’

Thorpe J
[1994] 1 WLR 290, [1994] 1 All ER 819
Mental Health Act 1983 Part III
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedLondon Borough of Lewisham v Malcolm and Disability Rights Commission CA 25-Jul-2007
The court was asked, whether asked to grant possession against a disabled tenant where the grounds for possession were mandatory. The defendant was a secure tenant with a history of psychiatric disability. He had set out to buy his flat, but the . .
CitedMasterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1) CA 19-Dec-2002
Capacity for Litigation
The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the . .
CitedRegina v C HL 30-Jul-2009
Consent to Sex Requires Capacity
The prosecution appealed against the reversal of the defendant’s conviction for a sexual assault of a woman said to be unable to communicate her refusal to sex because of her mental disorder.
Held: The appeal was allowed, and the conviction . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.258858

Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and Department of Health and Social Security: HL 17 Oct 1985

Lawfulness of Contraceptive advice for Girls

The claimant had young daughters. She challenged advice given to doctors by the second respondent allowing them to give contraceptive advice to girls under 16, and the right of the first defendant to act upon that advice. She objected that the advice infringed her rights as a parent, and would lead to what would be an unlawful assault.
Held: ‘It is abundantly plain that the law recognises that there is a right and duty of parents to determine whether or not to seek medical advice in respect of their child, and, having received advice, to give or withhold consent to medical treatment.’ Nevertheless, the policy was capable of being lawful. A court could correct unlawful advice given by a government department. A doctor could give such advice to a girl under 16 where she would understand it, where she could not be persuaded to involve her parents, she was likely to have sex irrespective of advice, her health was at risk, and it was in her nest interests. A parent’s rights of control over a child diminished as that child’s understanding grew approaching adulthood.

Lord Fraser of Tullybelton, Lord Scarman, Lord Bridge of Harwich, Lord Brandon of Oakbrook and Lord Templeman
[1985] 3 All ER 402, [1986] AC 112, [1985] 3 WLR 830, [1985] UKHL 7, [1986] 1 FLR 229
lip, Bailii
National Health Service (Family Planning) Act 1967 1, National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 4, National Health Service Act 1977 5(1)(b), Family Law Reform Act 1969 8(1)
England and Wales
Citing:
AppliedO’Reilly v Mackman HL 1982
Remission of Sentence is a Privilege not a Right
The plaintiffs had begun their action, to challenge their loss of remission as prisoners, by means of a writ, rather than by an action for judicial review, and so had sidestepped the requirement for the action to be brought within strict time . .
ReversedIn re Agar-Ellis CA 1883
. .
CitedAssociated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation CA 10-Nov-1947
Administrative Discretion to be Used Reasonably
The applicant challenged the manner of decision making as to the conditions which had been attached to its licence to open the cinema on Sundays. It had not been allowed to admit children under 15 years of age. The statute provided no appeal . .
CitedIn re P (A Minor) 1981
. .
CitedSidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital and the Maudsley Hospital HL 21-Feb-1985
The plaintiff alleged negligence in the failure by a surgeon to disclose or explain to her the risks inherent in the operation which he had advised.
Held: The appeal failed. A mentally competent patient has an absolute right to refuse to . .
At first instanceGillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and Department of Health and Social Security QBD 1984
The court refused an injunction and a declaration requested by the plaintiff against the respondents as to the possibiliity of contraceptive advice and treatment being offered to her daughters under 16 without the plaintiff’s express consent. . .
Appeal fromGillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and Department of Health and Social Security CA 1985
The court granted to the claimant a declaration as to the unlawfulness of guidance to Health Authorities that it was possible to provide contraceptive advice and treatment to her daughters when under 16 and without her express consent. . .

Cited by:
CitedRegina v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority ex parte DB Admn 17-Oct-1996
Sperm which had been taken from a dying and unconscious man may not be used for the later insemination of his surviving wife. The Act required his written consent.
Held: Community Law does not assist the Applicant. The question had been . .
CitedRegina v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority ex parte DB Admn 17-Oct-1996
Sperm which had been taken from a dying and unconscious man may not be used for the later insemination of his surviving wife. The Act required his written consent.
Held: Community Law does not assist the Applicant. The question had been . .
CitedIn Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation) CA 22-Sep-2000
Twins were conjoined (Siamese). Medically, both could not survive, and one was dependent upon the vital organs of the other. Doctors applied for permission to separate the twins which would be followed by the inevitable death of one of them. The . .
CitedJD v East Berkshire Community Health NHS Trust and others HL 21-Apr-2005
Parents of children had falsely and negligently been accused of abusing their children. The children sought damages for negligence against the doctors or social workers who had made the statements supporting the actions taken. The House was asked if . .
CitedQuayle and others v Regina, Attorney General’s Reference (No. 2 of 2004) CACD 27-May-2005
Each defendant appealed against convictions associated variously with the cultivation or possession of cannabis resin. They sought to plead medical necessity. There had been medical recommendations to move cannabis to the list of drugs which might . .
CitedBurke, Regina (on the Application of) v General Medical Council and others (Official Solicitor and others intervening) CA 28-Jul-2005
The claimant suffered a congenital degenerative brain condition inevitably resulting in a future need to receive nutrition and hydration by artificial means. He was concerned that a decision might be taken by medical practitioners responsible for . .
CitedWyatt and Another v Portsmouth Hospital NHS and Another CA 12-Oct-2005
The appellants’ daughter had been born with very severe disabilities. Her doctors obtained an order allowing them a discretion not to ventilate her to keep her alive if necessary. She had improved, but the family now sought leave to appeal an order . .
BindingAxon, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Another Admn 23-Jan-2006
A mother sought to challenge guidelines issued by the respondent which would allow doctors to protect the confidentiality of women under 16 who came to them for assistance even though the sexual activities they might engage in would be unlawful.
CitedBailey v Warre CA 7-Feb-2006
The claimant had been severely injured in a road traffic accident. His claim was compromised and embodied in a court order, but later a question was raised as to whether he had had mental capacity at the time to make the compromise he had.
CitedMAK and RK v The United Kingdom ECHR 23-Mar-2010
mak_ukECHR10
When RK, a nine year old girl was taken to hospital, with bruises, the paediatrician wrongly suspecting sexual abuse, took blood samples and intimate photographs in the absence of the parents and without their consent.
Held: The doctor had . .
CitedAVS v A NHS Foundation Trust and Another CA 17-Jan-2011
The claimant contracted sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob’s Disease disease. He executed a Lasting Power of Attorney in favour of his brother, expressing to him that he should do whatever was possible to protract his life. The brother now sought treatment . .
CitedEquality and Human Rights Commission v Prime Minister and Others Admn 3-Oct-2011
The defendant had published a set of guidelines for intelligence officers called upon to detain and interrogate suspects. The defendant said that the guidelines could only be tested against individual real life cases, and that the court should not . .
CitedRe D (A Child) CA 26-Mar-2014
F appealed against the removal of his parental responsibility for his son. M and F were not married, but F had been named on the birth certificate. He had later been convicted of sexual assaults against two daughters of M by an earlier relationship. . .
CitedJogee and Ruddock (Jamaica) v The Queen SC 18-Feb-2016
Joint Enterprise Murder
The two defendants appealed against their convictions (one in Jamaica) for murder, under the law of joint enterprise. Each had been an accessory when their accomplice killed a victim with a knife. The judge in Jogee had directed the jury that he . .
CitedRe JS (Disposal of Body) FD 10-Nov-2016
Child’s Wish for post-mortem cryonic Preservation
JS, a child of 14, anticipating her death from cancer expressed the desire that her body should receive cryonic preservation in the hope that one day a treatment might be available to allow her to be revived, and proceedings were issued. Her parents . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Children, Administrative

