In re P: CoP 11 Dec 2013

Application made by an NHS Trust for the benefit of a thirty-six year old woman who is currently heavily pregnant and about to deliver her fourth child concerning the situation that might arise if Mrs. P (as I will call her) should get into difficulties during the course of her labour, which is expected to be induced shortly after this hearing. It is said that because of mental health difficulties Mrs. P is unable to make decisions about her own medical treatment at the moment and that this would particularly be the case during the course of labour if it ran into difficulties.

Peter Jackson J
[2013] EWCOP 4581, [2013] EWHC 4581 (COP)
Bailii
England and Wales

Health

Updated: 03 December 2021; Ref: scu.524717

A Local Authority v TZ (No 2): CoP 1 Apr 2014

The court had already decided that the subject of the case had capacity for purposes of consenting to and engaging in sexual relations. The Court was now asked as to his capacity (1) to make decisions as to his contact with other people, and (2) to make decisions as to his care needs.

Baker J
[2014] EWHC 973 (COP), [2014] EWCOP 973
Bailii, Bailii
Mental Capacity Act 2005
England and Wales

Health

Updated: 02 December 2021; Ref: scu.523649

Aster Healthcare Ltd v Shafi (Estate of): QBD 24 Jan 2014

The defendant executor appealed from summary judgment in favour of the claimant in respect of outstanding care home fees.

Andrews DBE J
[2014] EWHC 77 (QB), [2014] PTSR 888, [2014] WLR(D) 42
Bailii, WLRD
Mental Capacity Act 2005, National Assistance Act 1948, National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990
England and Wales

Contract, Health, Local Government

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.520897

The Secretary of State for Justice v MM: CA 29 Mar 2017

Power of FTT to deprivie patient of liberty

Two patients who had been confined to a secure hospital, appealed against orders which would continue to restrict their liberty upon being conditionally released. The parties now disputed the jurisdiction of the FTT to make such an order.
Held: The orders made by the UT were set aside. There is no ‘umbrella’ power that can be exercised by the tribunal to authorise a patient’s deprivation of liberty outside hospital. It is accordingly inappropriate for a tribunal to do so, whether by direct or indirect means (for example, by the use of declarations to provide for an asserted lacuna in the statutory scheme). There is no lacuna in the scheme. However practicable and effective it may be to provide for a tribunal to have such a power, for example to improve access to justice to a specialist and procedurally appropriate adjudication, Parliament has not provided for the same.

Sir James Munby, President, Lady Justice Gloster, Vice-President, and Sir Ernest Ryder, Senior President
[2017] EWCA Civ 194
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v KC and C Partnership NHS Foundation Trust UTAA 2-Jul-2015
Mental Health : All
The local authority had sought an order under the 2005 Act seeking a personal welfare order on the basis that it would be in KC’s best interests for him to move to a proposed placement (the Placement) on the terms of a care . .
CitedP (By His Litigation Friend The Official Solicitor) v Cheshire West and Chester Council and Another and similar SC 19-Mar-2014
Deprivation of Liberty
P and Q were two adolescent sisters without capacity. They complained that the arrangements made for their care amounted to an unjustified deprivation of liberty, and now appealed against rejection of their cases. In the second case, P, an adult . .
CitedGhaidan v Godin-Mendoza HL 21-Jun-2004
Same Sex Partner Entitled to tenancy Succession
The protected tenant had died. His same-sex partner sought a statutory inheritance of the tenancy.
Held: His appeal succeeded. The Fitzpatrick case referred to the position before the 1998 Act: ‘Discriminatory law undermines the rule of law . .
Appeal fromMM v WL Clinic and Another UTAA 23-Nov-2015
Mental Health : All – whether for the purposes of Article 5 a restricted patient who has the capacity to do so can give a valid consent to the terms of a conditional discharge that, when it is implemented, will on an objective assessment create a . .
CitedSecretary of State for the Home Department, Regina (on the Application of) v Mental Health Review Tribunal Admn 20-May-2002
The Court considered the meaning of ‘discharge’ from a mental health hospital. Elias J held that it meant ‘discharge from detention in hospital’, so that there could be a discharge on condition of residence in another hospital: but he also held that . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Torts – Other, Health, Human Rights

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.581298

Winterwerp v The Netherlands: ECHR 24 Oct 1979

A Dutch national detained in hospital complained that his detention had divested him of his capacity to administer his property, and thus there had been determination of his civil rights and obligations without the guarantee of a judicial procedure.
Held: Article 5(1)(a) is concerned with the question whether the detention is permissible. Its object and purpose is to ensure that no one should be dispossessed of his liberty in an arbitrary fashion, and its provisions call for a narrow interpretation. The Court defined the conditions to be met before the detention of a person may be justified on grounds of mental illness: ‘In the Court’s opinion, except in emergency cases, the individual concerned should not be deprived of his liberty unless he has been reliably shown to be of ‘unsound mind’. The very nature of what has to be established before the competent national authority – that is, a true mental disorder – calls for objective medical expertise. Further, the mental disorder must be of a kind or degree warranting compulsory confinement. What is more, the validity of continued confinement depends upon the persistence of such a disorder.’ but ‘it is essential that the person concerned should have access to a court and the opportunity to be heard either in person or, where necessary, through some form of representation . . . Mental illness may entail restricting or modifying the manner of the exercise of such a right, but it cannot justify impairing the very essence of the right. Indeed, special procedural safeguards may prove called for in order to protect the interests of persons who, on account of their mental disabilities, are not fully capable of acting for themselves.’

[1979] 2 EHRR 387, [1979] ECHR 4, 6301/73
Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 5 6 8
Human Rights
Cited by:
CitedA v The Scottish Ministers PC 15-Oct-2001
(Scotland) The power to detain a person suffering from a mental illness, in order to ensure the safety of the public, and even though there was no real possibility of treatment of the mental condition in hospital, was not a disproportionate . .
CitedGiles, Regina (on the Application of) v Parole Board and Another HL 31-Jul-2003
The defendant had been sentenced for offences of violence, but an additional period was imposed to protect the public. He had been refused leave for reconsideration of that part of his sentence after he completed the normal segment of his sentence. . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for the Home Department and Another ex parte IH HL 13-Nov-2003
The appellant had been found unfit to plead after assaulting his son, and he had been detained under the 1964 Act. He alleged his detention was in breach of his right to a fair trial. His release had been authorised subject to the appointment of a . .
CitedRegina v Parole Board ex parte Smith, Regina v Parole Board ex parte West (Conjoined Appeals) HL 27-Jan-2005
Each defendant challenged the way he had been treated on revocation of his parole licence, saying he should have been given the opportunity to make oral representations.
Held: The prisoners’ appeals were allowed.
Lord Bingham stated: . .
CitedB, Regina (on the Application of) v Ashworth Hospital Authority HL 17-Mar-2005
The House was asked whether a patient detained for treatment under the 1983 Act can be treated against his will for any mental disorder from which he is suffering or only for the particular form of mental disorder from which he is classified as . .
CitedWard v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and others HL 5-May-2005
The claimant had been taken under warrant to a mental hospital, but was found not to be suffering any mental illness. She complained that the arrest was unlawful, since the police officer had not been accompanied by the people named on the warrant. . .
CitedRegina v Ashworth Hospital Authority (Now Mersey Care National Health Service Trust) ex parte Munjaz HL 13-Oct-2005
The claimant was detained in a secure Mental Hospital. He complained at the seclusions policy applied by the hospital, saying that it departed from the Guidance issued for such policies by the Secretary of State under the Act.
Held: The House . .
CitedMH v Secretary of State for the Department of Health and others HL 20-Oct-2005
The appellant, detained for assessment under section 2, was too disabled to make an application to the court on her own behalf. After a dispute between her mother and the medical officer over her treatment, an application was made to the county . .
CitedAN, Regina (on the Application of) v Mental Health Review Tribunal (Northern Region) and others CA 21-Dec-2005
The appellant was detained under section 37 of the 1983 Act as a mental patient with a restriction under section 41. He sought his release.
Held: The standard of proof in such applications remained the balance of probabilities, but that . .
CitedMasterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1) CA 19-Dec-2002
Capacity for Litigation
The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the . .
See AlsoWinterwerp v The Netherlands ECHR 27-Nov-1981
Hudoc Judgment (Just satisfaction) Struck out of the list (friendly settlement) . .
CitedIn re PS (an Adult), Re; City of Sunderland v PS by her litigation friend the Offcial Solcicitor and CA; Re PS (Incapacitated or Vulnerable Adult) FD 9-Mar-2007
The patient an elderly lady with limited mental capacity was to be returned from hospital, but her daughter said she was to come home. The local authority sought to prevent this, wanting to return her to a residential unit where she had lived for . .
CitedJuncal, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department and others CA 25-Jul-2008
The claimant appealed dismissal of his claim for wrongful imprisonment having been detained in 1997 on being found unfit to plead to an offence of violence.
Held: Parliament had a legitimate concern for the protection of the public, and . .
CitedSK (Zimbabwe) v Secretary of State for the Home Department CA 6-Nov-2008
Immigration detention proper after prison release
The Home Secretary appealed against a finding that he had unlawfully detained the applicant. The applicant had been detained on release from prison pending his return to Zimbabwe as recommended by the sentencing judge under section 6 of the 1971 . .
CitedG v E and Others CoP 26-Mar-2010
E Was born with and still suffered severe learning difficulties. The court was asked as to the extent of his capacity to make decisions, and as to where he should live, with a family member, the carer or with the local authority, which had removed . .
CitedG v E and Others CA 4-May-2010
E, now aged 19, suffered a genetic condition leading to severe learning disability, and a lack of mental capacity. After being in the care of F, but displaying potentially violent behaviours, he was removed against his and F’s will to the care of . .
CitedG v E and Others CA 16-Jul-2010
E, now aged 19, suffered a genetic disorder leading to severe learning disability and lack of mental capacity. He had been in the care of his sister, the appellant, but had been removed by the local authority when his behaviour became disturbed. G, . .
CitedSherry v The Queen PC 4-Mar-2013
Discretion as to credit for remand time
(Guernsey) In 1980 the appellant had been sentenced to three months imprisonment. He had spent 10 days on remand, but no allowance was given for that time. He gave notice of appeal, but after being released on open remand, he failed to appear at his . .
CitedIn re X and Others (Deprivation of Liberty) CoP 7-Aug-2014
inreX_dolCoP1408
The court considered the practical and procedural implications for the Court of Protection of what was expected too be a large increase in its case-load which following the Supreme Court’s decision in Surrey County Council v P where it was held that . .
CitedModaresi, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health SC 24-Jul-2013
The Court was asked: ‘As: (i) a public body with obligations in public law and (ii) a public authority under the Human Rights Act 1998 can the Secretary of State for Health ‘the S/S’ lawfully refuse to refer a patient’s case to the First-tier Mental . .
CitedThe Health Service Executive of Ireland v PA and Others CoP 3-Jun-2015
hsen_paCoP201506
The HSE sought orders under s.63 of and Schedule 3 to the 2005 Act recognising and enforcing orders by the Irish High Court for the detention of three young persons (‘PA’, ‘PB’, and ‘PC’) at a special unit known in Northampton.
Held: On an . .
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.164887

The Secretary of State for Justice v RB and Another: CA 20 Dec 2011

The court considered and rejected the possibility of the First Tier Tribunal making orders under the 2005 Act which would have the effect of depriving a patient of his liberty. The respondent, now aged 73, suffered a persistent delusional condition and was a ‘restricted patient’.

Maurice Kay LJ VP, Arden, Moses LJJ
[2011] EWCA Civ 1608, (2012) 124 BMLR 13, [2012] 1 WLR 2043, [2012] AACR 31, [2012] MHLR 131, [2011] WLR (D) 379, (2012) 124 BMLR 13
Bailii, WLRD
Mental Health Act 1983
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedSecretary of State for Justice v MM SC 28-Nov-2018
The respondent had been detained after conviction for arson, under the 1983 Act, and was liable to indefinite detention in hospital for medical treatment and dischargeable only by the Appellant or the First Tier Tribunal, possibly only as a . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Criminal Sentencing

Updated: 29 November 2021; Ref: scu.450118

Re L (a child) (Medical Treatment: Benefit): FD 1 Nov 2004

(Date)

Dame Elizabeth Butler Sloss
[2004] EWHC 2713 (Fam), [2005] 1 FLR 491
England and Wales
Citing:
ApprovedPortsmouth NHS Trust v Wyatt and others FD 7-Oct-2004
Charlotte Wyatt was born prematurely, and depended for day to day her life on medical support. Her doctors asked to be permitted not to resuscitate her again if she needed it. Her parents asked that she be given whatever chance was available for her . .

Cited by:
CitedWyatt v Portsmouth NHS Trust and Another FD 21-Apr-2005
Charlotte Wyatt had been born very premature and so severely disabled that her doctors sought and obtained an order that she should not be revived if she died. She had survived several months longer than expected and her parents had noticed . .
CitedWyatt and Another v Portsmouth Hospital NHS and Another CA 12-Oct-2005
The appellants’ daughter had been born with very severe disabilities. Her doctors obtained an order allowing them a discretion not to ventilate her to keep her alive if necessary. She had improved, but the family now sought leave to appeal an order . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Children, Health

Updated: 15 November 2021; Ref: scu.226136

Radu v Germany (Legal Summary): ECHR 16 May 2013

ECHR Article 5-1-a
After conviction
Applicant’s continued placement in psychiatric hospital after expiry of his prison term: no violation
Facts – In 1995 the applicant was convicted of homicide and sentenced to eight and a half years’ imprisonment and placement in a psychiatric hospital on grounds of diminished responsibility. In making the order for the applicant’s placement, the sentencing court relied on expert evidence indicating that the applicant suffered from a serious personality disorder characterised by violent outbursts and diminished capability to control his acts and was likely to kill again if he found himself in a similar conflict situation. No appeal was lodged against that order, which therefore became final. After spending four years in prison, the applicant was transferred to a psychiatric hospital in 1998. However, in subsequent proceedings for review of the applicant’s detention, the medical director of the hospital concluded that the applicant’s placement was wrongful as, although he had an ‘accentuated personality’ and was very likely to reoffend if released, the applicant was not in fact suffering from a persisting pathological mental disorder and lacked the motivation to complete a course of therapy. The court dealing with the execution of sentences then ordered his return to prison, where he served the remainder of his prison sentence. In the meantime, however, the court of appeal upheld a decision by the regional court not to declare the applicant’s placement in a psychiatric hospital terminated, despite further expert psychiatric evidence confirming the medical director’s view that the applicant had not been suffering from a serious personality disorder diminishing his criminal responsibility at the time the offence was committed. The court of appeal considered that even though the sentencing court’s order for the applicant’s placement in a psychiatric hospital was the result of an erroneous legal qualification, that qualification could not be corrected by the courts dealing with the execution of sentences as to do so would violate the constitutional principle of the finality of judicial decisions. Accordingly, after completing his prison sentence in October 2003 the applicant was transferred to a psychiatric hospital. The domestic courts came to a like conclusion on a further review of the applicant’s psychiatric placement in 2006 and the Federal Constitutional Court declined to consider the applicant’s constitutional complaint.
In his application to the European Court, the applicant complained that his continued confinement in a psychiatric hospital had violated his right to liberty. His detention had been prolonged despite the fact that it had been established that he did not suffer and had in fact never suffered from a condition diminishing or excluding his criminal responsibility.
Law – Article 5-1 (a): The Court firstly had to establish whether there was a sufficient causal connection between the applicant’s conviction by the sentencing court in 1995 and his continuing deprivation of liberty from 2006 onwards. In that connection, it noted that both the sentencing court and the courts dealing with the execution of sentences agreed that the applicant suffered from a personality disorder and was likely to commit further offences if released. Further, even though they disagreed on the legal qualification of that disorder, the courts dealing with the execution of sentences had accepted that the classification by the sentencing court had acquired legal force and could not be changed. In that, connection, the Court noted that a court’s reliance on the findings in a final judgment of a criminal court to justify a person’s detention, even if such findings were or may have been wrong, did not, as a rule, raise an issue under Article 5-1: a flawed conviction would render a detention unlawful only if the conviction were the result of a flagrant denial of justice, which was not the case here. Given that the courts dealing with the execution of sentences had pursued the aims of protecting the public and providing treatment for the applicant’s personality disorder, the Court was satisfied that their decision not to release the applicant had been based on grounds consistent with the aims pursued by the sentencing court when ordering his detention in a psychiatric hospital. There therefore remained a sufficient causal connection for the purposes of sub-paragraph (a) of Article 5-1 between the applicant’s conviction in 1995 and his continuing detention in a psychiatric hospital. Such continuation of the applicant’s detention had a legal basis in domestic law, which under the domestic jurisprudence had been foreseeable in his case. Furthermore, the domestic courts had given detailed reasons for their decisions and their interpretation of the applicable provision of domestic law was aimed at protecting the finality of the sentencing court’s judgment, which could not be seen as contravening as such the purpose of Article 5. Finally, the applicant had not been arbitrarily deprived of his liberty since the domestic courts’ application of the domestic law did not render his release impossible as soon as it could be concluded that he would not commit any further unlawful acts. As the applicant had not yet met that condition, the execution of the detention order against him had not been suspended. Therefore, the order for the applicant’s continued confinement in a psychiatric hospital was ‘lawful’ and ‘in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law’, as required by Article 5-1.
Conclusion: no violation (five votes to two).