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.178638

Pretty v The United Kingdom: ECHR 29 Apr 2002

Right to Life Did Not include Right to Death

The applicant was paralysed and suffered a degenerative condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to assist her suicide by accompanying her to Switzerland. English law would not excuse such behaviour. She argued that the right to die is not the antithesis of the right to life but the corollary of it, and the state has a positive obligation to protect both.
Held: The article reflected the sanctity of life, and cannot be interpreted as including a right to die. Some Convention rights have been interpreted to confer rights not to do that which is the antithesis of what there is an express right to do, but there was not a right not to experience the opposite of what the articles guarantee for articles 3, 4, 5 and 6. It was an impermissible step to proceed to the assertion that the state has a duty to recognise a right to be assisted to take one’s own life. The prohibition of assisted suicide is inconsistent with the Convention. ‘[Article 3] may be described in general terms as imposing a primary negative obligation on States to refrain from inflicting serious harm upon persons within their jurisdiction.’
‘As the court has had previous occasion to remark, the concept of ‘private life’ is a broad term not susceptible to exhaustive definition. It covers the physical and psychological integrity of a person . . It can sometimes embrace aspects of an individual’s physical and social identity . . Elements such as, for example, gender identification, name and sexual orientation and sexual life fall within the personal sphere protected by article 8 . . Article 8 also protects a right to personal development, and the right to establish and develop relationships with other human beings and the outside world . . Though no previous case has established as such any right to self-determination as being contained in article 8 of the Convention, the court considers that the notion of personal autonomy is an important principle underlying the interpretation of its guarantees.’
‘The court would observe that the ability to conduct one’s life in a manner of one’s own choosing may also include the opportunity to pursue activities perceived to be of a physically or morally harmful or dangerous nature for the individual concerned.’

M Pellonpaa P
2346/02, (2002) 35 EHRR 1, [2002] ECHR 427, (2002) 66 BMLR 147, 12 BHRC 149, [2002] Fam Law 588, [2002] 2 FCR 97, [2002] All ER (D) 286 (Apr), [2002] 2 FLR 45
Worldlii, Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 2 3 8 9 14, Suicide Act 1961 2(1)
Human Rights
Citing:
CitedOsman v The United Kingdom ECHR 28-Oct-1998
Police’s Complete Immunity was Too Wide
(Grand Chamber) A male teacher developed an obsession with a male pupil. He changed his name by deed poll to the pupil’s surname. He was required to teach at another school. The pupil’s family’s property was subjected to numerous acts of vandalism, . .
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland HL 4-Feb-1993
Procedures on Withdrawal of Life Support Treatment
The patient had been severely injured in the Hillsborough disaster, and had come to be in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). The doctors sought permission to withdraw medical treatment. The Official Solicitor appealed against an order of the Court . .
At HLRegina (on the Application of Pretty) v Director of Public Prosecutions and Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 29-Nov-2001
The applicant was terminally ill, and entirely dependent upon her husband for care. She foresaw a time when she would wish to take her own life, but would not be able to do so without the active assistance of her husband. She sought a proleptic . .

Cited by:
CitedRegina (on the Application of Q and others) v Secretary of State for the Home Department CA 18-Mar-2003
The Home Secretary appealed a ruling that his implementation of section 55 was unlawful, having been said to be incompatible with human rights law.
Held: The way in which the section had been operated, by denying consideration and all benefits . .
CitedMunjaz v Mersey Care National Health Service Trust And the Secretary of State for Health, the National Association for Mental Health (Mind) Respondent interested; CA 16-Jul-2003
The claimant was a mental patient under compulsory detention, and complained that he had been subjected to periods of seclusion.
Held: The appeal succeeded. The hospital had failed to follow the appropriate Code of Practice. The Code was not . .
AppliedRegina (T) v the Secretary of State for the Home Department; similar CA 23-Sep-2003
The claimant asylum seeker had been refused benefits having failed to declare his application on entry. The Secretary now appealed a finding that the decision was flawed. Was the treatment of the applicant inhuman or degrading?
Held: No simple . .
CitedPS, Regina (on the Application of) v Responsible Medical Officer, Dr G and others Admn 10-Oct-2003
The claimant had been compulsorily detained under the Act. He complained that the detention and compulsory medication infringed his rights, and amongst other things breached his religious beliefs.
Held: This was an exceptional case requiring . .
CitedAnufrijeva and Another v London Borough of Southwark CA 16-Oct-2003
The various claimants sought damages for established breaches of their human rights involving breaches of statutory duty by way of maladministration. Does the state have a duty to provide support so as to avoid a threat to the family life of the . .
CitedZehnalova and Zehnal v Czech Republic ECHR 14-May-2002
The applicants were husband and wife and the wife was physically handicapped. They complained that their Article 8 rights were infringed because, in breach of Czech law, the authorities had failed to install facilities that would enable her to gain . .
CitedN v the Secretary of State for the Home Department CA 16-Oct-2003
The applicant entered the UK illegally. She was unwell and was given treatment. She resisted removal on the grounds that the treatment available to her would be of such a quality as to leave her life threatened.
Held: D -v- UK should be . .
CitedRegina (Limbuela) v Secretary of State for the Home Department QBD 4-Feb-2004
The claimant had sought asylum on the day after arrival, and had therefore been refused any assistance beyond the provision of a list of charities who might assist. His lawyers were unable to secure either shelter or maintenance, and he had been . .
CitedGlass v The United Kingdom ECHR 9-Mar-2004
The applicant’s adult son was disabled. There was a disagreement with the hospital about his care. The hospital considered that to alleviate his distress, he should not be resuscitated. The family wanted to take him home, fearing euthanasia. The . .
CitedEvans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd and others CA 25-Jun-2004
The applicant challenged the decision of the court that the sperm donor who had fertilised her eggs to create embryos stored by the respondent IVF clinic, could withdraw his consent to their continued storage or use.
Held: The judge worked . .
CitedRegina (Burke) v General Medical Council Admn 30-Jul-2004
The applicant, suffering a life threatening disease, wanted to ensure his continued treatment and revival in the circumstance of losing his own capacity. He said the respondent’s guidelines for doctors were discriminatory and failed to protect his . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for Education and Employment and others ex parte Williamson and others HL 24-Feb-2005
The appellants were teachers in Christian schools who said that the blanket ban on corporal punishment interfered with their religious freedom. They saw moderate physical discipline as an essential part of educating children in a Christian manner. . .
CitedCountryside Alliance and others v HM Attorney General and others Admn 29-Jul-2005
The various claimants sought to challenge the 2004 Act by way of judicial review on the grounds that it was ‘a disproportionate, unnecessary and illegitimate interference with their rights to choose how they conduct their lives, and with market . .
CitedAdam, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department; Limbuela v Same; Tesema v Same HL 3-Nov-2005
The applicants had each entered the UK with a view to seeking asylum, but having failed to seek asylum immediately, they had been refused any assistance, were not allowed to work and so had been left destitute. Each had claimed asylum on the day . .
CitedSecretary of State for Work and Pensions v M HL 8-Mar-2006
The respondent’s child lived with the estranged father for most of each week. She was obliged to contribute child support. She now lived with a woman, and complained that because her relationship was homosexual, she had been asked to pay more than . .
CitedWilkinson v Kitzinger and others FD 31-Jul-2006
The parties had gone through a ceremony of marriage in Columbia, being both women. After the relationship failed, the claimant sought a declaration that the witholding of the recognition of same-sex marriages recoginised in a foreign jurisdiction . .
CitedBrown v HM Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, the Executors of the Estate of and others FD 5-Jul-2007
The plaintiff sought the unsealing of the wills of the late Queen Mother and of the late Princess Margaret, claiming that these would assist him establishing that he was the illegitimate son of the latter.
Held: The application was frivolous. . .
CitedIn re P and Others, (Adoption: Unmarried couple) (Northern Ireland); In re G HL 18-Jun-2008
The applicants complained that as an unmarried couple they had been excluded from consideration as adopters.
Held: Northern Ireland legislation had not moved in the same way as it had for other jurisdictions within the UK. The greater . .
CitedG, Regina (on the Application of) v Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust Admn 20-May-2008
The applicants were detained at Rampton. The form of detention denied the access to space in which they would be able to smoke cigarettes to comply with the law.
Held: The claim failed. The legislative objectives were sufficiently serious to . .
CitedCountryside Alliance and others, Regina (on the Application of) v Attorney General and Another HL 28-Nov-2007
The appellants said that the 2004 Act infringed their rights under articles 8 11 and 14 and Art 1 of protocol 1.
Held: Article 8 protected the right to private and family life. Its purpose was to protect individuals from unjustified intrusion . .
CitedPurdy, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions and Another QBD 29-Oct-2008
The applicant suffered mutiple sclerosis and considered that she might wish to go abroad to end her life. She asked the court to make more clear the guidance provided by the Director as to whether her partner might be prosecuted under section 2(1) . .
CitedPurdy, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions and Another Admn 29-Oct-2008
The applicant said that the defendant had unlawfully failed to provide detailed guidance under section 10 of the 1985 Act, on the circumstances under which a prosecution might lie of a person performing acts which might assist another to commit . .
CitedJL, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice; Regina (L (A Patient)) v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 26-Nov-2008
The prisoner was left with serious injury after attempting suicide in prison. He said that there was a human rights duty to hold an investigation into the circumstances leading up to this.
Held: There existed a similar duty to hold an enhanced . .
CitedMarper v United Kingdom; S v United Kingdom ECHR 4-Dec-2008
(Grand Chamber) The applicants complained that on being arrested on suspicion of offences, samples of their DNA had been taken, but then despite being released without conviction, the samples had retained on the Police database.
Held: . .
CitedPurdy, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions and others CA 19-Feb-2009
The claimant suffered a debilitating terminal disease. She anticipated going to commit suicide at a clinic in Switzerland, and wanted first a clear policy so that her husband who might accompany her would know whether he might be prosecuted under . .
CitedPurdy, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions HL 30-Jul-2009
Need for Certainty in Scope of Offence
The appellant suffered a severe chronic illness and anticipated that she might want to go to Switzerland to commit suicide. She would need her husband to accompany her, and sought an order requiring the respondent to provide clear guidelines on the . .
CitedAB, Regina (On the Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice and Another Admn 4-Sep-2009
The claimant was serving a sentence of imprisonment. She was a pre-operative transgender woman, but held in a male prison. She sought review of a decision to refuse transfer to a women’s prison. The Gender Recognition Panel was satisfied that the . .
CitedN, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Health; Regina (E) v Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust CA 24-Jul-2009
The claimants appealed against the imposition on them of smoking bans while they were compulsorily detained at Rampton Hospital. They said that other persons detained for example in prisons had been exempted fully.
Held: The right or freedom . .
CitedMAK and RK v The United Kingdom ECHR 23-Mar-2010
mak_ukECHR10
When RK, a nine year old girl was taken to hospital, with bruises, the paediatrician wrongly suspecting sexual abuse, took blood samples and intimate photographs in the absence of the parents and without their consent.
Held: The doctor had . .
CitedGoodwin v The United Kingdom ECHR 11-Jul-2002
The claimant was a post operative male to female trans-sexual. She claimed that her human rights were infringed when she was still treated as a man for National Insurance contributions purposes, where she continued to make payments after the age at . .
CitedE and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v The Director of Public Prosecutions Admn 10-Jun-2011
Judicial review was sought of a decision by the respondent to prosecute a child for her alleged sexual abuse of her younger sisters. Agencies other than the police and CPS considered that a prosecution would harm both the applicant and her sisters. . .
CitedQuila and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department SC 12-Oct-2011
Parties challenged the rule allowing the respondent to deny the right to enter or remain here to non EU citizens marrying a person settled and present here where either party was under the age of 21. The aim of the rule was to deter forced . .
CitedNicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v A Primary Care Trust CA 31-Jul-2013
The claimant had suffered a severe form of locked-in syndrome, and would wish to die. He sought a declaration that someone who assisted him in his siuicide would not be prosecuted for murder.
Held: The position in law that voluntary euthanasia . .
CitedCatt and T, Regina (on The Applications of) v Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis SC 4-Mar-2015
Police Data Retention Justifiable
The appellants challenged the collection of data by the police, alleging that its retention interfered with their Article 8 rights. C complained of the retention of records of his lawful activities attending political demonstrations, and T . .
CitedNicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) SC 25-Jun-2014
Criminality of Assisting Suicide not Infringing
The court was asked: ‘whether the present state of the law of England and Wales relating to assisting suicide infringes the European Convention on Human Rights, and whether the code published by the Director of Public Prosecutions relating to . .
CitedJanner, Regina (on The Application of) v The Crown Prosecution Service Admn 13-Aug-2015
The claimant challenged the decision that he should face trial on charges of historic sexual abuse. He was now elderly and said to be unfit to attend court or instruct his lawyers, suffering Alzheimers. He sought interim relief against being . .
CitedKenward and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v The Director of Public Prosecutions and Another Admn 4-Dec-2015
The claimants challenged the policy issued by the DPP on assisted suicide following the Nicklinson case.
Held: The request for judicial review was refused.
Sir Brian Leveson P said: ‘It is important not to misunderstand the effect either . .
CitedMcCann v The State Hospitals Board for Scotland SC 11-Apr-2017
A challenge by request for judicial review to the legality of the comprehensive ban on smoking at the State Hospital at Carstairs which the State Hospitals Board adopted. The appellant, a detained patient, did not challenge the ban on smoking . .
CitedZXC v Bloomberg Lp CA 15-May-2020
Privacy Expecation during police investigations
Appeal from a judgment finding that the Defendant had breached the Claimant’s privacy rights. He made an award of damages for the infraction of those rights and granted an injunction restraining Bloomberg from publishing information which further . .
CitedHuman Rights Commission for Judicial Review (Northern Ireland : Abortion) SC 7-Jun-2018
The Commission challenged the compatibility of the NI law relating to banning nearly all abortions with Human Rights Law. It now challenged a decision that it did not have standing to bring the case.
Held: (Lady Hale, Lord Kerr and Lord Wilson . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Crime, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.170322

Scotch Whisky Association And Others v Lord Advocate, Advocate General for Scotland: ECJ 23 Dec 2015

ECJ (Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Common organisation of the markets in agricultural products – Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 – Free movement of goods – Article 34 TFEU – Quantitative restrictions – Measures having equivalent effect – Minimum price of alcoholic drinks calculated according to the alcoholic strength of the product – Justification – Article 36 TFEU – Protection of human life and health – Assessment by the national court
‘I consider that the existence of a CMO covering the wine sector does not prevent the national authorities from taking action in the exercise of their competence in order to adopt measures to protect health and, in particular, to combat alcohol abuse. However, where the national measure constitutes a breach of the principle of the free formation of selling prices that constitutes a component of the single CMO Regulation, the principle of proportionality requires that the national measure must actually meet the objective of the protection of human health and must not go beyond what is necessary in order to attain that objective.
As the commission suggests, I consider that the examination of the proportionality of the measure must be undertaken in the context of the analysis that must be carried out by reference to article 36 TFEU.
Consequently, I propose that the answer to the first question should be that the single CMO Regulation must be interpreted as meaning that it does not preclude national rules, such as those at issue, which prescribe a minimum retail price for wines according to the quantity of alcohol in the product sold, provided that those rules are justified by the objectives of the protection of human health, and in particular the objective of combating alcohol abuse, and do not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve that objective.’
‘A barrier to the free movement of goods may be justified on one of the public interest grounds set out in article 36 TFEU or in order to meet overriding requirements. In either case, the restrictions imposed by the member states must none the less satisfy the conditions laid down in the court’s case law as regards their proportionality. In that regard, in order for national rules to comply with the principle of proportionality, it is necessary to ascertain not only whether the means which they implement are appropriate to ensure attainment of the objective pursued, but also that those means do not go beyond what is necessary to attain that objective: Berlington Hungary Tanacsado es Szolgaltato kft v Magyar Allam (Case C-98/14) [2015] 3 CMLR 45, para 64.
Although the words generally used by the court seem most frequently to result in only two different stages of the control of proportionality being distinguished, the intellectual exercise followed in order to determine whether a national measure is proportionate is generally broken down into three successive stages.
The first stage, corresponding to the test of suitability or appropriateness, consists in ascertaining that the act adopted is suitable for attaining the aim sought.
The second stage, relating to the test of necessity, sometimes also known as the ‘minimum interference test’, entails a comparison between the national measure at issue and the alternative solutions that would allow the same objective as that pursued by the national measure to be attained but would impose fewer restrictions on trade.
The third stage, corresponding to the test of proportionality in the strict sense, assumes the balancing of the interests involved. More precisely, it consists in comparing the extent of the interference which the national measure causes to the freedom under consideration and the contribution which that measure could secure for the protection of the objective pursued.’