20084/07 – Legal Summary, [2013] ECHR 604
Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights
Human Rights
Citing:
See AlsoRadu v Germany ECHR 3-Jul-2012
. .

Cited by:
SummaryRadu v Germany ECHR 16-May-2013
. .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Prisons, Health

Updated: 15 November 2021; Ref: scu.512073

CM v The Executor of The Estate of EJ and Others: FD 14 Jun 2013

CM, a medical doctor stoppd in the street and atended a woman who had fallen from a building, and later died. In caring for her, she had contact with the lady’s blood. Her own hands had broken skin, anf being afraid of blood borne disease sought an order for blood to be taken for analysis.
Held: Granted

Cobb J
[2013] EWHC 1680 (Fam)
Bailii
Human Tissue Act 2004
England and Wales

Coroners, Health

Updated: 14 November 2021; Ref: scu.510875

Evans v United Kingdom: ECHR 7 Mar 2006

The claimant had entered into fertilisation treatment with her boyfriend. They both signed an agreement under which the fertilised sperm were only later to be implanted with the agreement of both. The couple separated, and the potential father withdrew his consent to the treatment, and the woman was refused implantation. She complained of interference with her article 8 rights.
Held: Her claim failed. The Court will generally allow the national authorities a wide margin of appreciation when it comes to striking a balance between competing Convention rights.
The 1990 Act had been passed after detailed consideration and consultation. It had been explained to the applicant that the completion of the treatment depended upon the continuing consent of her partner, and she had signed to agree to this. An embryo did not itself have a right to life. Where a particularly important facet of an individual’s existence or identity is at stake, the margin allowed to the State will be restricted.

C.L. Rozakis, P
Times 17-Mar-2006, 6339/05, [2006] ECHR 200, [2007] ECHR 264, [2007] ECHR 265, (2008) 46 EHRR 34, [2007] 2 FCR 5, [2007] 1 FLR 1990, (2007) 95 BMLR 107, [2007] Fam Law 588, 22 BHRC 190
Worldlii, Bailii, Bailii, Bailii PR
European Convention on Human Rights 8, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990
Human Rights
Cited by:
See AlsoEvans v The United Kingdom ECHR 22-Nov-2006
. .
See AlsoEvans v United Kingdom ECHR 10-Apr-2007
The claimant said that the English law on assisted conception infringed her right to family life. She had began treatment with her partner, and was given a cycle of in-vitro fertilisation before her cancerous condition required removal of her . .
CitedEweida And Others v The United Kingdom ECHR 15-Jan-2013
Eweida_ukECHR2013
The named claimant had been employed by British Airways. She was a committed Christian and wished to wear a small crucifix on a chain around her neck. This breached the then dress code and she was dismissed. Her appeals had failed. Other claimants . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Family, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 12 November 2021; Ref: scu.239579

Nicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of): SC 25 Jun 2014

Criminality of Assisting Suicide not Infringing

The court was asked: ‘whether the present state of the law of England and Wales relating to assisting suicide infringes the European Convention on Human Rights, and whether the code published by the Director of Public Prosecutions relating to prosecutions of those who are alleged to have assisted a suicide is lawful. ‘
Held: The first appeal (of Nicklinson) failed (Majority seven to to two) The question of whether the current law on assisted suicide is incompatible with Article 8 lies within the United Kingdom’s margin of appreciation, and is therefore a question for the United Kingdom to decide, and the court did have the constitutional authority to make a declaration of incompatibility of section 2 of the 1961 Act with those article 8 rights. However the issues were inherently ones far better to be decided by Parliament, and Parliament’s assessment should be respected.
In the second appeal, the DPP succeeded in having the decision in favour of AM reversed. Several factors, the judgment by the DPP, the variety of cases, and the need to vary the weight to be attached to them according to the circumstances of each individual case were all proper and constitutionally necessary features of the system of prosecution in the public interest.
Lord Neuberger PSC succinctly described the responsibility of the DPP: ‘The DPP always has the right to decide that it is not in the public interest to prosecute, even where it is clear that an offence was committed; and the DPP has power to stay a private prosecution if satisfied, inter alia, that it is not in the public interest for the prosecution to proceed. All that section 2(4) does, therefore, is to rule out the bringing of a private prosecution for encouraging or assisting a suicide without the DPP’s prior consent (although it is worth noting that, before the creation of the Crown Prosecution Service (‘CPS’), it would have prevented the police prosecuting without the consent of the DPP).’
Lord Neuberger also said: ‘Where the legislature has enacted a statutory provision which is within the margin of appreciation accorded to member states, it would be wrong in principle and contrary to the approach adopted in In re G, for a national court to frank the provision as a matter of course simply because it is rational. However, where the provision enacted by Parliament is both rational and within the margin of appreciation accorded by the Strasbourg court, a court in the United Kingdom would normally be very cautious before deciding that it infringes a Convention right. As Lord Mance said in In re G, the extent to which a United Kingdom court should be prepared to entertain holding that such legislation is incompatible must depend on all the circumstances, including the nature of the subject-matter, and the extent to which the legislature or judiciary could claim particular expertise or competence.’

Lord Neuberger, President, Lady Hale, Deputy President, Lord Mance, Lord Kerr, Lord Clarke, Lord Wilson, Lord Sumption, Lord Reed, Lord Hughes
36 BHRC 465, [2015] 1 AC 657, 139 BMLR 1, [2014] WLR(D) 298, [2014] 3 FCR 1, [2014] HRLR 17, [2014] 3 WLR 200, [2014] 3 All ER 843, (2014) 139 BMLR 1, UKSC 2013/0235, [2014] UKSC 38, [2014] 3 WLR 200
WLRD, SC, SC Summary, Bailii Summary, Bailii
Homicide Act 1957, Suicide Act 1961 2, Coroners and Justice Act 2009, European Convention on Human Rights 8
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoNicklinson v Ministry of Justice and Others QBD 12-Mar-2012
The claimant suffered locked-in syndrome and sought relief in a form which would allow others to assist him in committing suicide. The court considered whether the case should be allowed to proceed rather than to be struck out as hopeless.
At AdminNicklinson, Regina (on The Application of) v Ministry of Justice Admn 16-Aug-2012
The claimants each suffered ‘locked in syndrome’ after catastrophic health events, and were unable to commit suicide as they would have wished. In one case, the claimant would have needed assistance to travel to a clinic in Switzerland where he . .
Appeal fromNicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v A Primary Care Trust CA 31-Jul-2013
The claimant had suffered a severe form of locked-in syndrome, and would wish to die. He sought a declaration that someone who assisted him in his siuicide would not be prosecuted for murder.
Held: The position in law that voluntary euthanasia . .
CitedRex v Croft CCA 1944
A person who was present at the suicide of another and who assisted or encouraged the suicide, is guilty of murder as a principal in the second degree. The survivor of a suicide pact was properly convicted of murder. The court considered liability . .
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland HL 4-Feb-1993
Procedures on Withdrawal of Life Support Treatment
The patient had been severely injured in the Hillsborough disaster, and had come to be in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). The doctors sought permission to withdraw medical treatment. The Official Solicitor appealed against an order of the Court . .
CitedInglis, Regina v CACD 12-Nov-2010
The appellant was mother of the victim. He had suffered catastrophic injuries. She had tried to end his life in a ‘mercy killing’, but was discovered, charged with attempted murder, and released on bail. On a second occasion she injected him with a . .
CitedAintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust v James SC 30-Oct-2013
The hospital where a gravely ill man had been treated had asked for a declaration that it would be in his best interests to withhold certain life-sustaining treatments from him. When can it be in the best interests of a living patient to withhold . .
CitedIn Re B (A Minor) (Wardship: Medical Treatment) CA 1981
The child was born with Down’s Syndrome and an intestinal blockage. She needed the obstruction to be relieved if she was to survive. If the operation were performed, the child might die within a few months but it was probable that her life . .
CitedIn re F (Mental Patient: Sterilisation) HL 4-May-1989
Where a patient lacks capacity, there is the power to provide him with whatever treatment or care is necessary in his own best interests. Medical treatment can be undertaken in an emergency even if, through a lack of capacity, no consent had been . .
CitedIn re J (a Minor) (Wardship: Medical treatment) CA 1-Oct-1990
J was born at 27 weeks’, weighing only 1.1kg. He suffered very severe and permanent brain damage at the time of his birth, the brain tissue then lost being irreplaceable. He was epileptic and the medical evidence was that he was likely to develop . .
CitedMs B v An NHS Hospital Trust FD 22-Mar-2002
The applicant had come to suffer from a completely disabling condition, and requested that her life support machine be turned off. She did not want to live on a ventilator, and had made a living will. She was found at first to have capacity to make . .
CitedIn re B (Consent to treatment: Capacity) FD 22-Mar-2002
The claimant had suffered catastrophic injuries, leaving her unable to breathe without artificial help. She eventually decided that she wanted to refuse treatment. The health authority took this as an indication of lack of capacity, and refused to . .
CitedIn Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation) CA 22-Sep-2000
Twins were conjoined (Siamese). Medically, both could not survive, and one was dependent upon the vital organs of the other. Doctors applied for permission to separate the twins which would be followed by the inevitable death of one of them. The . .
CitedRegina (on the Application of Pretty) v Director of Public Prosecutions and Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 29-Nov-2001
The applicant was terminally ill, and entirely dependent upon her husband for care. She foresaw a time when she would wish to take her own life, but would not be able to do so without the active assistance of her husband. She sought a proleptic . .
CitedIn re B (Consent to treatment: Capacity) FD 22-Mar-2002
The claimant had suffered catastrophic injuries, leaving her unable to breathe without artificial help. She eventually decided that she wanted to refuse treatment. The health authority took this as an indication of lack of capacity, and refused to . .
CitedKoch v Germany ECHR 19-Jul-2012
Article 8-1
Respect for private life
Refusal by the German courts to examine the merits of an application by a man whose wife had just committed suicide in Switzerland after having attempted unsuccessfully to obtain authorisation to . .
CitedGross v Switzerland ECHR 14-May-2013
gross_switzerlandECHR2013
ECHR Article 8
Positive obligations
Article 8-1
Respect for private life
Lack of clear legal guidelines regulating the prescription of a drug to enable individual not suffering from a . .
CitedHasan and Chaush v Bulgaria ECHR 26-Oct-2000
The Grand Chamber considered executive interference in the appointment of the Chief Mufti of the Bulgarian Muslims: ‘Where the organisation of the religious community is at issue, Article 9 must be interpreted in the light of Article 11 of the . .
CitedPretty v The United Kingdom ECHR 29-Apr-2002
Right to Life Did Not include Right to Death
The applicant was paralysed and suffered a degenerative condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to assist her suicide by accompanying her to Switzerland. English law would not excuse such behaviour. She argued that the right to die is not . .
CitedHirst v United Kingdom (2) ECHR 6-Oct-2005
(Grand Chamber) The applicant said that whilst a prisoner he had been banned from voting. The UK operated with minimal exceptions, a blanket ban on prisoners voting.
Held: Voting is a right not a privilege. It was a right central in a . .
CitedPurdy, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions HL 30-Jul-2009
Need for Certainty in Scope of Offence
The appellant suffered a severe chronic illness and anticipated that she might want to go to Switzerland to commit suicide. She would need her husband to accompany her, and sought an order requiring the respondent to provide clear guidelines on the . .
CitedRegina v Howe etc HL 19-Feb-1986
The defendants appealed against their convictions for murder, saying that their defences of duress had been wrongly disallowed.
Held: Duress is not a defence available on a charge of murder. When a defence of duress is raised, the test is . .
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland CA 9-Dec-1992
The official Solicitor appealed against a decision that doctors could withdraw medical treatment including artificial nutrition, from a patient in persistent vegetative state.
Held: The doctors sought permission to act in accordance with . .
CitedWoolwich Equitable Building Society v Inland Revenue Commissioners (2) HL 20-Jul-1992
The society had set out to assert that regulations were unlawful in creating a double taxation. It paid money on account of the tax demanded. It won and recovered the sums paid, but the revenue refused to pay any interest accrued on the sums paid. . .
CitedRodriguez v Attorney General of Canada 30-Sep-1993
Canlii (Supreme Court of Canada) Constitutional law – Charter of Rights – Life, liberty and security of the person – Fundamental justice – Terminally ill patient seeking assistance to commit suicide – Whether . .
CitedBuckley v The United Kingdom ECHR 25-Sep-1996
The Commission had concluded, by a narrow majority, that the measures taken by the respondent in refusing planning permission and enforcing planning orders were excessive and disproportionate, even allowing a margin of appreciation enjoyed by the . .
CitedBellinger v Bellinger HL 10-Apr-2003
Transgendered Male/Female not to marry as Female
The parties had gone through a form of marriage, but Mrs B had previously undergone gender re-assignment surgery. Section 11(c) of the 1973 Act required a marriage to be between a male and a female. It was argued that the section was incompatible . .
CitedRegina v Kennedy HL 17-Oct-2007
The defendant had been convicted of manslaughter. He had supplied a class A drug to a friend who then died taking it. The House was asked ‘When is it appropriate to find someone guilty of manslaughter where that person has been involved in the . .
CitedCountryside Alliance and others, Regina (on the Application of) v Attorney General and Another HL 28-Nov-2007
The appellants said that the 2004 Act infringed their rights under articles 8 11 and 14 and Art 1 of protocol 1.
Held: Article 8 protected the right to private and family life. Its purpose was to protect individuals from unjustified intrusion . .
CitedIn re P and Others, (Adoption: Unmarried couple) (Northern Ireland); In re G HL 18-Jun-2008
The applicants complained that as an unmarried couple they had been excluded from consideration as adopters.
Held: Northern Ireland legislation had not moved in the same way as it had for other jurisdictions within the UK. The greater . .
CitedGreens v The United Kingdom ECHR 23-Nov-2010
The applicants alleged a violation of article 3 in the refusal to allow them to enrol on the electoral register whilst serving prison sentences.
Held: Where one of its judgments raises issues of general public importance and sensitivity, in . .
CitedSinclair Collis Ltd, Regina (on The Application of) v The Secretary of State for Health CA 17-Jun-2011
The claimants sought to challenge the validity of rules brought in under the 2009 Act as to the placement of cigarette vending machines in retail outlets. They said it was a a national measure restricting the free movement of goods. The . .
CitedA, B And C v Ireland ECHR 16-Dec-2010
Grand Chamber – The Court considered the prohibition of abortion in Ireland: ‘The first two applicants principally complained under Article 8 about, inter alia, the prohibition of abortion for health and well-being reasons in Ireland and the third . .
CitedHaas v Switzerland ECHR 20-Jan-2011
The applicant was severely bipolar, and wanted to obtain a lethal dose of a drug to kill himself, but could not do so, because Swiss law required him to get a prescription, and, before he could do that, he needed a psychiatric assessment. Relying on . .
CitedLautsi v Italy ECHR 18-Mar-2011
(Grand Chamber) The applicants complained that the presence in all state schoolrooms of a crucifix on the wall infringed the principle of secularism. The routine presence in state school classrooms of a crucifix, which was not used for worship, . .
CitedAXA General Insurance Ltd and Others v Lord Advocate and Others SC 12-Oct-2011
Standing to Claim under A1P1 ECHR
The appellants had written employers’ liability insurance policies. They appealed against rejection of their challenge to the 2009 Act which provided that asymptomatic pleural plaques, pleural thickening and asbestosis should constitute actionable . .
CitedQuila and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department SC 12-Oct-2011
Parties challenged the rule allowing the respondent to deny the right to enter or remain here to non EU citizens marrying a person settled and present here where either party was under the age of 21. The aim of the rule was to deter forced . .
CitedAbdullah Yasa And Others v Turkey ECHR 16-Jul-2013
Article 3
Degrading treatment
Inhuman treatment
Serious injury to nose caused by tear gas canister fired by police officer: violation
Article 46
Article 46-2
Execution of judgment
Measures of a general . .
CitedSidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital and the Maudsley Hospital HL 21-Feb-1985
The plaintiff alleged negligence in the failure by a surgeon to disclose or explain to her the risks inherent in the operation which he had advised.
Held: The appeal failed. A mentally competent patient has an absolute right to refuse to . .
CitedWeber and Saravia v Germany ECHR 29-Jun-2006
(Admissibility) ‘The first applicant is a freelance journalist who works for various German and foreign newspapers, radio and television stations on a regular basis. In particular, she investigates matters that are subject to the surveillance of the . .
CitedHuang v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 21-Mar-2007
Appellate Roles – Human Rights – Families Split
The House considered the decision making role of immigration appellate authorities when deciding appeals on Human Rights grounds, against refusal of leave to enter or remain, under section 65. In each case the asylum applicant had had his own . .
CitedGillan and Quinton v The United Kingdom ECHR 12-Jan-2010
The claimants had been stopped by the police using powers in the 2000 Act. They were going to a demonstration outside an arms convention. There was no reason given for any suspicion that the searches were needed.
Held: The powers given to the . .

Cited by:
CitedRecovery of Medical Costs for Asbestos Diseases (Wales) Bill (Reference By The Counsel General for Wales) SC 9-Feb-2015
The court was asked whether the Bill was within the competence of the Welsh Assembly. The Bill purported to impose NHS charges on those from whom asbestos related damages were recovered.
Held: The Bill fell outside the legislative competence . .
At SCNicklinson and Lamb v United Kingdom ECHR 16-Jul-2015
The applicants, suffering life threatening and severely disabling conditions, complained of laws which would allow the criminal prosecutions of those assisting them to end their lives. . .
At HLNicklinson and Lamb v The United Kingdom ECHR 23-Jun-2015
ECHR Article 8-1
Respect for private life
Ban on assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia: inadmissible
Facts – The first applicant is the wife of Tony Nicklinson, now deceased, who suffered . .
CitedKenward and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v The Director of Public Prosecutions and Another Admn 4-Dec-2015
The claimants challenged the policy issued by the DPP on assisted suicide following the Nicklinson case.
Held: The request for judicial review was refused.
Sir Brian Leveson P said: ‘It is important not to misunderstand the effect either . .
CitedGaughran v Chief Constable of The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland) SC 13-May-2015
The court was asked as to to the right of the Police Service of Northern Ireland to retain personal information and data lawfully obtained from the appellant following his arrest for the offence of driving with excess alcohol.
Held: The appeal . .
CitedHuman Rights Commission for Judicial Review (Northern Ireland : Abortion) SC 7-Jun-2018
The Commission challenged the compatibility of the NI law relating to banning nearly all abortions with Human Rights Law. It now challenged a decision that it did not have standing to bring the case.
Held: (Lady Hale, Lord Kerr and Lord Wilson . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Crime, Human Rights

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.527183

Scotch Whisky Association And Others v Lord Advocate, Advocate General for Scotland: ECJ 23 Dec 2015

ECJ (Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Common organisation of the markets in agricultural products – Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 – Free movement of goods – Article 34 TFEU – Quantitative restrictions – Measures having equivalent effect – Minimum price of alcoholic drinks calculated according to the alcoholic strength of the product – Justification – Article 36 TFEU – Protection of human life and health – Assessment by the national court
‘I consider that the existence of a CMO covering the wine sector does not prevent the national authorities from taking action in the exercise of their competence in order to adopt measures to protect health and, in particular, to combat alcohol abuse. However, where the national measure constitutes a breach of the principle of the free formation of selling prices that constitutes a component of the single CMO Regulation, the principle of proportionality requires that the national measure must actually meet the objective of the protection of human health and must not go beyond what is necessary in order to attain that objective.
As the commission suggests, I consider that the examination of the proportionality of the measure must be undertaken in the context of the analysis that must be carried out by reference to article 36 TFEU.
Consequently, I propose that the answer to the first question should be that the single CMO Regulation must be interpreted as meaning that it does not preclude national rules, such as those at issue, which prescribe a minimum retail price for wines according to the quantity of alcohol in the product sold, provided that those rules are justified by the objectives of the protection of human health, and in particular the objective of combating alcohol abuse, and do not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve that objective.’
‘A barrier to the free movement of goods may be justified on one of the public interest grounds set out in article 36 TFEU or in order to meet overriding requirements. In either case, the restrictions imposed by the member states must none the less satisfy the conditions laid down in the court’s case law as regards their proportionality. In that regard, in order for national rules to comply with the principle of proportionality, it is necessary to ascertain not only whether the means which they implement are appropriate to ensure attainment of the objective pursued, but also that those means do not go beyond what is necessary to attain that objective: Berlington Hungary Tanacsado es Szolgaltato kft v Magyar Allam (Case C-98/14) [2015] 3 CMLR 45, para 64.
Although the words generally used by the court seem most frequently to result in only two different stages of the control of proportionality being distinguished, the intellectual exercise followed in order to determine whether a national measure is proportionate is generally broken down into three successive stages.
The first stage, corresponding to the test of suitability or appropriateness, consists in ascertaining that the act adopted is suitable for attaining the aim sought.
The second stage, relating to the test of necessity, sometimes also known as the ‘minimum interference test’, entails a comparison between the national measure at issue and the alternative solutions that would allow the same objective as that pursued by the national measure to be attained but would impose fewer restrictions on trade.
The third stage, corresponding to the test of proportionality in the strict sense, assumes the balancing of the interests involved. More precisely, it consists in comparing the extent of the interference which the national measure causes to the freedom under consideration and the contribution which that measure could secure for the protection of the objective pursued.’

R. Silva de Lapuerta, P
ECLI:EU:C:2015:845, [2015] EUECJ C-333/14, [2016] 1 WLR 2283, [2015] WLR(D) 544
Bailii, WLRD
Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013, TFEU 34
European
Citing:
See AlsoScotch Whisky Association and Others v The Lord Advocate and Another SCS 30-Apr-2014
(Extra Division, Inner House, Court of Session) Reclaiming motion is brought against the Lord Ordinary’s decision rejecting the petitioners’ challenge to the provisions of the 2012 Act. Reference to ECJ . .
See AlsoThe Scotch Whisky Association and Others, Re Judicial Review SCS 26-Sep-2012
Outer House – application by Alcohol Focus Scotland for permission to intervene in the public interest in a judicial review application by The Scotch Whisky Association and two European bodies which represent producers of spirit drinks and the wine . .
See AlsoThe Scotch Whisky Association and Others, Re Judicial Review SCS 3-May-2013
(Outer House, Court of Session) The petitioners challenged the legality of an enactment of the Scottish Parliament – the Act. They also challenged the legality of the Scottish Ministers’ decision that they would make an Order setting the minimum . .
See AlsoScotch Whisky Association and Others for Judicial Review SCS 11-Jul-2014
Extra Division, Inner House – Further application for leave to intervene. . .
CitedCommission v Italy (Free Movement Of Goods) ECJ 10-Feb-2009
ecJ Failure of a Member State to fulfil obligations Article 28 EC Concept of ‘measures having equivalent effect to quantitative restrictions on imports’ Prohibition on mopeds, motorcycles, motor tricycles and . .

Cited by:
At ECJThe Scotch Whisky Association and Others v The Lord Advocate and Another SCS 21-Oct-2016
The Association sought to challenge the legality of the 2012 Act and orders made under it. The Government’s contended that the Act would bring health benefits of one sort or another to at least part of the population.
Held: In a reclaiming . .
At ECJScotch Whisky Association and Others v The Lord Advocate and Another SC 15-Nov-2017
The Association challenged the imposition of minimum pricing systems for alcohol, saying that it was in breach of European law. After a reference to the ECJ, the Court now considered its legality.
Held: The Association’s appeal failed. Minimum . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Commercial, Health

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.565749

Regina v Manchester City Council, ex parte Stennett etc: HL 25 Jul 2002

The applicants were former mental patients who had been admitted to hospital compulsorily under section 3. On their release they were to be given support under section 117. The authorities sought to charge for these services, and appealed a decision that the services should be free.
Held: Section 117 imposed a clear and free standing duty to provide support. The section was not a mere request to the authority to provide services under other provisions. Such patients might have greater needs and also have imposed on them restrictions. It was not inappropriate that support should be free.

Lord Slynn of Hadley Lord Mackay of Clashfern Lord Steyn Lord Hutton Lord Millett
Times 29-Aug-2002, Gazette 17-Oct-2002, [2002] UKHL 34, [2002] BLGR 557, (2002) 5 CCL Rep 500, [2002] 4 All ER 124, [2002] 3 WLR 584, (2002) 68 BMLR 247, [2002] 2 AC 1127
House of Lords, Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983 3 117
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal FromRegina v Richmond London Borough Council, Ex Parte Watson; Regina v Redcar and Cleveland Borough Council, Ex Parte Armstrong etc Admn 15-Oct-1999
. .

Cited by:
CitedK v Central and North West London Mental Health NHS Trust and Another QBD 30-May-2008
k_centralQBD2008
The claimant appealed against an order striking out his claim in negligence. He had leaped from a window in a suicide attempt. The accommodation was provided by the defendant whilst caring for him under the 1983 Act.
Held: The case should be . .
CitedStojak, Regina (on The Application of) v Sheffield City Council Admn 22-Dec-2009
The deceased had been detained as a mental patient and supported after her release, by her family financially. Her representatives now said that the respondent had failed in its obligation to provide support for no charge. The authority said that . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Benefits, Local Government

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.174394

Z, Re (Recognition of Foreign Order): FD 8 Apr 2016

The court considered the exercise of the court’s powers under the inherent jurisdiction to recognise and enforce orders concerning the medical treatment of children made by courts of another member state of the European Union.
Held: The orders made by the Irish court were to stand as orders of the High Court of England and Wales

Baker J
[2016] EWHC 784 (Fam), [2016] WLR(D) 178, [2016] 3 WLR 791, [2016] Fam 375, [2016] Fam Law 684, [2017] 1 FLR 1236
Bailii, WLRD
England and Wales

Children, European, Health

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.562141

Westminster City Council v National Asylum Support Service: HL 17 Oct 2002

The applicant sought assistance from the local authority. He suffered from spinal myeloma, was destitute and an asylum seeker.
Held: Although the Act had withdrawn the obligation to provide assistance for many asylum seekers, those who were infirm and whose infirmity was not a consequence of their destitution, had not been excluded. Only able bodied destitute asylum seekers were excluded from benefit, and they had to rely upon the respondent. The House considered the value of the Explanatory notes now published with Acts: ‘Insofar as the Explanatory Notes cast light on the objective setting or contextual scene of the statute, and the mischief at which it is aimed, such materials are therefore always admissible aids to construction. They may be admitted for what logical value they have.’ Lord Steyn: ‘The starting point is that language in all legal texts conveys meaning according to the circumstances in which it was used. It follows that the context must always be identified and considered before the process of construction or during it. It is therefore wrong to say that the court may only resort to evidence of the contextual scene when an ambiguity has arisen.’

Steyn, Slynn, Hoffmann, Millett and Rodger LL
Times 18-Oct-2002, [2002] UKHL 38, [2002] 1 WLR 2956, [2002] 4 All ER 654, [2002] HLR 58, (2002) 5 CCL Rep 511, [2003] BLGR 23
House of Lords, Bailii
National Assistance Act 1948 21, Immigration and Asylum Appeals Act 1999 95 116
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedPrenn v Simmonds HL 1971
Backgroun Used to Construe Commercial Contract
Commercial contracts are to be construed in the light of all the background information which could reasonably have been expected to have been available to the parties in order to ascertain what would objectively have been understood to be their . .
CitedReardon Smith Line Ltd v Yngvar Hansen-Tangen (The ‘Diana Prosperity’) HL 1976
In construing a contract, three principles can be found. The contextual scene is always relevant. Secondly, what is admissible as a matter of the rules of evidence under this heading is what is arguably relevant, but admissibility is not decisive. . .
CitedInvestors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society HL 19-Jun-1997
Account taken of circumstances wihout ambiguity
The respondent gave advice on home income plans. The individual claimants had assigned their initial claims to the scheme, but later sought also to have their mortgages in favour of the respondent set aside.
Held: Investors having once . .
CitedRiver Wear Commissioners v Adamson HL 1877
It was not necessary for there to be an ambiguity in a statutory provision for a court to be allowed to look at the surrounding circumstances.
As to the Golden Rule of interpretation: ‘It is to be borne in mind that the office of the judge is . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for the Environment Transport and the Regions and another, ex parte Spath Holme Limited HL 7-Dec-2000
The section in the 1985 Act created a power to prevent rent increases for tenancies of dwelling-houses for purposes including the alleviation of perceived hardship. Accordingly the Secretary of State could issue regulations whose effect was to limit . .
CitedRobinson v Secretary of State for Northern Ireland and Others HL 25-Jul-2002
The Northern Ireland Parliament had elected its first minister and deputy more than six weeks after the election, but the Act required the election to be within that time. It was argued that as a creature of statute, the Parliament could not act . .
CitedRegina v Westminster City Council ex parte A, London Borough of Lambeth ex parte X and similar CA 17-Feb-1997
This was an appeal from orders of certiorari quashing the decisions of three local authorities refusing to provide accommodation for the respondents, four asylum seekers, whose applications for asylum were presently being considered by the Secretary . .
CitedRegina v Wandsworth London Borough Council, Ex Parte O; Leicester City Council, Ex Parte Bhikha CA 7-Sep-2000
The applicants were immigrants awaiting determination of their applications for exceptional leave to remain, and who came to suffer from serious illness. Each applied for and was refused assistance from their local authority.
Held: The . .
CitedWahid v London Borough of Tower Hamlets CA 7-Mar-2002
Gilliatt The appellant suffered from schizophrenia. He was refused permission to apply for judicial review and for orders requiring the local authority not just to provide suitable accommodation but better . .
Appeal fromWestminster City Council v National Asylum Support Service CA 10-Apr-2001
. .
At first instanceWestminster City Council v National Asylum Support Service Admn 27-Feb-2001
. .