R. Silva de Lapuerta, P
ECLI:EU:C:2015:845, [2015] EUECJ C-333/14, [2016] 1 WLR 2283, [2015] WLR(D) 544
Bailii, WLRD
Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013, TFEU 34
European
Citing:
See AlsoScotch Whisky Association and Others v The Lord Advocate and Another SCS 30-Apr-2014
(Extra Division, Inner House, Court of Session) Reclaiming motion is brought against the Lord Ordinary’s decision rejecting the petitioners’ challenge to the provisions of the 2012 Act. Reference to ECJ . .
See AlsoThe Scotch Whisky Association and Others, Re Judicial Review SCS 26-Sep-2012
Outer House – application by Alcohol Focus Scotland for permission to intervene in the public interest in a judicial review application by The Scotch Whisky Association and two European bodies which represent producers of spirit drinks and the wine . .
See AlsoThe Scotch Whisky Association and Others, Re Judicial Review SCS 3-May-2013
(Outer House, Court of Session) The petitioners challenged the legality of an enactment of the Scottish Parliament – the Act. They also challenged the legality of the Scottish Ministers’ decision that they would make an Order setting the minimum . .
See AlsoScotch Whisky Association and Others for Judicial Review SCS 11-Jul-2014
Extra Division, Inner House – Further application for leave to intervene. . .
CitedCommission v Italy (Free Movement Of Goods) ECJ 10-Feb-2009
ecJ Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations Article 28 EC Concept of ‘measures having equivalent effect to quantitative restrictions on imports’ Prohibition on mopeds, motorcycles, motor tricycles and . .

Cited by:
At ECJThe Scotch Whisky Association and Others v The Lord Advocate and Another SCS 21-Oct-2016
The Association sought to challenge the legality of the 2012 Act and orders made under it. The Government’s contended that the Act would bring health benefits of one sort or another to at least part of the population.
Held: In a reclaiming . .
At ECJScotch Whisky Association and Others v The Lord Advocate and Another SC 15-Nov-2017
The Association challenged the imposition of minimum pricing systems for alcohol, saying that it was in breach of European law. After a reference to the ECJ, the Court now considered its legality.
Held: The Association’s appeal failed. Minimum . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Commercial, Health

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.565749

British Pregnancy Advisory Service v Secretary of State for Health: Admn 14 Feb 2011

The claimant sought a declaration that the administration of an abortifacient drug was not ‘any treatment for the termination of pregnancy’ for the purposes of section 1 of the 1967 Act, allowing the piloting and possible adoption of early medical abortions in part self-administered.
Held: The request was refused. Parliament had passed the Act aware that future medical developments might allow medical rather than surgical abortions.
Section 1(3A) refers to treatment consisting primarily in the ‘use’ of medicines; it is not limited to the prescription of medicines. Furthermore the section does make clear Parliament’s decision that it is the Secretary of State, not the medical profession, who has the responsibility for approval of the place where the treatment may take place.

Supperstone J
[2011] EWHC 235 (Admin), [2011] 3 All ER 1012, [2011] 3 FCR 541, [2011] Med LR 191, (2011) 118 BMLR 172, [2012] 1 WLR 580
Bailii
Abortion Act 1967 1, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRoyal College of Nursing of the United Kingdom v Department of Health and Social Security HL 2-Jan-1981
The court was asked whether nurses could properly involve themselves in a pregnancy termination procedure not known when the Act was passed, and in particular, whether a pregnancy was ‘terminated by a medical practitioner’, when it was carried out . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for Health ex parte Quintavalle (on behalf of Pro-Life Alliance) HL 13-Mar-2003
Court to seek and Apply Parliamentary Intention
The appellant challenged the practice of permitting cell nuclear replacement (CNR), saying it was either outside the scope of the Act, or was for a purpose which could not be licensed under the Act.
Held: The challenge failed. The court was to . .
CitedJanaway v Salford Area Health Authority HL 1-Feb-1988
The plaintiff took work as a secretary at a health centre, but objected to having to type out letters referring patients to an abortion clinic, saying that she conscientiously objected to participation in the process.
Held: Her appeal was . .
CitedBoss Holdings Ltd v Grosvenor West End Properties and others HL 30-Jan-2008
The tenant sought to enfranchise the property under the 1967 Act. The freeholders replied that it was not a ‘house’ within the Act at the time of the notice. It had been built in the eighteenth century as a house, but the lower floors had been . .
CitedIsle of Anglesey County Council and Another v The Welsh Ministries and others CA 20-Feb-2009
The claimants, the Commissioners and the County Council, sought declarations to establish their right to build a marina on parts of the foreshore currently used for commercial mussel fishing. Section 40 of the 1868 Act authorised ministers to make . .

Cited by:
Main JudgmentBritish Pregnancy Advisory Service v Secretary of State for Health Admn 18-Mar-2011
. .
CitedDoogan and Another v NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Health Board SCS 24-Apr-2013
(Extra Division, Inner House) The reclaimers, Roman Catholic midwives working on a labour ward as co-ordinators, sought to assert a right of conscientious objection under the 1967 Act. The respondents said that only those directly involved in the . .
CitedBritish Pregnancy Advisory Service, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Admn 5-Jun-2019
Abortion Time Limit statement was correct.
The Court considered ‘ the correct interpretation of the words, ‘the pregnancy has not exceeded its twenty-fourth week’ in s.1(1)(a) of the Abortion Act 1967 ‘ The guidance was challenged as the calculations. The date of the beginning of the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Health Professions

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.429679

Nicklinson v Ministry of Justice and Others: QBD 12 Mar 2012

The claimant suffered locked-in syndrome and sought relief in a form which would allow others to assist him in committing suicide. The court considered whether the case should be allowed to proceed rather than to be struck out as hopeless.
Held: The case was arguable and should be allowed to proceed: ‘However, the point that the common law and the application of its principles is capable of development and change by the courts on a case by case basis does not mean that the courts should so develop or change the law, particularly when it is settled, and involves issues of policy and ethical issues on which there are differing and strongly held views.’