Cited by:
CitedRegina (on the Application of Mani) v London Borough of Lambeth CA 9-Jul-2003
Where a destitute and disabled asylum seeker had a clear need for care and attention, the local authority had a duty to provide it. The claimant was an asylum seeker, with impaired mobility and a history of mental halth difficulties. At first he was . .
CitedRegina (on the Application of A) v National Asylum Support Service, London Borough of Waltham Forest CA 23-Oct-2003
A family of asylum seekers with two disabled children would be destitute without ‘adequate’ accommodation. What was such accommodation?
Held: The authority was under an absolute duty to house such a family. In satisfying such duty, it was . .
CitedRegina, ex parte O v The London Borough of Haringey, The Secretary of State for the Home Department CA 4-May-2004
The court considered the duties of local authorities to support infirm asylum seekers with children.
Held: The authority had an obligation to support the adult, but the responsibility for the children fell on the National Asylum Support . .
AppliedS, Regina (on Application of) v South Yorkshire Police; Regina v Chief Constable of Yorkshire Police ex parte Marper HL 22-Jul-2004
Police Retention of Suspects DNA and Fingerprints
The claimants complained that their fingerprints and DNA records taken on arrest had been retained after discharge before trial, saying the retention of the samples infringed their right to private life.
Held: The parts of DNA used for testing . .
CitedAttorney General’s Reference (No 5 of 2002) HL 14-Oct-2004
The Attorney General sought the correct interpretation of section 17 where a court was asked as to whether evidence obtained from a telephone tapping had been taken from a public or private network. A chief constable suspected that the defendants, . .
CitedRegina v Montila and Others HL 25-Nov-2004
The defendants faced charges under the two Acts. They raised as a preliminary issue whether it is necessary for the Crown to prove that the property being converted was in fact the proceeds, in the case of the 1994 Act, of drug trafficking and, in . .
CitedIn re P (a minor by his mother and litigation friend); P v National Association of Schoolmasters/Union of Women Teachers HL 27-Feb-2003
The pupil had been excluded from school but then ordered to be re-instated. The teachers, through their union, refused to teach him claiming that he was disruptive. The claimant appealed a refusal of an injunction. The injunction had been refused on . .
CitedPhillips v Rafiq and Motor Insurers Bureau (MIB) CA 13-Feb-2007
The MIB appealed from a judgment making it liable for an award of damages to the estate of the deceased who had been a passenger in a vehicle which he knew to be being driven without insurance. The estate had not sued the MIB directly, but first . .
CitedKing v The Serious Fraud Office CACD 18-Mar-2008
Restraint and Disclosure orders had been made on without notice applications at the request of South Africa. The applicant appealed a refusal of their discharge.
Held: Such orders did not apply to the applicant’s assets in Scotland. The orders . .
CitedM, Regina (on the Application of) v Slough Borough Council HL 30-Jul-2008
The House was asked ‘whether a local social services authority is obliged, under section 21(1)(a) of the 1948 Act, to arrange (and pay for) residential accommodation for a person subject to immigration control who is HIV positive but whose only . .
CitedPersimmon Homes (South Coast) Ltd v Hall Aggregates (South Coast) Ltd and Another TCC 10-Oct-2008
The parties had agreed for the sale of land under an option agreement. The builder purchasers now sought to exercise rights to adjust the price downwards.
Held: The provisions had been intended and had achieved a prompt and binding settlement . .
CitedMucelli v Government of Albania (Criminal Appeal From Her Majesty’s High Court of Justice) HL 21-Jan-2009
The House was asked whether someone who wished to appeal against an extradition order had an obligation also to serve his appellant’s notice on the respondent within the seven days limit, and whether the period was capable of extension by the court. . .
CitedRollins, Regina v SC 28-Jul-2010
The court was asked whether the Financial Services Authority had a power to prosecute money laundering offences under the 2002 Act, or whether, as contended by the defendant, its powers were limited to sections under the 2000 Act.
Held: The . .
CitedOceanbulk Shipping and Trading Sa v TMT Asia Ltd and Others SC 27-Oct-2010
The court was asked whether facts which (a) are communicated between the parties in the course of without prejudice negotiations and (b) would, but for the without prejudice rule, be admissible as part of the factual matrix or surrounding . .
CitedHorton v Henry CA 7-Oct-2016
No obligation on bankrupt to draw on pension fund
The trustee in bankruptcy appealed against a decision dismissing his application for an income payments order pursuant to section 310 of the 1986 Act in respect of income which might become payable to the respondent from his personal pension . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Local Government, Health, Immigration, Benefits, Human Rights

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.177452

National Aids Trust v National Health Service Commissioning Board (NHS England): Admn 2 Aug 2016

NHS to make drug available

The claimant charity said that drugs (PrEP) prophylactic for AIDS / HIV should be made available by the defendant and through the NHS. The respndent said that the responsibility for preventative medicine for sexual health lay with local authorities.
Held: The claim succeeded. NHS England had misdirected itself in law when it concluded that it had no power to commission PrEP: ‘when the NHSA 2006 is considered both as a whole but also by reference to its specific provisions it has the following broad characteristics and purposes; First, it imposes broad duties and powers on NHS England to secure the provision of health services to the entirety of the population and nation wide; second, the duty includes all aspects of preventative medicine; third it exercises its powers and duties concurrently with other providers of services which includes the Secretary of State, CCGs and local authorities; fourth these services are to be provided comprehensively and in an integrated manner; fifth, the service is to be provided efficiently and so as to avoid inequalities of provision or outcome.’

Green J
[2016] EWHC 2005 (Admin), CO/2979/2016
Bailii, Judiciary
National Health Service Act 2006, National Health Service Commissioning Board and Clinical Commissioning Groups (Responsibilities and Standing Rules) Regulations 2012, Local Authorities (Public Health Functions etc.) Regulations 2013
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedAndrews, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Environment Food and Rural Affairs CA 1-Jul-2015
The claimant appealed against rejection of his request for judicial review of the decision by the respondent not to amend the definitive map to show two sections of public bridleway across an arable field.
Lord Dyson MR considered the purposive . .
CitedUBS Ag and Another v Revenue and Customs SC 9-Mar-2016
UBS AG devised an employee bonus scheme to take advantage of the provisions of Chapter 2 of the 2003 Act, with the sole purpose other than tax avoidance, and such consequential advantages as would flow from tax avoidance. Several pre-ordained steps . .
CitedHarvey, Regina v SC 16-Dec-2015
Police had discovered quantities of stolen goods at the appellant’s business premises. He was convicted of receiving stolen goods, and confiscation order made. He now appealed from the inclusion in that order of sums of VAT which had already been . .
CitedSolar Century Holdings Ltd and Others v Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Admn 7-Nov-2014
The court considered the admissibility of pre-legislative material as evidence to support the interpretation of a statute. . .
MentionedSolar Century Holdings Ltd and Others v Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change CA 1-Mar-2016
This judicial review appeal concerns the legality of decisions by the respondent, the Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change (‘the SoS’), to bring to a premature close, subject to certain periods of grace, a statutory scheme supporting the . .
CitedAttorney-General v Mersey Railway Co HL 1906
The power to make by-laws encompasses not only a company’s principle activity, but also all incidental and ancillary activities. The incidental power cannot be used to expand the company’s activities, in this case by extending its business by . .
CitedHazell v Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough Council HL 1991
Swap deals outwith Council powers
The authority entered into interest rate swap deals to protect itself against adverse money market movements. They began to lose substantial amounts when interest rates rose, and the district auditor sought a declaration that the contracts were . .
CitedAndrews, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Environment Food and Rural Affairs CA 1-Jul-2015
The claimant appealed against rejection of his request for judicial review of the decision by the respondent not to amend the definitive map to show two sections of public bridleway across an arable field.
Lord Dyson MR considered the purposive . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Local Government, News

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.567876

Sheffield City Council v E; Re E (An Alleged Patient): FD 2 Dec 2004

The council sought an order to prevent E, a patient from contracting a marriage which it considered unwise. As a preliminary issue the parties sought guidance as to the questions to be put to the expert as to capacity.
Held: The woman suffered disabillities including functioning at the equivalent age of 13. The man had a serious record of sexual violence. Nevertheless the issue on whether she could marry was only whether she understood the marriage contract and its nature and duties. Whether others would make the same choice in wisdom was not the issue. The doctrine of necessity has no place in relation to marriage, which depended exclusively upon consent. A persons’ best interests were not at issue. Questions of capacity are always issue specific.
Munby J said: ‘An adult either has capacity [in relation to a particular matter] or he does not. If he does, then, at least in relation to that issue, the Family Division cannot exercise its inherent declaratory jurisdiction, because it is fundamental that this jurisdiction can be exercised only in relation to those who lack the relevant capacity.’ and ‘There is, so far as I can see, no hint in any of the cases on the point – and I have gone through them all – that the question of capacity to marry has ever been considered by reference to a person’s ability to understand or evaluate the characteristics of some particular spouse or intended spouse. In all the cases, as we have seen, the question has always been formulated in a general and non-specific form: Is there capacity to understand the nature of the contract of marriage?’ and ‘In relation to her marriage the only question for the court is whether E has capacity to marry. The court is not concerned – has no jurisdiction – to consider whether it is in E’s best interests to marry or to marry S. The court is concerned with her capacity to marry, not with the wisdom of her marriage in general or her marriage to S in particular.’

Munby J
Times 20-Jan-2005, [2005] 2 WLR 953, [2004] EWHC 2808 (Fam), [2005] 1 FLR 965
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedIn re Estate of Park (deceased), Park v Park CA 2-Jan-1953
The deceased had remarried. His beneficiaries asserted that he had lacked capacity and that the marriage was ineffective.
Held: The test of capacity to marry is whether he or she was capable of understanding the nature of the contract, was . .
CitedMasterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1) CA 19-Dec-2002
Capacity for Litigation
The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the . .
CitedDurham v Durham, Hunter v Edney (Orse Hunter), Cannon v Smalley (Orse Cannon) 1885
The burden of establishing that a party to a marriage had lacked capacity through insanity, lay on the party making the assertion. The court is to decide whether the respondent was capable of understanding the nature of the contract, and the duties . .
DistinguishedIn re MB (Medical Treatment) CA 26-Mar-1997
The patient was due to deliver a child. A delivery by cesarean section was necessary, but the mother had a great fear of needles, and despite consenting to the operation, refused the necessary consent to anesthesia in any workable form.
Held: . .
CitedIn Re S (Adult Patient: Sterilisation) CA 26-May-2000
The court should decide what is in the best interests of a patient where she was unable to give consent herself. The test of whether what was proposed was within the range of what reasonable and competent medical practitioners might propose, got the . .

Cited by:
CitedE v Channel Four, News International Ltd and St Helens Borough Council FD 1-Jun-2005
The applicant sought an order restraining publication by the defendants of material, saying she did not have capacity to consent to the publication. She suffered a multiple personality disorder. She did herself however clearly wish the film to be . .
CitedD Borough Council v AB CoP 28-Jan-2011
The court was asked whether A, an adult male with learning disability had capacity to consent to sexual relations, and in particular what test was to be applied. . .
CitedPC and Another v City of York Council CA 1-May-2013
It had been decided that PC, a 43 year old woman, had capacity to marry, but the LA now argued that she did not have the capacity to decide to live with her partner, a man who had old convictions for serious sexual assault.
Held: Decisions as . .
CitedAMDC v AG and Another CoP 18-Nov-2020
Guidance for Expert Witnesses on Capacity
The court was asked as to the preparation and use of expert reports as to the capacity of a patient litigant.
Held: Poole J discussed what was need of expert witness in such cases: ‘it will benefit the court if the expert bears in mind the . .
AppliedPH v A Local Authority CoP 30-Jun-2011
The Court was asked whether PH, a forty-nine year old man, suffering from Huntingdon’s Disease had capacity to make decisions about his residence, care and treatment. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Family, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 10 November 2021; Ref: scu.231165

The Health Service Executive of Ireland v PA and Others: CoP 3 Jun 2015

hsen_paCoP201506

The HSE sought orders under s.63 of and Schedule 3 to the 2005 Act recognising and enforcing orders by the Irish High Court for the detention of three young persons (‘PA’, ‘PB’, and ‘PC’) at a special unit known in Northampton.
Held: On an application to for confirmation of a compulsory psychiatric placement under Schedule 3 to the 2005 Act the court should itself carry out a review in oder to be satisfied that an order would comply with the Convention and so in that (i) the Winterwerp criteria were met and (ii) that the individual’ would have an effective right to regular reviews of the detention and to challenge it in court if necessary.

Baker J
[2015] EWCOP 38, [2015] WLR(D) 243
Bailii, WLRD
Mental Capacity Act 2005 63 Sch 3, European Convention on Human Rights , Hague Convention on the International Protection of Adults 2000 1 3
Citing:
CitedWinterwerp v The Netherlands ECHR 24-Oct-1979
A Dutch national detained in hospital complained that his detention had divested him of his capacity to administer his property, and thus there had been determination of his civil rights and obligations without the guarantee of a judicial procedure. . .
CitedJO v GO and Others; re PO; Re O (Court of Protection: Jurisdiction) CoP 13-Dec-2013
Jurisdiction of the Court of Protection
PO, a lady in her late eighties lacked capacity to decide her own care. She had been habitually resident in Hertfordshire. Her daughters now challenged their brother who had moved her to a care home in Scotland when he himself moved there. An . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

International, Children, Health, Human Rights

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.548027

Sidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital and the Maudsley Hospital: HL 21 Feb 1985

The plaintiff alleged negligence in the failure by a surgeon to disclose or explain to her the risks inherent in the operation which he had advised.
Held: The appeal failed. A mentally competent patient has an absolute right to refuse to consent to medical treatment for any reason, rational or irrational, or for no reason at all, even where that decision may lead to his or her own death.
However, where a patient does not ask as to the risks, Lord Diplock said: ‘we are concerned here with volunteering unsought information about risks of the proposed treatment failing to achieve the result sought or making the patient’s physical or mental condition worse rather than better. The only effect that mention of risks can have on the patient’s mind, if it has any at all, can be in the direction of deterring the patient from undergoing the treatment which in the expert opinion of the doctor it is in the patient’s interest to undergo. To decide what risks the existence of which a patient should be voluntarily warned and the terms in which such warning, if any, should be given, having regard to the effect that the warning may have, is as much an exercise of professional skill and judgment as any other part of the doctor’s comprehensive duty of care to the individual patient, and expert medical evidence on this matter should be treated in just the same way. The Bolam test should be applied.’ and ‘a doctor’s duty of care, whether he be general practitioner or consulting surgeon or physician is owed to that patient and none other, idiosyncrasies and all.’ .’
Lord Scarman said: ‘Damage is the gist of the action of negligence’

Lord Templeman, Lord Diplock, Lord Scarman, Lord Keith
[1985] 1 All ER 643, [1985] 2 WLR 480, [1985] AC 871, [1985] UKHL 1
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedBolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee QBD 1957
Professional to use Skilled Persons Ordinary Care
Negligence was alleged against a doctor.
Held: McNair J directed the jury: ‘Where some special skill is exercised, the test for negligence is not the test of the man on the Clapham omnibus, because he has not got this special skill. The test . .
CitedMaynard v West Midlands Regional Health Authority HL 1985
The test of professional negligence is the standard of the ordinary skilled man exercising and professing to have that special skill. Lord Scarman said: ‘a doctor who professes to exercise a special skill must exercise the ordinary skill must . .
CitedWhitehouse v Jordan HL 17-Dec-1980
The plaintiff sued for brain damage suffered at birth by use of forceps at the alleged professional negligence of his doctor. The Court of Appeal had reversed the judge’s finding in his favour.
Held: In this case most of the evidence at issue . .

Cited by:
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland CA 9-Dec-1992
The official Solicitor appealed against a decision that doctors could withdraw medical treatment including artificial nutrition, from a patient in persistent vegetative state.
Held: The doctors sought permission to act in accordance with . .
CitedAiredale NHS Trust v Bland HL 4-Feb-1993
Procedures on Withdrawal of Life Support Treatment
The patient had been severely injured in the Hillsborough disaster, and had come to be in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). The doctors sought permission to withdraw medical treatment. The Official Solicitor appealed against an order of the Court . .
CitedGillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and Department of Health and Social Security HL 17-Oct-1985
Lawfulness of Contraceptive advice for Girls
The claimant had young daughters. She challenged advice given to doctors by the second respondent allowing them to give contraceptive advice to girls under 16, and the right of the first defendant to act upon that advice. She objected that the . .
CitedIn re MB (Medical Treatment) CA 26-Mar-1997
The patient was due to deliver a child. A delivery by cesarean section was necessary, but the mother had a great fear of needles, and despite consenting to the operation, refused the necessary consent to anesthesia in any workable form.
Held: . .
CitedAB and others v Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust QBD 26-Mar-2004
Representative claims were made against the respondents, hospitals, pathologists etc with regard to the removal of organs from deceased children without the informed consent of the parents. They claimed under the tort of wrongful interference.
FollowedIn re T (Adult: Refusal of Treatment) CA 1992
A patient’s right to veto medical treatment is absolute: ‘This right of choice is not limited to decisions which others might regard as sensible. It exists notwithstanding that the reasons for making the choice are rational, irrational, unknown or . .
CitedPearce and Pearce v United Bristol Healthcare NHS Trust CA 20-May-1998
A doctor advised a mother to delay childbirth, but the child was then stillborn. She complained that he should have advised her of the risk of the baby being stillborn.
Held: ‘In a case where it is being alleged that a plaintiff has been . .
CitedChester v Afshar HL 14-Oct-2004
The claimant suffered back pain for which she required neurosurgery. The operation was associated with a 1-2% risk of the cauda equina syndrome, of which she was not warned. She went ahead with the surgery, and suffered that complication. The . .
CitedGregg v Scott HL 27-Jan-2005
The patient saw his doctor and complained about a lump under his arm. The doctor failed to diagnose cancer. It was nine months before treatment was begun. The claimant sought damages for the reduction in his prospects of disease-free survival for . .
CitedMoy v Pettman Smith (a firm) and another HL 3-Feb-2005
Damages were claimed against a barrister for advice on a settlement given at the door of the court. After substantial litigation, made considerably more difficult by the negligence of the solicitors, the barrister had not advised the claimant at the . .
CitedJD v East Berkshire Community Health NHS Trust and others HL 21-Apr-2005
Parents of children had falsely and negligently been accused of abusing their children. The children sought damages for negligence against the doctors or social workers who had made the statements supporting the actions taken. The House was asked if . .
CitedPowell and Another v Boldaz and others CA 1-Jul-1997
The plaintiff’s son aged 10 died of Addison’s Disease which had not been diagnosed. An action against the Health Authority was settled. The parents then brought an action against 5 doctors in their local GP Practice in relation to matters that had . .
CitedF v West Berkshire Health Authority HL 17-Jul-1990
The parties considered the propriety of a sterilisation of a woman who was, through mental incapacity, unable to give her consent.
Held: The appeal succeeded, and the operation would be lawful if the doctor considered it to be in the best . .
CitedMcFaddens (A Firm) v Platford TCC 30-Jan-2009
The claimant firm of solicitors had been found negligent, and now sought a contribution to the damages awarded from the barrister defendant. They had not managed properly issues as to their clients competence to handle the proceedings.
Held: . .
AppliedMontgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board SCS 30-Jul-2010
Outer House – The pursuer sought damages for personal injuries to her son at his birth, alleging negligence by the medical staff at the defender hospital. She said that she had been advised a cesarian birth for her child, but the doctors had not . .
CitedNM v Lanarkshire Health Board SCS 23-Jan-2013
Inner House – The pursuer and reclaimer sought reparation for son after grave injury sustained at his birth in a maternity hospital run by the defenders and respondents. She attributes that injury to negligence in a consultant obstetrician. . .
CriticisedMontgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board SC 11-Mar-2015
Change in Doctors’ Information Obligations
The pursuer claimed that her obstetrician had been negligent, after her son suffered severe injury at birth. The baby faced a birth with shoulder dystocia – the inability of the shoulders to pass through the pelvis. The consultant considered that a . .
CitedNicklinson and Another, Regina (on The Application of) SC 25-Jun-2014
Criminality of Assisting Suicide not Infringing
The court was asked: ‘whether the present state of the law of England and Wales relating to assisting suicide infringes the European Convention on Human Rights, and whether the code published by the Director of Public Prosecutions relating to . .
CitedFreeman v Home Office (No 2) CA 1984
A prisoner brought an action in battery against a prison doctor for administering drugs to him by injection. He argued that he was incapable of consenting to the procedure because he was in the defendant’s custody. . He failed at trial.
Held: . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Torts – Other, Negligence

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.180380

Re IJ (A Child) (Foreign Surrogacy Agreement Parental Order): FD 19 Apr 2011

ij_FD11

The court gave reasons for making a parental order under the 2008 Act in favour of the applicants where a child had been born under surrogacy arrangements which were lawful in the Ukraine where he was born, but would have been unlawful here because of payments going beyond reasonable expenses.
Held: The order was made because it was clearly in the best interests of the child to do so. As to the making of an order under the Regulations as to the acquisition of British nationality under the Regulations, the practice has been first to give notice to the Home Office of the application. It need not always be the practice in these applications, because by necessity the Border Agency would normally have had some involvement already.

Hedley J
[2011] EWHC 921 (Fam), [2011] Fam Law 695, [2011] 2 FLR 646
Bailii
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 54, Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Parental Orders) Regulations 2010
Citing:
CitedIn re X and Y (Foreign Surrogacy) FD 9-Dec-2008
The court considered the approval required for an order under the 2002 Act.
Held: Welfare considerations were important but not paramount: ‘Given the permanent nature of the order under s.30, it seems reasonable that the court should adopt the . .
CitedRe W (A Minor) (Adoption: Non-Patrial) CA 1986
W was born in China to Chinese parents. His aunt came to Britain and acquired citizenship. He came to live with her while studying, and she applied to adopt him. The judge refused saying that the primary intention was to obtain citizenship.
CitedIn re L (A Minor) (Commercial Surrogacy) FD 8-Dec-2010
The child had been born in Illinois as a result of a commercial surrogacy arrangement which would have been unlawful here. The parents applied for a parental order under the 2008 Act.
Held: The order was made, but in doing so he court had to . .

Cited by:
CitedA v P (Surrogacy: Parental Order: Death of Applicant) FD 8-Jul-2011
M applied for a parental order under the 2008 Act. The child had been born through a surrogacy arrangement in India, which was lawful there, but would have been unlawful here. The clinic could not guarantee a biological relationship with the child. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Children, Health

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.439589

In re J (Enduring Power of Attorney): ChD 12 Mar 2009

(Court of Protection) The donor executed a document purporting to appoint his wife to be his attorney, with an alternative. The document was based on a published precedent. The Public Guardian (PG) thought this provision of an alternative invalid.
Held: The Act required the use of the form set out, but then allowed variations to it which did not contradict any provision of the Act, and did allow successive attorneyships. The PG said that paragraph 20 required any multiple appointment to be either joint or joint and several. Such appointments were not in fact prohibited, and would give rise to no greater complexity than might arise through the use of multiple and successive deeds which were clearly allowed. The Act should be construed so as to allow people to make the arrangements they felt suitable and without creating technical traps for them. The power was valid.

Lewison J
[2009] EWHC 436 (Ch)
Bailii
Enduring Powers of Attorney Act 1985, Enduring Powers of Attorney (Prescribed Form) Regulations 1990
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedScottish and Newcastle Plc v Raguz HL 29-Oct-2008
The lease had been assigned by the claimant to the defendant and on again to a tenant who became insolvent. The landlord had recovered sums said to be due from the claimant who now sought an indemnity from the defendant. The defendant said that the . .
CitedX v Y, Z sub nom In re E (Enduring power of attorney) ChD 18-Feb-2000
The application was an appeal against an order registering an enduring power of attorney. The appeal from Master Lush was by way of rehearing. The donor had executed two powers. The second was invalid, and the donees of the first power sought to . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Agency, Health

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.317986

RF v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: Admn 21 Dec 2017

Psychlogical condition no bar to benefits claim

The claimant challenged the exclusion of psychological distress as a ground for payment of certain personal Independence Payments.
Held: The claim was allowed. This was direct discrimination which was not objectively justified.

Mostyn J
[2017] EWHC 3375 (Admin), [2017] WLR(D) 861, [2018] PTSR 1147
Bailii, WLRD
Social Security (Personal Independence Payment) (Amendment) Regulations 2017 2(4), European Convention on Human Rights 14
England and Wales

Health, Benefits, Human Rights

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.602595

Schmidt v Schmidt: ECJ 16 Nov 2016

Avoidance of gift of land for lack of capacity

ECJ Judgment – Reference for a preliminary ruling – Area of freedom, security and justice – Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012 – Jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters – Scope – First subparagraph of Article 24(1) – Exclusive jurisdiction in matters relating to rights in rem in immovable property – Article 7(1)(a) – Special jurisdiction in matters relating to a contract – Action seeking the avoidance of a contract of gift of immovable property and the removal of an entry in the land register evidencing a right of ownership

ECLI:EU:C:2016:881, [2016] EUECJ C-417/15, [2016] WLR(D) 607
Bailii, WLRD
Regulation (EU) No 1215/2012
European

Land, Health

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.571775

Imperial Loan Co v Stone: CA 1892

Contract without Capacity – Voidable not Void

A person of unsound mind was sued on a promissory note. He had signed it as surety. The jury found that he was insane when he signed the note but there was no finding as to the creditor’s knowledge of such insanity. The judge entered a verdict against the creditor, who appealed.
Held: A contract made by a person who lacked the capacity to make it was not void, but could be avoided by that person provided that the other party to the contract knew (or, as is now generally accepted, ought to have known) of his incapacity.
The submission that there was no authority that a man could be sued and made liable on an executory contract which he had made when of unsound mind, except in the case of a contract for necessaries was rejected. Lord Esher MR: ‘I shall not try to go through the cases bearing on the subject; but what I am about to state appears to me to be the result of all the cases. When a person enters into a contract, and afterwards alleges that he was so insane at the time that he did not know what he was doing, and proves the allegation, the contract is as binding on him in every respect, whether it is executory or executed, as if he had been sane when he made it, unless he can prove further that the person with whom he contracted knew him to be so insane as not to be capable of understanding what he was about.’
Fry LJ said: ‘It thus appears that there has been grafted on the old rule the exception that the contracts of a person who is non compos mentis may be avoided when his condition can be shown to have been known to the plaintiff. So far as I know, that is the only exception.’
Lopes LJ said: ‘In order to avoid a fair contract on the ground of insanity, the mental incapacity of the one must be known to the other of the contracting parties. A defendant who seeks to avoid a contract on the ground of his insanity, must plead and prove, not merely his incapacity, but also the plaintiff s knowledge of that fact, and unless he proves these two things he cannot succeed.’

Lord Esher MR, Fry LJ, Lopes LJ
[1892] 1 QB 599
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedBailey v Warre CA 7-Feb-2006
The claimant had been severely injured in a road traffic accident. His claim was compromised and embodied in a court order, but later a question was raised as to whether he had had mental capacity at the time to make the compromise he had.
CitedMcLaughlin v Daily Telegraph Newspaper Co. Ltd 15-Jul-1904
(High Court of Australia) The court considered the law on the effect of mental incapacity on a contract in the two cases Imperial Loan, and Molton v Camroux: ‘The principle of the decision seems, however, to be the same in both cases, which, in our . .
CitedHart v O’Connor PC 22-Apr-1985
Effect of insanity on making of contract
(New Zealand) The parties disputed the effect in law of an agreement for the sale of land. The transferor had proved not to be of sound mind.
Held: The validity of a contract entered into by a lunatic who is ostensibly sane is to be judged by . .
CitedArcher v Cutler 1980
(New Zealand) The purchaser of land sought specific performance of the contract. The vendor and purchaser had been neighbours. The neighbour needed part of the vendor’s land for access.
Held: A contract made by a person of insufficient mental . .
CitedMasterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1) CA 19-Dec-2002
Capacity for Litigation
The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the . .
CitedJosife v Summertrot Holdings Ltd Admn 4-Apr-2014
The claimant sought to avoid liability under a banking guarantee, saying that he had lacked mental capacity to grant it.
Held: The appeal failed. The judge had correctly applied the law. The execution of the guarantee had been especially . .
CitedBlankley v Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals NHS Trust CA 27-Jan-2015
This case concerns a claimant with fluctuating capacity to conduct legal proceedings. At a time when she had capacity, she retained a firm of solicitors under a conditional fee agreement. The issue was whether the CFA terminated automatically by . .
CitedDunhill v Burgin SC 12-Mar-2014
Lack of Capacity – Effect on Proceedings
The Court was asked ‘First, what is the test for deciding whether a person lacks the mental capacity to conduct legal proceedings on her own behalf (in which case the Civil Procedure Rules require that she has a litigation friend to conduct the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.238883