Charles J
124 BMLR 191, [2012] Med LR 383, (2012) 15 CCL Rep 427, [2012] WLR(D) 75, (2012) 124 BMLR 191, [2012] HRLR 16, [2012] EWHC 304 (QB)
WLRD, Bailii
Human Rights Act 1998 1 6
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedPurdy, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions HL 30-Jul-2009
Need for Certainty in Scope of Offence
The appellant suffered a severe chronic illness and anticipated that she might want to go to Switzerland to commit suicide. She would need her husband to accompany her, and sought an order requiring the respondent to provide clear guidelines on the . .
CitedIn re P and Others, (Adoption: Unmarried couple) (Northern Ireland); In re G HL 18-Jun-2008
The applicants complained that as an unmarried couple they had been excluded from consideration as adopters.
Held: Northern Ireland legislation had not moved in the same way as it had for other jurisdictions within the UK. The greater . .
CitedIn Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment) (No 2) CA 15-Nov-2000
The failure by the Official Solicitor to pursue an appeal where leave had been granted, in a case of an application to the court for leave to separate conjoined twins, which separation would lead to the death of one of them, would not of itself . .
CitedIn Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation) CA 22-Sep-2000
Twins were conjoined (Siamese). Medically, both could not survive, and one was dependent upon the vital organs of the other. Doctors applied for permission to separate the twins which would be followed by the inevitable death of one of them. The . .
CitedIn re F (Mental Patient: Sterilisation) HL 4-May-1989
Where a patient lacks capacity, there is the power to provide him with whatever treatment or care is necessary in his own best interests. Medical treatment can be undertaken in an emergency even if, through a lack of capacity, no consent had been . .
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland HL 4-Feb-1993
Procedures on Withdrawal of Life Support Treatment
The patient had been severely injured in the Hillsborough disaster, and had come to be in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). The doctors sought permission to withdraw medical treatment. The Official Solicitor appealed against an order of the Court . .
CitedRegina v Howe etc HL 19-Feb-1986
The defendants appealed against their convictions for murder, saying that their defences of duress had been wrongly disallowed.
Held: Duress is not a defence available on a charge of murder. When a defence of duress is raised, the test is . .
CitedRegina v Brown (Anthony); Regina v Lucas; etc HL 11-Mar-1993
The appellants had been convicted of assault, after having engaged in consensual acts of sado-masochism in which they inflicted varying degreees of physical self harm. They had pleaded guilty after a ruling that the prosecution had not needed to . .
CitedIn Re L (By His Next Friend GE); Regina v Bournewood Community and Mental Health NHS Trust, Ex Parte L HL 25-Jun-1998
The applicant was an adult autistic, unable to consent to medical treatment. Treatment was provided at a day centre. He had been detained informally under the Act and against the wishes of his carers, but the Court of Appeal decided he should have . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for The Home Department Ex Parte Simms HL 8-Jul-1999
Ban on Prisoners talking to Journalists unlawful
The two prisoners, serving life sentences for murder, had had their appeals rejected. They continued to protest innocence, and sought to bring their campaigns to public attention through the press, having oral interviews with journalists without . .
CitedIn Re F (Adult: Court’s Jurisdiction) CA 25-Jul-2000
The local authority sought a declaration as to its rights to control the daily activities of an eighteen year old, who was incapable of managing her own affairs but was not subject to mental health legislation.
Held: There remained an inherent . .
CitedRegina (on the Application of Pretty) v Director of Public Prosecutions and Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 29-Nov-2001
The applicant was terminally ill, and entirely dependent upon her husband for care. She foresaw a time when she would wish to take her own life, but would not be able to do so without the active assistance of her husband. She sought a proleptic . .
CitedRegina v Her Majesty’s Attorney General ex parte Rusbridger and Another HL 26-Jun-2003
Limit to Declaratory Refilef as to Future Acts
The applicant newspaper editor wanted to campaign for a republican government. Articles were published, and he sought confirmation that he would not be prosecuted under the Act, in the light of the 1998 Act.
Held: Declaratory relief as to the . .

Cited by:
See AlsoNicklinson, Regina (on The Application of) v Ministry of Justice Admn 16-Aug-2012
The claimants each suffered ‘locked in syndrome’ after catastrophic health events, and were unable to commit suicide as they would have wished. In one case, the claimant would have needed assistance to travel to a clinic in Switzerland where he . .
See AlsoNicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v A Primary Care Trust CA 31-Jul-2013
The claimant had suffered a severe form of locked-in syndrome, and would wish to die. He sought a declaration that someone who assisted him in his siuicide would not be prosecuted for murder.
Held: The position in law that voluntary euthanasia . .
See AlsoNicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) SC 25-Jun-2014
Criminality of Assisting Suicide not Infringing
The court was asked: ‘whether the present state of the law of England and Wales relating to assisting suicide infringes the European Convention on Human Rights, and whether the code published by the Director of Public Prosecutions relating to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Crime, Human Rights

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.451883

In Re D (Statutory Will); VAC v JAD and Others: ChD 16 Aug 2010

The protected person’s deputy sought authority for making a statutory will for her. An earlier Enduring Power had been found to be a forgery, and a later will was also doubted. The deputy had been appointed. A statutory will had been refused because the master said one was appropriate only where no will existed, and it was not a procedure to be used to challenge existing wills for doubt as to capacity or undue influence.
Held: The application succeeded: ‘Under section 4 (6)(a), one of the relevant factors to be considered by the Court in determining the protected person’s best interests are that person’s past and present wishes and feelings (and, in particular, any relevant written statement made by him when he had capacity). A previous will is obviously a relevant written statement which falls to be taken into account by the Court. But the weight to be given to it will depend upon the circumstances under which it was prepared; and if it were clearly to be demonstrated that it was made at a time when the protected person lacked capacity, no weight at all should be accorded to it. Moreover, Parliament has rejected the ‘substituted judgment’ test in favour of the objective test as to what would be in the protected person’s best interests. Given the importance attached by the Court to the protected person being remembered for having done the ‘right thing’ by his will, it is open to the Court, in an appropriate case, to decide that the ‘right thing’ to do, in the protected person’s best interests, is to order the execution of a statutory will, rather than to leave him to be remembered for having bequeathed a contentious probate dispute to his relatives and the beneficiaries named in a disputed will. ‘

Hodge QC J
[2010] EWHC 2159 (Ch), [2011] 1 All ER 859, [2010] WTLR 1511
Bailii
Mental Capacity Act 2005 4(6)(a)
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedIn re P (Statutory Will) ChD 9-Feb-2009
A request was made for a statutory will.
Held: The 2005 Act marked a radical departure from previous practice. A decision made on behalf of a protected person must be made in his best interests. That was not (necessarily) the same as inquiring . .
CitedIn re M; ITW v Z and Others (Statutory Will) FD 12-Oct-2009
The court considered a request for a statutory will under the 2005 Act.
Held: the Court of Protection has no jurisdiction to rule on the validity of any will. However, Munby J made three points: (1) that the 2005 Act laid down no hierarchy as . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Wills and Probate

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.421525

Regina v Manchester City Council, ex parte Stennett etc: HL 25 Jul 2002

The applicants were former mental patients who had been admitted to hospital compulsorily under section 3. On their release they were to be given support under section 117. The authorities sought to charge for these services, and appealed a decision that the services should be free.
Held: Section 117 imposed a clear and free standing duty to provide support. The section was not a mere request to the authority to provide services under other provisions. Such patients might have greater needs and also have imposed on them restrictions. It was not inappropriate that support should be free.

Lord Slynn of Hadley Lord Mackay of Clashfern Lord Steyn Lord Hutton Lord Millett
Times 29-Aug-2002, Gazette 17-Oct-2002, [2002] UKHL 34, [2002] BLGR 557, (2002) 5 CCL Rep 500, [2002] 4 All ER 124, [2002] 3 WLR 584, (2002) 68 BMLR 247, [2002] 2 AC 1127
House of Lords, Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983 3 117
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal FromRegina v Richmond London Borough Council, Ex Parte Watson; Regina v Redcar and Cleveland Borough Council, Ex Parte Armstrong etc Admn 15-Oct-1999
. .

Cited by:
CitedK v Central and North West London Mental Health NHS Trust and Another QBD 30-May-2008
k_centralQBD2008
The claimant appealed against an order striking out his claim in negligence. He had leaped from a window in a suicide attempt. The accommodation was provided by the defendant whilst caring for him under the 1983 Act.
Held: The case should be . .
CitedStojak, Regina (on The Application of) v Sheffield City Council Admn 22-Dec-2009
The deceased had been detained as a mental patient and supported after her release, by her family financially. Her representatives now said that the respondent had failed in its obligation to provide support for no charge. The authority said that . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Benefits, Local Government

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.174394

Petrova v Latvia: ECHR 24 Jun 2014

pterova_latviaECHR2007

ECHR Article 8-1
Respect for private life
Removal of organs for transplantation without knowledge or consent of closest relatives: violation
Facts – In 2002 the applicant’s adult son died in a public hospital in Riga as a result of serious injuries sustained in a car accident. The applicant subsequently discovered that her son’s kidneys and spleen had been removed immediately after his death without her knowledge or consent. Her complaint to the Prosecutor General was dismissed on the grounds that the organs had been removed in accordance with domestic law. The applicant had not been contacted because the hospital had no contact details and, as the law then stood, medical practitioners were only obliged to actively search and inform close relatives of possible organ removal if the deceased was a minor.
Law – Article 8: The applicant complained that she had not been informed about the possible removal of her son’s organs for transplantation purposes and had therefore been unable to exercise certain rights established under domestic law. Latvian law at the relevant time explicitly provided close relatives of the deceased, including parents, with the right to express their wishes regarding the removal of organs. The point at issue was therefore whether or not the law was sufficiently clear. The Government argued that when close relatives were not present at the hospital, national law did not impose an obligation to make specific inquiries with a view to ascertaining whether there was any objection to organ removal and that, in such cases, consent to removal could be presumed. However, the Court found that the way in which this ‘presumed consent system’ operated in practice in cases such as the applicant’s was unclear: despite having certain rights as the closest relative she was not informed – let alone provided with any explanation – as to how and when those rights could be exercised. The time it had taken to carry out medical examinations to establish the compatibility of her son’s organs with the potential recipient could have sufficed to give her a real opportunity to express her wishes in the absence of those of her son. Indeed, even the Minister of Health had expressed the opinion that the applicant should have been informed of the planned transplantation. Moreover, amendments had since been made to the relevant domestic law. The Court accordingly found that Latvian law as applied at the time of the death of the applicant’s son had not been formulated with sufficient precision or afforded adequate legal protection against arbitrariness.
Conclusion: violation (unanimously).
Article 41: EUR 10,000 in respect of non-pecuniary damage.

4605/05 – Chamber Judgment, [2014] ECHR 647, 4605/05 – Legal Summary, [2014] ECHR 805
Bailii, Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 6 8-1

Human Rights, Health, Health Professions

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.535176

TF, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice: CA 18 Dec 2008

The claimant had been near to completing a sentence for serious violence. He now challenged the way in which, as his sentenced approached completion, the defendant had sought an order transferring him to a secure mental hospital. He was served with an order as he left the prison. The court had said that there was no evidence to sugest that he could receive any treatment which might alleviate his condition, but allowed a discretionary inclusion of later acquired evidence to support this.
Held: The appeal was allowed. At the time of the decision, the respondent did not have the requirements set down by the statute. The reports later produced were from interviews which were not recent.

Waller LJ VP, Thomas LJ, Aikens LJ
[2008] EWCA Civ 1457, Times 06-Feb-2009
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983 47
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for Home Office ex parte Gilkes Admn 21-Jan-1999
The prisoner challenged a decision to have her transferred to a mental hospital under scetion 47.
Held: It had not been reasonable for the Secretary of State to rely on one of the two medical reports she relied on. However since if the . .
CitedEshugbayi Eleko v Office Administering the Government of Nigeria HL 24-Mar-1931
The claimant sought a writ of habeas corpus.
Held: Lord Atkin said that in a habeas corpus case, ‘no member of the executive can interfere with the liberty or property of a British subject except on condition that he can support the legality . .
CitedLiversidge v Sir John Anderson HL 3-Nov-1941
The plaintiff sought damages for false imprisonment. The Secretary of State had refused to disclose certain documents. The question was as to the need for the defendant to justify the use of his powers by disclosing the documents.
Held: The . .
CitedMurray v Ministry of Defence HL 25-May-1988
The plaintiff complained that she had been wrongfully arrested by a soldier, since he had not given a proper reason for her detention.
Held: The House accepted the existence of an implied power in a statute which would be necessary to ensure . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Cheblak CA 1991
Because of the importance placed on the swift and efficient determination of lawfulness of the restraint, habeas corpus applications are given priority in the organisation of the business of the court.
In order to be permitted to present a . .
CitedID and others v The Home Office (BAIL for Immigration Detainees intervening) CA 27-Jan-2005
The claimants sought damages and other reliefs after being wrongfully detained by immigration officers for several days, during which they had been detained at a detention centre and left locked up when it burned down, being released only by other . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Prisons

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.278951

Z, Re (Recognition of Foreign Order): FD 8 Apr 2016

The court considered the exercise of the court’s powers under the inherent jurisdiction to recognise and enforce orders concerning the medical treatment of children made by courts of another member state of the European Union.
Held: The orders made by the Irish court were to stand as orders of the High Court of England and Wales

Baker J
[2016] EWHC 784 (Fam), [2016] WLR(D) 178, [2016] 3 WLR 791, [2016] Fam 375, [2016] Fam Law 684, [2017] 1 FLR 1236
Bailii, WLRD
England and Wales

Children, European, Health

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.562141

Westminster City Council v National Asylum Support Service: HL 17 Oct 2002

The applicant sought assistance from the local authority. He suffered from spinal myeloma, was destitute and an asylum seeker.
Held: Although the Act had withdrawn the obligation to provide assistance for many asylum seekers, those who were infirm and whose infirmity was not a consequence of their destitution, had not been excluded. Only able bodied destitute asylum seekers were excluded from benefit, and they had to rely upon the respondent. The House considered the value of the Explanatory notes now published with Acts: ‘Insofar as the Explanatory Notes cast light on the objective setting or contextual scene of the statute, and the mischief at which it is aimed, such materials are therefore always admissible aids to construction. They may be admitted for what logical value they have.’ Lord Steyn: ‘The starting point is that language in all legal texts conveys meaning according to the circumstances in which it was used. It follows that the context must always be identified and considered before the process of construction or during it. It is therefore wrong to say that the court may only resort to evidence of the contextual scene when an ambiguity has arisen.’

Steyn, Slynn, Hoffmann, Millett and Rodger LL
Times 18-Oct-2002, [2002] UKHL 38, [2002] 1 WLR 2956, [2002] 4 All ER 654, [2002] HLR 58, (2002) 5 CCL Rep 511, [2003] BLGR 23
House of Lords, Bailii
National Assistance Act 1948 21, Immigration and Asylum Appeals Act 1999 95 116
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedPrenn v Simmonds HL 1971
Backgroun Used to Construe Commercial Contract
Commercial contracts are to be construed in the light of all the background information which could reasonably have been expected to have been available to the parties in order to ascertain what would objectively have been understood to be their . .
CitedReardon Smith Line Ltd v Yngvar Hansen-Tangen (The ‘Diana Prosperity’) HL 1976
In construing a contract, three principles can be found. The contextual scene is always relevant. Secondly, what is admissible as a matter of the rules of evidence under this heading is what is arguably relevant, but admissibility is not decisive. . .
CitedInvestors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society HL 19-Jun-1997
Account taken of circumstances wihout ambiguity
The respondent gave advice on home income plans. The individual claimants had assigned their initial claims to the scheme, but later sought also to have their mortgages in favour of the respondent set aside.
Held: Investors having once . .
CitedRiver Wear Commissioners v Adamson HL 1877
It was not necessary for there to be an ambiguity in a statutory provision for a court to be allowed to look at the surrounding circumstances.
As to the Golden Rule of interpretation: ‘It is to be borne in mind that the office of the judge is . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for the Environment Transport and the Regions and another, ex parte Spath Holme Limited HL 7-Dec-2000
The section in the 1985 Act created a power to prevent rent increases for tenancies of dwelling-houses for purposes including the alleviation of perceived hardship. Accordingly the Secretary of State could issue regulations whose effect was to limit . .
CitedRobinson v Secretary of State for Northern Ireland and Others HL 25-Jul-2002
The Northern Ireland Parliament had elected its first minister and deputy more than six weeks after the election, but the Act required the election to be within that time. It was argued that as a creature of statute, the Parliament could not act . .
CitedRegina v Westminster City Council ex parte A, London Borough of Lambeth ex parte X and similar CA 17-Feb-1997
This was an appeal from orders of certiorari quashing the decisions of three local authorities refusing to provide accommodation for the respondents, four asylum seekers, whose applications for asylum were presently being considered by the Secretary . .
CitedRegina v Wandsworth London Borough Council, Ex Parte O; Leicester City Council, Ex Parte Bhikha CA 7-Sep-2000
The applicants were immigrants awaiting determination of their applications for exceptional leave to remain, and who came to suffer from serious illness. Each applied for and was refused assistance from their local authority.
Held: The . .
CitedWahid v London Borough of Tower Hamlets CA 7-Mar-2002
Gilliatt The appellant suffered from schizophrenia. He was refused permission to apply for judicial review and for orders requiring the local authority not just to provide suitable accommodation but better . .
Appeal fromWestminster City Council v National Asylum Support Service CA 10-Apr-2001
. .
At first instanceWestminster City Council v National Asylum Support Service Admn 27-Feb-2001
. .