Nataliya Mikhaylenko v Ukraine (LS): ECHR 30 May 2013

ECHR Civil proceedings
Article 6-1
Access to court
Lack of access to court for person seeking restoration of her legal capacity: violation
Facts – In 2007 the applicant was deprived of her legal capacity on the grounds that she was suffering from a serious mental illness. Gradually, her mental health improved. In 2009 her guardian applied for her legal capacity to be restored, but the application was dismissed without being considered on the merits owing to the guardian’s repeated failure to appear in court. In 2010 the applicant herself lodged an application for her legal capacity to be restored. However, both it and her subsequent appeals were dismissed on the grounds that the Code of Civil Procedure did not provide her with the right to lodge such an application.
Law – Article 6-1: Under the domestic legislation it was for the applicant’s guardian or the guardianship authority to raise the issue of restoration of her legal capacity before a court. However, the guardian’s application had been dismissed without being considered on the merits as the guardian had not appeared before the court. The applicant had had no procedural status in those proceedings and could not influence them. Her subsequent personal application for restoration of her legal capacity was not considered either because the Code of Civil Procedure did not afford her the right to lodge such an application. However, the Code did not indicate that a declaration of legal incapacity was subject to any automatic judicial review and the duration for which that measure had been ordered in respect of the applicant had not been limited in time. Thus, by virtue of clear and foreseeable rules of domestic law, the applicant could not personally apply to a court for restoration of her legal capacity.
Restrictions on the procedural rights of persons deprived of their legal capacity could be justified to protect their own or others’ interests or for the proper administration of justice. However, the approach pursued by the domestic law in the instant case, according to which incapacitated persons had no right of direct access to a court with a view to having their legal capacity restored, was not in line with the general trend at European level. Moreover, as regards the situation in Ukraine, the general prohibition on direct access to a court by that category of individuals did not leave any room for exception. Nor did the domestic law provide safeguards requiring the matter of restoration of legal capacity to be reviewed by a court at reasonable intervals. Lastly, it had not been shown that the domestic authorities had effectively supervised the applicant’s situation, including the performance of the guardian’s duties, or taken the requisite steps to protect her interests. Therefore, the applicant’s inability to directly seek the restoration of her legal capacity had resulted in that matter not being examined by the courts. The absence of judicial review of that issue, which had seriously affected many aspects of the applicant’s life, could not be justified by the legitimate aims underpinning the limitations on access to a court by incapacitated persons. The situation in which the applicant had been placed had amounted to a denial of justice as regards the possibility of securing a review of her legal capacity.
Conclusion: violation (unanimously).
Article 41: EUR 3,600 in respect of non-pecuniary damage.
(See also Stanev v. Bulgaria [GC], no. 36760/06, 17 January 2012, Information Note no. 148)

49069/11 – Legal Summary, [2013] ECHR 576
Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 6-1
Human Rights
Cited by:
Legal SummaryNataliya Mikhaylenko v Ukraine ECHR 30-May-2013
. .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Health

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.511076

Bensaid v The United Kingdom: ECHR 6 Feb 2001

The applicant was a schizophrenic and an illegal immigrant. He claimed that his removal to Algeria would deprive him of essential medical treatment and sever ties that he had developed in the UK that were important for his well-being. He claimed that his article 3 and 8 rights would be infringed if he were removed to Algeria. His claim focused both on the medical treatment in the UK of which he would be deprived and the lack of such treatment in Algeria.
Held: His case under article 3 was not made out: the risk that the applicant would suffer a deterioration in his condition if he were returned to Algeria was ‘speculative’. ‘Private life is a broad term not susceptible to exhaustive definition . . Mental health must also be regarded as a crucial part of private life associated with the aspect of moral integrity. Article 8 protects a right to identity and personal development, and the right to establish and develop relationships with other human beings and the outside world. The preservation of mental stability is in that context an indispensable precondition to effective enjoyment of the right to respect for private life.’

44599/98, (2001) 33 EHRR 205, (2001) 33 EHRR 10, [2001] ECHR 82, [2001] INLR 325, 11 BHRC 297
Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 3 8
Human Rights
Citing:
Appeal fromRegina and H M Immigration Officer v Bensaid CA 17-Jul-1998
Renewed application for leave to seek judicial review of the Chief Immigration Officer’s decision of 24 March 1997 to refuse the applicant leave to enter the United Kingdom . .
See AlsoRegina v H M Immigration Officer ex parte Bensaid CA 21-Jul-1997
Application for leave to seek judicial review of the Chief Immigration Officer’s decision of 24 March 1997 to refuse the applicant leave to enter the United Kingdom. . .

Cited by:
CitedAhsan Ullah, Thi Lien Do v Special Adjudicator, Secretary of State for the Home Department CA 16-Dec-2002
The appellants challenged refusal of asylum, claiming that their return to countries which did not respect their religion, would infringe their right to freedom of religious expression. It was accepted that the applicants did not have a sufficient . .
CitedSecretary of State for the Home Department, Regina on the Application of Soumahoro; Regina on the Application of Nadarajah; and similar CA 19-Jun-2003
In each case asylum applicants had been certified as suitable to be returned to the first country at which they had arrived on fleeing their home countries.
Held: To determine whether article 8 was engaged given the territoriality principle, . .
CitedRe S (A Child) CA 10-Jul-2003
The mother of the child on behalf of whom the application was made, was to face trial for murder. The child was in care and an order was sought to restrain publiction of material which might reveal his identity, including matters arising during the . .
CitedAnufrijeva and Another v London Borough of Southwark CA 16-Oct-2003
The various claimants sought damages for established breaches of their human rights involving breaches of statutory duty by way of maladministration. Does the state have a duty to provide support so as to avoid a threat to the family life of the . .
CitedN v the Secretary of State for the Home Department CA 16-Oct-2003
The applicant entered the UK illegally. She was unwell and was given treatment. She resisted removal on the grounds that the treatment available to her would be of such a quality as to leave her life threatened.
Held: D -v- UK should be . .
CitedRegina v Special Adjudicator ex parte Ullah; Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 17-Jun-2004
The applicants had had their requests for asylum refused. They complained that if they were removed from the UK, their article 3 rights would be infringed. If they were returned to Pakistan or Vietnam they would be persecuted for their religious . .
CitedRegina v Sectretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Razgar etc HL 17-Jun-2004
The claimant resisted removal after failure of his claim for asylum, saying that this would have serious adverse consequences to his mental health, infringing his rights under article 8. He appealed the respondent’s certificate that his claim was . .
CitedX, A Woman Formerly Known As Mary Bell v Stephen O’Brien, News Group Newspapers Ltd MGN Ltd QBD 21-May-2003
An injunction effective against the world, was granted to restrain any act to identify the claimant in the media, including the Internet. She had been convicted of murder when a child, and had since had a child herself. An order had been granted . .
CitedN v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 5-May-2005
The applicant had sought asylum here, but her application was rejected. She was suffering advanced HIV/AIDS. With continued proper treatment she would survive several years. If returned to Uganda she would not receive that treatment and would not . .
CitedE v Channel Four, News International Ltd and St Helens Borough Council FD 1-Jun-2005
The applicant sought an order restraining publication by the defendants of material, saying she did not have capacity to consent to the publication. She suffered a multiple personality disorder. She did herself however clearly wish the film to be . .
CitedA Local Authority v W L W T and R; In re W (Children) (Identification: Restrictions on Publication) FD 14-Jul-2005
An application was made by a local authority to restrict publication of the name of a defendant in criminal proceedings in order to protect children in their care. The mother was accused of having assaulted the second respondent by knowingly . .
CitedBritish Broadcasting Company v Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council and X and Y FD 24-Nov-2005
Application was made by the claimant for orders discharging an order made in 1991 to protect the identity of children and social workers embroiled in allegations of satanic sex abuse. The defendant opposed disclosure of the names of two social . .
CitedBrown v HM Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, the Executors of the Estate of and others FD 5-Jul-2007
The plaintiff sought the unsealing of the wills of the late Queen Mother and of the late Princess Margaret, claiming that these would assist him establishing that he was the illegitimate son of the latter.
Held: The application was frivolous. . .
CitedG, Regina (on the Application of) v Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust Admn 20-May-2008
The applicants were detained at Rampton. The form of detention denied the access to space in which they would be able to smoke cigarettes to comply with the law.
Held: The claim failed. The legislative objectives were sufficiently serious to . .
CitedIM (Medical Facilities, Bensaid) Kosovo IAT 17-Jul-2002
. .
CitedEM (Lebanon) v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 22-Oct-2008
The claimant challenged the respondent’s decision to order the return of herself and her son to Lebanon.
Held: The test for whether a claimant’s rights would be infringed to such an extent as to prevent their return home was a strict one, but . .
CitedMarper v United Kingdom; S v United Kingdom ECHR 4-Dec-2008
(Grand Chamber) The applicants complained that on being arrested on suspicion of offences, samples of their DNA had been taken, but then despite being released without conviction, the samples had retained on the Police database.
Held: . .
CitedN, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Health; Regina (E) v Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust CA 24-Jul-2009
The claimants appealed against the imposition on them of smoking bans while they were compulsorily detained at Rampton Hospital. They said that other persons detained for example in prisons had been exempted fully.
Held: The right or freedom . .
CitedE and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v The Director of Public Prosecutions Admn 10-Jun-2011
Judicial review was sought of a decision by the respondent to prosecute a child for her alleged sexual abuse of her younger sisters. Agencies other than the police and CPS considered that a prosecution would harm both the applicant and her sisters. . .
CitedIn re A (A Minor) FD 8-Jul-2011
An application was made in care proceedings for an order restricting publication of information about the family after the deaths of two siblings of the child subject to the application. The Sun and a local newspaper had already published stories . .
CitedH v A (No2) FD 17-Sep-2015
The court had previously published and then withdrawn its judgment after third parties had been able to identify those involved by pulling together media and internet reports with the judgment.
Held: The judgment case should be published in . .
CitedTN, MA and AA (Afghanistan) v Secretary of State for The Home Department SC 24-Jun-2015
The appellants, children from Afghanistan whose asylum claims had been rejected, challenged the sufficiency of the appellate process, and the respondents obligations for family tracing.
Held: The appeals failed. An applicant could not claim, . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Human Rights, Health, Immigration

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.166023

Seal v Chief Constable of South Wales Police: HL 4 Jul 2007

The claimant had sought to bring proceedings against the respondent, but as a mental patient subject to the 1983 Act, had been obliged by the section first to obtain consent. The parties disputed whether the failure was a procedural or substantial failing and whether it made the proceedings a nullity.
Held: The claimant’s appeal failed. An action begun without the prior leave of the High Court was a complete nullity.
Lord Bingham of Cornhill said: ‘the words first introduced in section 16(2) of the 1930 Act (‘No proceedings, civil or criminal, shall be brought’) appear to be clear in their effect and have always been thought to be so. They were introduced with the obvious object of giving mental health professionals greater protection than they had enjoyed before. They were re-enacted with knowledge of the effect the courts had given to them. ‘ (Lord Woolf and Baroness Hale dissenting)
Baroness Hale of Richmond (dissenting) said: ‘I approach the task of construing section 139(2), therefore, on the basis that Parliament, by enacting the procedural requirement to obtain leave, did not intend the result to be that a claimant might be deprived of access to the courts, unless there is express language or necessary implication to the contrary. If there is no express language, there will be no necessary implication unless the legislative purpose cannot be achieved in any other way. Procedural requirements are there to serve the ends of justice, not to defeat them. It does not serve the ends of justice for a claimant to be deprived of a meritorious claim because of a procedural failure which does no substantial injustice to the defendant.’

Lord Bingham of Cornhill, Lord Woolf, Baroness Hale of Richmond, Lord Carswell, Lord Brown of Eaton-under-Heywood
Times 05-Jul-2007, [2007] UKHL 31, [2007] 4 All ER 177, [2007] 1 WLR 1910
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983 139
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRendall v Blair 1890
Where a statute requires leave to commence proceedings to be granted, a failure to obtain such consent does not automatically render the proceedings a nullity.
Bowen LJ said: ‘this section is not framed in the way in which sections are framed . .
Appeal fromSeal v Chief Constable of South Wales Police CA 19-May-2005
Mr Seal noisily objected to a neighbour blocking in his car. Police were called who took him into custody under the 1983 Act. He was released several days later, and eventually sought damages for his wrongful treatment. He had failed to first seek . .
CitedRegina v Immigration Appeal Tribunal, ex Parte Jeyeanthan Admn 3-Apr-1998
An appeal by the Home Secretary against a ruling that he had to use the same prescribed form as would be used by the asylum seeker. The use of a letter which omitted a substantial and important declaration was invalid. Lord Woolf MR made plain the . .
CitedIn re Saunders (A Bankrupt) ChD 1997
Very emphatic language was required in a statute before want of leave should, without more, result in proceedings being treated as a nullity. Leave could in appropriate circumstances be granted after the event notwithstanding the proceedings had . .
CitedPyx Granite Ltd v Ministry of Housing and Local Government HL 1959
There is a strong presumption that Parliament will not legislate to prevent individuals affected by legal measures promulgated by executive public bodies having a fair opportunity to challenge these measures and to vindicate their rights in court . .
CitedRegina v Angel CACD 1968
The failure to obtain the consent of the Director of Public Prosecutions to a prosecution under section 8 of the Sexual Offences Act 1967 rendered the whole of the trial, including the committal proceedings, a complete nullity. . .
CitedHorton v Sadler and Another HL 14-Jun-2006
The claimant had been injured in a road traffic accident for which the defendant was responsible in negligence. The defendant was not insured, and so a claim was to be made against the MIB. The plaintiff issued proceedings just before the expiry of . .
CitedBradford Corporation v Myers HL 1916
The 1893 Act was criticised for its complexity. A section gave protection to public authorities for ‘any act done in pursuance, or execution, or intended execution of any Act of Parliament, or of any power duty or authority, or in respect of any . .
CitedMagor and St Mellons Rural District Council v Newport Corporaion HL 1951
The Court of Appeal had tried to fill in the gaps in a statute where parliament had intended an effect.
Held: Rights to compensation are well capable of falling within the definition of ‘property of a company’ in the relevant provisions of the . .
CitedSecretary of State for Defence v Warn HL 1970
A courts martial prosecution begun without the necessary prior consent, the proceedings were a nullity. . .
CitedGolder v The United Kingdom ECHR 21-Feb-1975
G was a prisoner who was refused permission by the Home Secretary to consult a solicitor with a view to bringing libel proceedings against a prison officer. The court construed article 6 of ECHR, which provides that ‘in the determination of his . .
CitedWalkley v Precision Forgings Ltd CA 1978
The plaintiff appealed the strict application of the limitation laws against his claim. He had been injured whilst working as a grinder. He began one claim which lapsed, and began a second claim outside the limitation period, requesting the court to . .
CitedLondon and Clydeside Estates v Aberdeen District Council HL 8-Nov-1979
Identifying ‘maandatory’ and ‘regulatory’
The appellants had sought a Certificate of Alternative Development. The certificate provided was defective in that it did not notify the appellants, as required, of their right to appeal. Their appeal out of time was refused.
Held: The House . .
CitedRegina v Pearce CACD 1980
The lack of a required consent by the Attorney General, under section 4(3) of the 1977 Act led to the quashing of the conviction. . .
CitedAshingdane v The United Kingdom ECHR 28-May-1985
The right of access to the courts is not absolute but may be subject to limitations. These are permitted by implication since the right of access ‘by its very nature calls for regulation by the State, regulation which may vary in time and place . .
CitedRegina v Soneji and Bullen HL 21-Jul-2005
The defendants had had confiscation orders made against them. They had appealed on the basis that the orders were made more than six months after sentence. The prosecutor now appealed saying that the fact that the order were not timely did not . .
CitedStubbings and Others v The United Kingdom ECHR 22-Oct-1996
There was no human rights breach where the victims of sex abuse had been refused a right to sue for damages out of time. The question is whether and to what extent differences in otherwise similar situations justify a different treatment in law: . .
CitedM v United Kingdom ECHR 1987
The protection of those responsible for the care of mental patients from being harassed by litigation is a legitimate objective. . .
CitedWinch v Jones CA 1986
The court asked as to the criteria which should be applied when considering an application by a mental patient for leave to bring proceedings under section 139: ‘section 139 protects the defendant unless and until the applicant obtains leave. This . .