Cited by:
CitedRegina (on the Application of Mani) v London Borough of Lambeth CA 9-Jul-2003
Where a destitute and disabled asylum seeker had a clear need for care and attention, the local authority had a duty to provide it. The claimant was an asylum seeker, with impaired mobility and a history of mental halth difficulties. At first he was . .
CitedRegina (on the Application of A) v National Asylum Support Service, London Borough of Waltham Forest CA 23-Oct-2003
A family of asylum seekers with two disabled children would be destitute without ‘adequate’ accommodation. What was such accommodation?
Held: The authority was under an absolute duty to house such a family. In satisfying such duty, it was . .
CitedRegina, ex parte O v The London Borough of Haringey, The Secretary of State for the Home Department CA 4-May-2004
The court considered the duties of local authorities to support infirm asylum seekers with children.
Held: The authority had an obligation to support the adult, but the responsibility for the children fell on the National Asylum Support . .
AppliedS, Regina (on Application of) v South Yorkshire Police; Regina v Chief Constable of Yorkshire Police ex parte Marper HL 22-Jul-2004
Police Retention of Suspects DNA and Fingerprints
The claimants complained that their fingerprints and DNA records taken on arrest had been retained after discharge before trial, saying the retention of the samples infringed their right to private life.
Held: The parts of DNA used for testing . .
CitedAttorney General’s Reference (No 5 of 2002) HL 14-Oct-2004
The Attorney General sought the correct interpretation of section 17 where a court was asked as to whether evidence obtained from a telephone tapping had been taken from a public or private network. A chief constable suspected that the defendants, . .
CitedRegina v Montila and Others HL 25-Nov-2004
The defendants faced charges under the two Acts. They raised as a preliminary issue whether it is necessary for the Crown to prove that the property being converted was in fact the proceeds, in the case of the 1994 Act, of drug trafficking and, in . .
CitedIn re P (a minor by his mother and litigation friend); P v National Association of Schoolmasters/Union of Women Teachers HL 27-Feb-2003
The pupil had been excluded from school but then ordered to be re-instated. The teachers, through their union, refused to teach him claiming that he was disruptive. The claimant appealed a refusal of an injunction. The injunction had been refused on . .
CitedPhillips v Rafiq and Motor Insurers Bureau (MIB) CA 13-Feb-2007
The MIB appealed from a judgment making it liable for an award of damages to the estate of the deceased who had been a passenger in a vehicle which he knew to be being driven without insurance. The estate had not sued the MIB directly, but first . .
CitedKing v The Serious Fraud Office CACD 18-Mar-2008
Restraint and Disclosure orders had been made on without notice applications at the request of South Africa. The applicant appealed a refusal of their discharge.
Held: Such orders did not apply to the applicant’s assets in Scotland. The orders . .
CitedM, Regina (on the Application of) v Slough Borough Council HL 30-Jul-2008
The House was asked ‘whether a local social services authority is obliged, under section 21(1)(a) of the 1948 Act, to arrange (and pay for) residential accommodation for a person subject to immigration control who is HIV positive but whose only . .
CitedPersimmon Homes (South Coast) Ltd v Hall Aggregates (South Coast) Ltd and Another TCC 10-Oct-2008
The parties had agreed for the sale of land under an option agreement. The builder purchasers now sought to exercise rights to adjust the price downwards.
Held: The provisions had been intended and had achieved a prompt and binding settlement . .
CitedMucelli v Government of Albania (Criminal Appeal From Her Majesty’s High Court of Justice) HL 21-Jan-2009
The House was asked whether someone who wished to appeal against an extradition order had an obligation also to serve his appellant’s notice on the respondent within the seven days limit, and whether the period was capable of extension by the court. . .
CitedRollins, Regina v SC 28-Jul-2010
The court was asked whether the Financial Services Authority had a power to prosecute money laundering offences under the 2002 Act, or whether, as contended by the defendant, its powers were limited to sections under the 2000 Act.
Held: The . .
CitedOceanbulk Shipping and Trading Sa v TMT Asia Ltd and Others SC 27-Oct-2010
The court was asked whether facts which (a) are communicated between the parties in the course of without prejudice negotiations and (b) would, but for the without prejudice rule, be admissible as part of the factual matrix or surrounding . .
CitedHorton v Henry CA 7-Oct-2016
No obligation on bankrupt to draw on pension fund
The trustee in bankruptcy appealed against a decision dismissing his application for an income payments order pursuant to section 310 of the 1986 Act in respect of income which might become payable to the respondent from his personal pension . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Local Government, Health, Immigration, Benefits, Human Rights

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.177452

King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust v T and Others: FD 30 Sep 2014

kcNHS_TFD201409

Child T suffered life threatening and incpacitating damage after birth after a sudden acute cardio-respiratory deterioration and required mechanical ventilation. The parents, accepting the medical reports did not agree to the withdrawal of ventilation systems which would lead to his death, and ‘The only sensation that he is capable of responding to seems to be pain and the deep suction several times a day produces that reaction. This repeated suction is therefore both invasive and painful.’
Held: ‘the mechanical ventilation is only just sustaining life with no other benefit. When I consider his best interests holistically, the life support confers little benefit as it prolongs all the likely discomfort and possible pain and increases the probability of further infection leading to further invasive treatment and complications which will itself contribute to further physical deterioration without any real hope of restoring his health. His brain injuries are so profound, so catastrophic and the likelihood of further deterioration to his brain from hydrocephalus and the probability of lung infection and injury with continued ventilation all add to the conclusion that on balance not only is there no benefit, but in fact there is a strong probability of further pain, suffering and deterioration. Very sadly and with great reluctance I grant permission to withdraw the mechanically assisted ventilation.’

Russell J
[2014] EWHC 3315 (Fam)
Bailii

Family, Health

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.537591

MC (Algeria), Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department: CA 31 Mar 2010

The claimant challenged his detention under the 1971 Act, now appealing against refusal of judicial review. His asylum claims had been rejected, and he had been convicted of various offences, including failures to answer bail. He had failed to report as required to comply with the deportation requirements. He had been transferred to a prison because of his disruptive behaviour. A psychiatric report said he suffered from a personality disorder.
Held: Though there were doubts about the claimant’s treatment, and inexcusable delays, they were not fundamental, and proper treatment was now being arranged and his appeal failed. The breaks in detention and intervening offences meant that the claimant could not have it treated as one unbroken detention. The claimant’s behaviour warranted some form of detention, and his medical condition fell short of being a mental illness.