Cited by:
CitedIn re F (A Child) (Placement Order); C v East Sussex County Council (Adoption) CA 1-May-2008
The father sought to revoke a freeing order. He said that the social workers had conspired to exclude him from the process. The child was born of a casual relationship, and at first he was unaware of the proceedings. On learning of them he sought to . .
CitedAdorian v The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis CA 23-Jan-2009
The claimant received injuries when arrested. He was later convicted of resisting arrest. The defendant relied on section 329 of the 2003 Act. The claimant said that the force used against him was grossly disproportionate. The commissioner appealed . .
CitedTW v London Borough of Enfield and Another QBD 8-May-2013
The claimant sought damages after being detained under the 1983 Act, and a declaration that the section used was incompatible with her human rights.
Held: The test for allowing proceedings was set at a low level, and even if section 139 does . .
CitedPark v Cho and Others ChD 24-Jan-2014
The parties disputed the chairmanship of a charity. The claimant succeeded, but a third party later intervened saying that permission had not first been obtained from the Charity Commission as required. The defendant now appealed against the lifting . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Health, Police

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.254551

Stojak, Regina (on The Application of) v Sheffield City Council: Admn 22 Dec 2009

The deceased had been detained as a mental patient and supported after her release, by her family financially. Her representatives now said that the respondent had failed in its obligation to provide support for no charge. The authority said that the case brought by way of judicial review was brought out of time.
Held: The authority had sought out people to whom such support should have been given but had failed to find the deceased. However the claimant had initially failed to pursue the matter by way of judicial review, wrongly awaiting the outcome of a Local Government Ombudsman’s report, and time to claim should not be extended.

Grenfell S P
[2009] EWHC 3412 (Admin)
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983 117
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRegina v Education Committee of Blackpool Borough Council ex parte Taylor 1999
The court emphasised that a party considering challenging by way of a judicial review a local government decision should not first await the outcome of a reference to the Local Government Ombudsman, since he has no power to set aside the decision. . .
MentionedRegina v Richmond London Borough Council, Ex Parte Watson; Regina v Redcar and Cleveland Borough Council, Ex Parte Armstrong etc Admn 15-Oct-1999
. .
CitedRegina v Manchester City Council, ex parte Stennett etc HL 25-Jul-2002
The applicants were former mental patients who had been admitted to hospital compulsorily under section 3. On their release they were to be given support under section 117. The authorities sought to charge for these services, and appealed a decision . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Local Government, Health, Judicial Review

Updated: 31 October 2021; Ref: scu.384461

Regina v Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Secretary of State For Health, ex Parte Fedesa and Others: ECJ 13 Nov 1990

ECJ 1. Community law – Principles – Legal certainty – Protection of legitimate expectations – Prohibition of the use in livestock farming of certain substances having a hormonal action in the absence of unanimity as to their harmlessness – Infringement – None (Council Directive 88/146) 2. Community law – Principles – Proportionality – Prohibition of an economic activity – Whether disproportionate – Assessment criteria – Discretionary power of the Community legislature in the field of the common agricultural policy – Judicial review – Limits (EEC Treaty, Arts 40 and 43) 3. Community law – Principles – Equal treatment – Harmonization measure applied equally to all the Member States – Differing effects depending on the previous state of national law – Discrimination – None 4. Agriculture – Approximation of laws – Prohibition of the use in livestock farming of certain substances having a hormonal action – Objectives pursued – Choice of legal basis – Article 43 of the Treaty – Misuse of powers – None
(EEC Treaty, Arts 39 and 43, Council Directive 88/146) 5. Measures adopted by the Community institutions – Procedure for enactment – Preparatory documents not affected by a procedural defect occurring at the stage of the final decision in the Council leading to annulment by the Court – Adoption of a new measure on the basis of earlier preparatory documents -Legality 6. Measures adopted by the Community institutions – Application ratione temporis – Period for compliance by the Member States with a directive expiring prior to its adoption – Retroactive effect – Permissibility in the light of the objective to be attained and in the absence of any infringement of the principle of the protection of legitimate expectations – Limits -Principle of non-retroactivity of penal provisions (Council Directive 88/146, Art. 10)
1. Having regard to the divergent appraisals by the national authorities of the Member States, reflected in the differences between existing national legislation, of the dangers which may result from the use of certain substances having a hormonal action, the Council, in deciding in the exercise of its discretionary power to adopt the solution of prohibiting them, neither infringed the principle of legal certainty nor frustrated the legitimate expectations of traders affected by that measure. 2. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, which is one of the general principles of Community law, the lawfulness of the prohibition of an economic activity is subject to the condition that the prohibitory measures are appropriate and necessary in order to achieve the objectives legitimately pursued by the legislation in question, it being understood that when there is a choice between several appropriate measures recourse must be had to the least onerous, and the disadvantages caused must not be disproportionate to the aims pursued. However, with regard to judicial review of compliance with those conditions it must be borne in mind that in matters concerning the common agricultural policy the Community legislature has a discretionary power which corresponds to the political responsibilities given to it by Articles 40 and 43 of the Treaty. Consequently, the legality of a measure adopted in that sphere can be affected only if the measure is manifestly inappropriate having regard to the objective which the competent institution is seeking to pursue. 3. Although a harmonization measure which is intended to standardize previously disparate rules of the Member States inevitably produces different effects depending on the prior state of the various national laws, there cannot be said to be discrimination where it applies equally to all Member States. 4. A decision may amount to a misuse of powers only if it appears, on the basis of objective, relevant and consistent factors, to have been taken with the exclusive purpose, or at any rate the main purpose, of achieving an end other than that stated or evading a procedure specifically prescribed by the Treaty for dealing with the circumstances of the case. That was not so in the case of Directive 88/146 prohibiting the use in livestock farming of certain substances having a hormonal action, which was adopted by the Council on the basis of Article 43 of the Treaty alone. By regulating conditions of the production and marketing of meat in order to improve its quality while curbing surplus production, that directive falls within the scope of the measures provided for by the common organization of the markets in meat and thus contributes to the attainment of the objectives set out in Article 39 of the Treaty. 5. The annulment by a judgment of the Court of a Council directive on account of a procedural defect concerning solely the manner in which it was finally adopted by the Council does not affect the preparatory acts of the other institutions. Therefore, these acts need not be repeated when the Council adopts a new directive replacing the one which has been annulled. Changes occurring in the interval in the composition of those institutions are of no effect since they do not affect the continuity of the institutions themselves. Whether or not a subsequent change in circumstances must be taken into consideration is for each institution to assess. 6. By fixing 1 January 1988 as the date of expiry of the period for implementation of Directive 88/146 prohibiting the use in livestock farming of substances having a hormonal action, Article 10 of the directive gives it retroactive effect in so far as the directive was adopted and notified in March 1988. Outside the criminal sphere, such retroactive effect is permissible, since, first, the directive replaced an earlier directive annulled because of a procedural defect, and the Council considered it necessary in order to avoid a temporary legal vacuum during the period between the annulment of one instrument and its replacement by a lawfully adopted text with regard to the existence of a basis in Community law for national provisions adopted by the Member States in order to comply with the directive which was annulled, and, secondly, there was no infringement of the legitimate expectations of the traders concerned, in light of the rapid succession of the two directives and the reason for which the first one was annulled. As regards the criminal sphere, on the other hand, Article 10 of the directive cannot be interpreted as requiring Member States to adopt measures which conflict with Community law, in particular with the principle that penal provisions may not have retroactive effect, which Community law incorporates, as a fundamental right, among its general principles. Nor may it provide a basis for criminal proceedings instituted under provisions of national law which may have been adopted in implementation of the annulled directive and whose sole basis is to be found therein.
In relation to an alleged infringement of the principle of legal certainty: ‘ . . having regard to the discretionary power conferred on the Council in the implementation of the common agricultural policy, be limited to examining whether the measure in question is vitiated by a manifest error or misuse of powers, or whether the authority in question has manifestly exceeded the limits of its discretion.’
and . . ‘The Court has consistently held that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles of Community law. By virtue of that principle, the lawfulness of the prohibition of an economic activity is subject to the condition that the prohibitory measures are appropriate and necessary in order to achieve the objectives legitimately pursued by the legislation in question; when there is a choice between several appropriate measures recourse must be had to the least onerous, and the disadvantages caused must not be disproportionate to the aims pursued.’

C-331/88, R-88/14, [1990] EUECJ R-88/146, [1990] ECR I-4023
Bailii
EEC Treaty 39 43, Council Directive 88/146
European
Cited by:
CitedConsorzio Del Prosciutto Di Parma v Asda Stores Limited and others HL 8-Feb-2001
The name ‘Parma Ham’ was controlled as to its use under Italian law, and the associated mark, the ‘corona ducale’, was to be applied to a sale of Parma Ham, including any packaging. Proper Parma Ham was imported and resold through the defendant’s . .
CitedBank Mellat v Her Majesty’s Treasury (No 2) SC 19-Jun-2013
The bank challenged measures taken by HM Treasury to restrict access to the United Kingdom’s financial markets by a major Iranian commercial bank, Bank Mellat, on the account of its alleged connection with Iran’s nuclear weapons and ballistic . .
CitedRotherham Metropolitan Borough Council and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills SC 25-Feb-2015
Appeal about the distribution of European Structural Funds among the regions of the United Kingdom. It arises out of the complaint of a number of local authorities in Merseyside and South Yorkshire about the way in which it is proposed to distribute . .
CitedAkerman-Livingstone v Aster Communities Ltd SC 11-Mar-2015
Appeal about the proper approach of the courts where the defendant to a claim for possession of his home raises a defence of unlawful discrimination, contrary to the Equality Act 2010, by the claimant landlord. In particular, the issue is whether . .
CitedLumsdon and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v Legal Services Board SC 24-Jun-2015
The appellant, barristers and solicitors, challenged the respondent’s approval of alterations to their regulatory arrangements, under Part 3 of Schedule 4 to the 2007 Act. The alterations gave effect to the Quality Assurance Scheme for Advocates . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

European, Agriculture, Health

Leading Case

Updated: 31 October 2021; Ref: scu.134975

Mrs P v Rochdale Borough Council and Another: CoP 18 Jul 2016

Final hearing in relation to matters concerning the deprivation of liberty of Mrs P and her care arrangements. In this particular case the issues of her welfare and residence are inextricably linked with the appointment of a deputy that is managing her property and finances.
Matharu DJ
[2016] EWCOP B1
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 27 October 2021; Ref: scu.568154

Regina v Ashworth Special Hospital Authority and Another, ex parte N: QBD 26 Jun 2001

A secure hospital charged with caring for patients considered to be at high risk, imposed rules for monitoring 100 per cent of the telephone calls of high risk prisoners, and a random ten per cent of lower risk patients. Privileged calls were not intercepted. It was held that although this was an infringement of the right to respect for his correspondence, the steps were taken balanced against an understanding of the high risks of escape and other damage which might be suffered. The interceptions took place in accordance with policies approved by the Home Secretary. The interceptions were lawful.
Times 26-Jun-2001
Human Rights Act 1998
England and Wales

Updated: 26 October 2021; Ref: scu.88371

Law Hospital NHS Trust v Lord Advocate and Another: IHCS 20 May 1996

The patient suffered from irreversible damage to the cerebral cortex and fell into a persistent vegetative state in 1992. Permanently insensate, she remained alive only because feeding and hydration were provided to her artificially and because of the nursing care she received in a hospital. Medical experts said her case was useless and that there were no useful avenues of treatment to explore. The patient was unable to consent to treatment ceasing and her family agreed with the experts that the treatment should stop. The hospital raised an action, concluding for declarator that the proposed course of terminating nutrition and hydration and all other life sustaining treatment to the patient would not be unlawful.
Held: Treatment of an insensate patient may be withdrawn where it was not in the patient’s interests. Lord Hope: ‘It may be helpful if I were to describe at the outset what I consider to be the function of the Court in a case of this kind. It belongs to a group of cases which have been recurring with increasing frequency in recent years where the courts are being asked to give their authority to actions to be taken by medical practitioners which raise acute questions of moral or ethical principle. Medical science has now advanced to such a degree that many techniques are now possible which only a generation ago would have been unthinkable. The ability to prolong life by artificial means has reached such a stage that it is possible to nourish the body and preserve it from disease so that life in the clinical sense may be continued indefinitely. Invasive techniques such as those of sterilisation are also possible without the slightest risk of any other physical injury than that which is to be inflicted deliberately. Where the patient is of full age and capable of understanding and consenting to the procedures which on medical advice are for his or her benefit, or decides to refuse medical treatment, the right of self determination provides the solution to all problems, at least so far as the court is concerned. It is not in doubt that a medical practitioner who acts or omits to act with the consent of his patient requires no sanction or other authority from the court. The patient’s consent renders lawful that which would otherwise be unlawful. It is not for the court to substitute its own views as to what may or may not be in the patient’s best interests for the decision of the patient, if of full age and capacity.’
The Lord President, Lord Hope
Times 20-May-1996, 1996 SC 301
Scotland
Cited by:
CitedMcTear v Imperial Tobacco Ltd OHCS 31-May-2005
The pursuer sought damages after her husband’s death from lung cancer. She said that the defenders were negligent in having continued to sell him cigarettes knowing that they would cause this.
Held: The action failed. The plaintiff had not . .
CitedDavidson v Scottish Ministers HL 15-Dec-2005
The complainant a prisoner sought an order that he should not be kept in conditions found to be inhumane. He had been detained in Barlinnie priosn. The Crown replied that a mandatory order was not available against the Scottish Ministers.
CitedClarke v Fennoscandia Ltd and others (Scotland) HL 12-Dec-2007
After being awarded costs in proceedings in the US, the defendants chased the claimant for their costs in Scotland. He sought an interdict saying that the judgment had been obtained by fraud. The defendant had give an undertaking not to pursue the . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 20 October 2021; Ref: scu.82960

Optident Ltd and Another v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry and Another: HL 2 Jul 2001

The claimants manufactured a dental bleaching product. It contained hydrogen peroxide at levels in excess of the limit. It sought to distribute it under licence as a medical product on prescription. The defendant sought to control its distribution under the cosmetics directive. It was held that the two regimes were distinct, and the medicines directive was specifically disapplied to cosmetics. The central purpose of the product was to improve the appearance of teeth, and that fell squarely within the cosmetics directive, and the product had been properly regulated.
Lord Slynn of Hadley, Lord Steyn, Lord Hope of Craighead, Lord Clyde, Lord Hutton
Times 02-Jul-2001, [2001] UKHL 32, (2001) 61 BMLR 10, [2001] 3 CMLR 1
Bailii, House of Lords
Council Directive 93/42/EEC the Medical Devices Directive
England and Wales

Updated: 03 September 2021; Ref: scu.84471

SCC v MSA and Another: CoP 20 Sep 2017

Orse In re M (Incapacitated Person: Withdrawal of Treatment)
The court was concerned with the withdrawal of CANH from a woman who was suffering from Huntington’s disease and was in a minimally conscious state. Her family, her clinicians, and a specialist from whom a second opinion had been sought, were agreed that it was in her best interests not to continue with treatment, notwithstanding that that would result in her death, and a declaration was made to that effect.
Bellamy HHJ
[2017] EWCOP 18, [2018] 1 WLR 465
Bailii
Mental Capacity Act 2005
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedAn NHS Trust and Others v Y and Another SC 30-Jul-2018
The court was asked whether a court order must always be obtained before clinically assisted nutrition and hydration, which is keeping alive a person with a prolonged disorder of consciousness, can be withdrawn, or whether, in some circumstances, . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 03 September 2021; Ref: scu.598420

Briggs v Briggs and Others (EWCOP 48): CoP 24 Nov 2016

The Court considered whether the disagreement about whether it was in the best interests of Mr B for him to be given clinically assisted nutrition and hydration, was one which could be determined
Charles J
[2016] EWCOP 48, [2016] WLR(D) 634
Bailii, WLRD
Mental Capacity Act 2005
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromDirector of Legal Aid Casework and Others v Briggs CA 31-Jul-2017
Orse In re Briggs (Incapacitated Person) . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 01 September 2021; Ref: scu.572012

W v L: CA 1974

For civil patients, it matters a great deal whether the classification of their condition is ‘severe subnormality’ or just ‘subnormality’ or whether it is ‘mental illness’ or ‘psychopathic disorder’. Lawton LJ discussed the construction of the phrase ‘mental illness’: ‘The answer in my judgment is to be found in the advice which Lord Reid gave in Cozens v. Brutus [1973] AC 854 at 861, namely that ordinary words in the English language should be construed in the way that ordinary sensible people would construe them. That being the right test, then I ask myself what would the ordinary sensible person have said about the patient’s condition in this case . . In my judgment such a person would have said ‘well the fellow is obviously mentally ill’. It is that application of the sensible person’s assessment of the condition, plus the medical indication, which in my judgment brought the case within the classification of mental illness and justified the finding of the County Court Judge.’
Lawton LJ
[1974] QB 711
England and Wales
Citing:
ApprovedBrutus v Cozens HL 19-Jul-1972
The House was asked whether the conduct of the defendant at a tennis match at Wimbledon amounted to using ‘insulting words or behaviour’ whereby a breach of the peace was likely to be occasioned contrary to section 5. He went onto court 2, blew a . .