Sullivan LJ
[2010] EWCA Civ 347
Bailii
Immigration Act 1971 Sch 3
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRegina v Governor of Durham Prison, ex parte Hardial Singh QBD 13-Dec-1983
Unlawful Detention pending Deportation
An offender had been recommended for deportation following conviction. He had served his sentence and would otherwise have been released on parole. He had no passport and no valid travel documents. He complained that the length of time for which he . .
CitedRoberts v Chief Constable of Cheshire Constabulary CA 26-Jan-1999
The claimant had been detained at 11.25pm. His detention was not reviewed by an inspector until 7.45am the next morning, although it had been considered in the interim at 1.45am by an officer of junior rank. The plaintiff sued for unlawful . .
CitedAbdi, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department Admn 22-May-2009
The applicant had spent 30 months in administrative detention pending removal but was described as having ‘a long history of criminal offending. His convictions variously include two counts of indecent assault, robbery, burglary, assault on a police . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Immigration, Prisons, Health

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.406678

Banks v Goodfellow: QBD 1870

Test for Capacity to Execute Will

The testator suffered from delusions, but not so badly or in such a way as was found to affect his capacity or to influence his testamentary disposition. The judge had given the following direction: ‘The question is whether . . the testator was capable of having such a knowledge and appreciation of facts, and was so far master of his intentions, free from delusions, as would enable him to have a will of his own in the disposition of his property, and act upon it.’
Held: The will was effective. English law gives testators ‘absolute freedom’ in the disposal of their property. However the court pointed to ‘a moral responsibility of no ordinary importance . . the instincts and affections of mankind, in the vast majority of instances, will lead men to make provision for those who are the nearest to them in kindred and who in life have been the objects of their affection.’ To disappoint reasonable expectation of this kind is to ‘shock the common sentiments of mankind, and to violate what all men concur in deeming an obligation of the moral law’. English law ‘leaves everything to the unfettered discretion of the testator’ on the assumption that ‘the instincts, affections and common sentiments of mankind may safely be trusted to secure, on the whole, a better disposition of the property of the dead’ than stereotyped and inflexible rules. The court considered the test for testamentary capacity.
Cockburn CJ said: ‘It is unnecessary to consider whether the principle of the foreign law or that of our own is the wiser. It is obvious, in either case, that to the due exercise of a power thus involving moral responsibility, the possession of the intellectual and moral faculties common to our nature should be insisted on as an indispensable condition. It is essential to the exercise of such a power (of making a will) that a testator shall understand the nature of the act and its effects; shall understand the extent of the property of which he is disposing; shall be able to comprehend and appreciate the claims to which he ought to give effect; and, with a view to the latter object, that no disorder of the mind shall poison his affections, pervert his sense of right or prevent the exercise of his natural faculties – that no insane delusion shall influence his will in disposing of his property and bring about a disposal of it which, if the mind had been sound, would not have been made.
Here, then, we have the measure of the degree of mental power which should be insisted on. If the human instincts and affections, or the moral sense, become perverted by mental disease; if insane suspicion, or aversion, take the place of natural affection; if reason and judgment are lost, and the mind becomes a pray to insane delusions calculated to interfere with and disturb its function, and to lead to a testamentary disposition, due only to their baneful influence – in such a case it is obvious that the condition of the testamentary power fails, and that a will made under such circumstances ought not to stand.’

Cockburn CJ
(1870) LR 5 QB 549
England and Wales
Citing:
ApprovedGreenwood v Greenwood 1776
‘If he had a power of summoning up his mind, so as to know what his property was, and who those persons were that then were the objects of his bounty, then he was competent to make his will.’ . .
ApprovedCharles Harwood v Maria Baker PC 1840
The Board emphasised the importance that the Court of Probate should be satisfied that a testatrix had the necessary capacity when she executed the will if the evidence showed that she had lost capacity shortly afterwards. The infirmity of the . .
CitedDen v Vancleve 1819
When asking as to the capacity of a testator, the court should ask: ‘was he capable of recollecting the property he was about to bequeath; the manner of distributing it; and the objects of his bounty?’ and ‘By the terms ‘a sound and disposing mind . .
CitedBurdett v Thompson 1878
. .

Cited by:
CitedEwing v Bennett CA 25-Feb-1998
The claimant appealed admission to probate of the will of the deceased, arguing that she had not had testamentary capacity when it was made.
Held: There was evidence of the beginnings of dementia, but at the tme when she had made the will, the . .
CitedClancy v Clancy ChD 31-Jul-2003
Four months before her death the deceased, gave instructions for a new will leaving all her estate to her son Edward, omitting his two sisters. Her solicitor drafted a will accordingly and sent it to her. About three months later she was admitted to . .
CitedThompson and others v Thompson and others FdNI 16-Feb-2003
The family sought to challenge the validity of the will, saying the testator lacked capacity, and that he had made the will under the undue influence of the beneficiaries.
Held: There was clear evidence that the testator, whilst changeable, . .
CitedHoff and others v Atherton CA 19-Nov-2004
Appeals were made against pronouncements for the validity of a will and against the validity of an earlier will. The solicitor drawing the will was to receive a benefit, and had requested an independent solicitor to see the testatrix and ensure that . .
CitedPotter v Potter FdNI 5-Feb-2003
The testator’s capacity to make his will was challenged. He had lived alone without electricity, but his doctor said he was known to him and was ‘with it’. Evidence from a member of staff at the solicitor’s office supported the doctor’s description. . .
CitedBillington (By Billington Her Next Friend) Billington, Warburton v Blackshaw CA 16-Dec-1997
The court had set aside a conveyance at an undervalue by a mother to one of her children. There was evidence to doubt her capacity at the time.
Held: There was evidence of senile dementia, and the presumption applied. The judge had dealt . .
CitedRobin Sharp and Malcolm Bryson v Grace Collin Adam and Emma Adam and others CA 28-Apr-2006
The testator suffered secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. It was said that he did not have testamentary capacity. He had lost the power of speech but communicated by a speech board. The solicitor had followed appropriate standards in attesting . .
CitedMasterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1) CA 19-Dec-2002
Capacity for Litigation
The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the . .
CitedKostic v Chaplin and others ChD 15-Oct-2007
The deceased had for several years suffered a delusional disorder. The validity of his last two wills was challenged. In one had had left his entire estate to the Conservative Party.
Held: The wills were invalid. It was clear that when made, . .
CitedJudy Ledger v Wootton and Another ChD 2-Oct-2007
A grant of probate was challenged, the claimant stating that, at the time of the will, the deceased had lacked testamentary capacity.
Held: The deceased had a history of mental health difficulties. It was for the person proposing a will to . .
CitedBoughton v Knight 1873
The jury found that the testator had not been of sound mind, memory and understanding when he made the will propounded by the plaintiffs.
Held: The court contrasted a person of ‘sound mind’ with one suffering from ‘delusions’. The amount and . .
CitedCarr and others v Beaven and others ChD 29-Oct-2008
The parties contested the validity of a will on the basis of incapacity.
Held: The golden rule was for a solicitor to obtain a doctor’s opinion as to the testator’s capacity, but bemoaning the absence of one is crying over spilled milk. At the . .
CitedScammell and Another v Farmer ChD 22-May-2008
A challenge was made to will for the alleged lack of capacity of the testatrix who was said to have Alzheimers. The executrix was said to have destroyed hidden evidence.
Held: The 2005 Act had restated the law on capacity in Banks, but had . .
CitedZorbas v Sidiropoulous (No 2) 10-Jul-2009
Austlii (Supreme Court of New South Wales – Court of Appeal) SUCCESSION – Testamentary capacity – Testatrix gravely ill in hospital – While in hospital will made changing earlier will – Whether testatrix had . .
CitedPerrins v Holland and Another ChD 31-Jul-2009
The son of the deceased challenged the testamentary capacity of the testator and further claimed under the 1975 Act. The deceased was disabled and had substantial difficulty communicating.
Held: The will was validly made. Logically it is . .
CitedKey and Another v Key and Others ChD 5-Mar-2010
The will was challenged for want of testamentary capacity. The testator was 89 years old, and the will was made within a week of the death of his wife of 65 years and without the solicitor having taken any proper steps to satisfy himself as to the . .
CitedPerrins v Holland and Others; In re Perrins, deceased CA 21-Jul-2010
The testator had given instructions for his will and received a draft will. The judge had found that he had capacity to make the will when he gave instructions but not when it was executed. The will having been made in accordance with his . .
CitedHawes v Burgess and Another CA 19-Feb-2013
The appellant challenged pronouncement against the validity of wills on the ground of lack of testamentary capacity and want of knowledge and approval.
Mummery LJ said: ‘Although talk of presumptions and their rebuttal is not regarded as . .
CitedSchrader v Schrader ChD 11-Mar-2013
Brothers contested their late mother’s will, one saying that the later one was made when she lacked capacity and was under the undue influence of the other.
Held: The evidence of one brother that he had taken no significant part in the . .
CitedRam and Another v Chauhan and Another Misc 19-Jul-2017
Leeds County Court – Challenge to validity of will – witnesses not present – lack of capacity – undue influence . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Wills and Probate, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.181899