Cited by:
CitedB, Regina (on the Application of) v Ashworth Hospital Authority HL 17-Mar-2005
The House was asked whether a patient detained for treatment under the 1983 Act can be treated against his will for any mental disorder from which he is suffering or only for the particular form of mental disorder from which he is classified as . .
CitedMasterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1) CA 19-Dec-2002
Capacity for Litigation
The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the . .
CitedMcFaddens (A Firm) v Platford TCC 30-Jan-2009
The claimant firm of solicitors had been found negligent, and now sought a contribution to the damages awarded from the barrister defendant. They had not managed properly issues as to their clients competence to handle the proceedings.
Held: . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 21 May 2021; Ref: scu.224203

B v Croydon Health Authority: CA 30 Nov 1994

The feeding by tube of a mental patient who was unable and unwilling to consent can remain treatment, and within the decision of the doctors. In the context of whether the force-feeding an anorexic was authorised by section 63, the Court of Appeal held that treatment falling within the definition in section 145(1) was ‘treatment for the mental disorder from which he is suffering’ even if addressing its symptoms or ancillary to trying to address the underlying disorder.
Times 01-Dec-1994, Independent 30-Nov-1994, [1995] Fam 133
Mental Health Act 1980 63
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedMunjaz v Mersey Care National Health Service Trust And the Secretary of State for Health, the National Association for Mental Health (Mind) Respondent interested; CA 16-Jul-2003
The claimant was a mental patient under compulsory detention, and complained that he had been subjected to periods of seclusion.
Held: The appeal succeeded. The hospital had failed to follow the appropriate Code of Practice. The Code was not . .
CitedB, Regina (on the Application of) v Ashworth Hospital Authority HL 17-Mar-2005
The House was asked whether a patient detained for treatment under the 1983 Act can be treated against his will for any mental disorder from which he is suffering or only for the particular form of mental disorder from which he is classified as . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 10 April 2021; Ref: scu.78057

Regina v Mid Glamorgan Family Health Services Authority, ex parte Martin: CA 7 Sep 1994

A doctor may deny a patient access to his health records if it is in the patient’s best interests to do so. There is no common law right for a patient to see his own medical records, and the Act is not retrospective.
Gazette 19-Oct-1994, Independent 07-Sep-1994, Times 16-Aug-1994, [1995] 1 All ER 357
Access to Health Records Act 1990
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromRegina v Mid Glamorgan Family Health Services and Another, ex parte Martin QBD 2-Jun-1993
The Access to Health Records Act 1990 did not give retrospective rights of access to records which had been created before it was brought into effect. . .

Cited by:
CitedMersey Care NHS Trust v Ackroyd QBD 7-Feb-2006
The trust, operators of Ashworth Secure Hospital sought from the defendant journalist disclosure of the name of their employee who had revealed to the defendant matters about the holding of Ian Brady, the Moors Murderer, and in particular medical . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.87336

Regina v Secretary of State for Home Department ex parte H and Others, Regina v Same ex parte Hickey: CA 29 Jul 1994

A discretionary life prisoner who had been transferred to a mental hospital is not automatically eligible for a certificate under the section. The right conferred on a discretionary life prisoner by section 34 of the 1991 Act did not extend to those who were also detained under the MHA by reason of transfer and restriction directions given by the Home Secretary under sections 47 and 49 respectively. ‘I [do not] see anything unjust or illogical in two separate codes existing which cannot be triggered simultaneously, but each of which at an appropriate time, depending on the circumstances, can be triggered so as to achieve a judicial hearing. ‘ The Home Secretary’s powers to refer a case back to the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) was an integral part of the just functioning of the overall process of criminal justice.
Simon Brown LJ
Times 29-Jul-1994, [1995] QB 43, [1995] 1 WLR 734
Criminal Justice Act 1991 31 Sch 12 9(3), Mental Health Act 1983 47 49
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromRegina v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Hickey and Others QBD 28-Oct-1993
Parole provisions are to apply to life prisoners who had been transferred transferred to a mental hospital. . .
CitedThynne, Wilson and Gunnell v The United Kingdom ECHR 25-Oct-1990
The applicants, discretionary life prisoners, complained of a violation on the ground that they were not able to have the continued lawfulness of their detention decided by a court at reasonable intervals throughout their imprisonment.
Held: A . .

Cited by:
ConfirmedRegina (D) v Secretary of State for the Home Department QBD 19-Dec-2002
The applicant had been a discretionary life prisoner. His minimum period of detention had passed, but he continued to be detained under a transfer order for his treatment as mental health patient.
Held: The absence of any means for him to . .
CitedP, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department Admn 11-Dec-2003
The applicant was a discretionary life prisoner compulsorily detained in a mental hospital. His tariff had now expired. If not detained under the 1983 Act he would now be entitled to a review. He argued that there should be a joint hearing.
CitedRoberts v Parole Board HL 7-Jul-2005
Balancing Rights of Prisoner and Society
The appellant had been convicted of the murder of three police officers in 1966. His tariff of thirty years had now long expired. He complained that material put before the Parole Board reviewing has case had not been disclosed to him.
Held: . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for The Home Department Ex Parte Simms HL 8-Jul-1999
Ban on Prisoners talking to Journalists unlawful
The two prisoners, serving life sentences for murder, had had their appeals rejected. They continued to protest innocence, and sought to bring their campaigns to public attention through the press, having oral interviews with journalists without . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.87747

Regina v Kirklees Borough Council ex parte C (A Minor): CA 12 Apr 1993

A Local Authority may admit a minor in care to a mental hospital for assessment or treatment. Section 131 merely preserves or confirms the common law and previous law. Consent requires proof of conduct and a reasoning capacity.
Lloyd LJ
Ind Summary 12-Apr-1993, [1993] FLR 187
Mental Health Act 1983 131
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedL v Bournewood Community and Mental Health NHS Trust Admn 9-Oct-1997
L was adult autistic. He had been admitted to mental hospital for fear of his self-harming behaviours, and detained informally. He complained that that detention was unlawful.
Held: The continued detention of a mental health patient who is . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.87087

Regina v Cannons Park Mental Health Review Tribunal, Ex Parte A: CA 2 Mar 1994

It was not unlawful for a patient to be detained for treatment, even though he was untreatable, and unwilling to be treated. A Mental Health tribunal appeal was to be allowed where patient was re-admitted.
Gazette 08-Jun-1994, Gazette 30-Mar-1994, Times 02-Mar-1994
Mental Health Act 1983 72(1)(b)
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromRegina v Cannons Park Mental Health Review Tribunal, Ex Parte A QBD 24-Aug-1993
It was unlawful to detain a psychopath for treatment where in fact his condition was untreatable. . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.86290

A Local Authority v DL and Others: FD 19 Apr 2011

The court was asked: ‘Whether there is jurisdiction for the injunctions sought by the Claimant to be made under the court’s inherent jurisdiction in relation to vulnerable adults or under s 222 Local Government Act 1972’ on certain facts.
Theis DBE J
[2011] EWHC 1022 (Fam)
Bailii
Mental Capacity Act 2005, Local Government Act 1972 222

Updated: 13 March 2021; Ref: scu.441417

Buckinghamshire County Council v Royal Borough of Kingston Upon Thames: CA 19 Apr 2011

Appeal against a decision refusing an application by the council to declare unlawful a decision of the the respondents to move SL from residential accommodation provided by the National Society for Epilepsy into other accommodation.
Held: The appeal failed: ‘The context here is an assessment under s.47 in which . . the duty is owed to SL to carry out a proper assessment of her needs. Nothing in that context requires BCC to be consulted before a care plan can be put into place. The obligation of a local authority to provide for those in need of care and attention due to age, illness or disability who are ordinary resident in their area is long-standing and is now established in s.21 of the 1948 Act. The 1990 Act did not alter this. Consequently BCC assumed responsibility for SL when she moved to private accommodation in their area and could have carried out their own s.47 assessment to resolve any issues between them and the LHA. This and the other factors . . point in my view decisively against the implication of the legal duty which is contended for.’
Pill, Patten, Munby LJJ
[2011] EWCA Civ 457, [2011] ACD 83, [2011] Fam Law 814, (2011) 14 CCL Rep 426, [2012] PTSR 854,
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 07 March 2021; Ref: scu.432834

Grogan, Regina (on the Application of) v Bexley NHS Care Trust and others: Admn 25 Jan 2006

The claimant was elderly and in need of care in a nursing home. She claimed that her care needs had been assessed by an unlawful protocol applied by the health authority. She said that she qualified under the criteria for Continuing Health Care.
Held: The question for the court was whether in carrying out its assessment the Defendant had taken a lawful approach in, and by applying, its criteria, and whether it did not apply the primary health need approach. The criteria used were flawed as alleged.
Charles J
[2006] EWHC 44 (Admin), [2006] LGR 491
Bailii
National Health Service Act 1977 17
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedRegina v North and East Devon Health Authority ex parte Coughlan and Secretary of State for Health Intervenor and Royal College of Nursing Intervenor CA 16-Jul-1999
Consultation to be Early and Real Listening
The claimant was severely disabled as a result of a road traffic accident. She and others were placed in an NHS home for long term disabled people and assured that this would be their home for life. Then the health authority decided that they were . .
CitedRegina v North Derbyshire Health Authority ex parte Kenneth Graeme Fisher Admn 11-Jul-1997
The court considered the duty of the authority to take account of guidance issued by the Secretary of State: ‘If the circular provided no more than guidance, albeit in strong terms, then the only duty placed upon health authorities was to take it . .

Cited by:
CitedGreen, Regina (on the Application of) v South West Strategic Health Authority Admn 28-Oct-2008
The claimant said that whilst resident in a care home, her care should have been paid for as health care under ‘Continuing Health Care.’ She said that the decision maker had failed to comply with the Health Authorities guidelines.
Held: In . .
CitedForge Care Homes Ltd and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v Cardiff and Vale University Health Board and Others SC 2-Aug-2017
The court was asked who is legally responsible for paying for the work done by registered nurses in social rather than health care settings. Is the National Health Service responsible for all the work they do or are the social care funders . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 05 March 2021; Ref: scu.238156

In re TM: FD 12 Dec 2013

Application by an NHS Trust for the consent or approbation of the court to proposed medical treatment of a seven-year-old child. The child was born with multiple medical problems, and as a result, very considerable mental and physical developmental delay. She has received a great deal of help and treatment throughout her life from the hospital of the NHS Trust. There had been a good working relationship between the staff and treating doctors and the parents, and in particular with the mother of the child, with whom she lived. ‘The purpose of these few words is solely to explain why I am imposing temporarily what has just been described as a blanket injunction on any reporting whatsoever – whether in a newspaper, by broadcast, or in any form of web-based communication – of the existence of these proceedings or anything that has taken place in court today. I do so because that is, of course, a very strong and grave restriction on the Convention right of freedom of expression which underpins the democratic rights of us all. These proceedings were listed for hearing in public, and every single word of them today has taken place in public, with journalists present in the court room. I am now delivering this short judgment in public, but this judgment, like everything else that has been said today, will also be the subject of the same temporary blanket restraint.’
Holman J
[2013] EWHC 4043 (Fam)
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 03 March 2021; Ref: scu.519045

Re A (A Child): FD 12 Feb 2015

An NHS Trust, sought declarations in relation to Child A, who had been declared clinically dead. That declaration was confirmed by two brain stem tests, the latter taking place, confirming the results of the earlier test and, therefore, supporting the declaration i.e. that brain stem death had occurred at 10.10am on that date. He had choked on a satsuma stem. The request was opposed by the parents.
Hayden J
[2015] EWHC 443 (Fam)
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 02 March 2021; Ref: scu.543961

AH v West London MHT: UTAA 29 Jul 2010

Prisoner in secure hospital – application for public hearig of request for discharge – refused
[2010] UKUT 264 (AAC)
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983, European Convention on Human Rights
England and Wales
Cited by:
See AlsoAH v West London MHT (J) UTAA 17-Feb-2011
Order for public hearing of detention review under Mental Health Act – at request of AH. . .
CitedRegina (on the application of C) v Secretary of State for Justice SC 27-Jan-2016
The applicant was a convicted murderer who had been held in a high security mental hospital. His application for unescorted leave had been refused, and he wished to challenge the decisions. Anonymity in the subsequent proceedings had been refused to . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 27 February 2021; Ref: scu.423213

G v E and Others: CA 4 May 2010

E, now aged 19, suffered a genetic condition leading to severe learning disability, and a lack of mental capacity. After being in the care of F, but displaying potentially violent behaviours, he was removed against his and F’s will to the care of the local authority. G, his sister had applied for his return home, or to F. An order had been made that pending a review and arrangements for his return, E should stay with the local authority. G now renewed her application for permission to appeal.
Held: Permission was granted on several grounds, and the court expressed a strong desire that it should be listed urgently.
Lord Neuberger MR, Munby LJ
[2010] EWCA Civ 548
Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 5 8
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal FromG v E and Others CoP 26-Mar-2010
E Was born with and still suffered severe learning difficulties. The court was asked as to the extent of his capacity to make decisions, and as to where he should live, with a family member, the carer or with the local authority, which had removed . .
CitedWinterwerp v The Netherlands ECHR 24-Oct-1979
A Dutch national detained in hospital complained that his detention had divested him of his capacity to administer his property, and thus there had been determination of his civil rights and obligations without the guarantee of a judicial procedure. . .
CitedIn re PS (an Adult), Re; City of Sunderland v PS by her litigation friend the Offcial Solcicitor and CA; Re PS (Incapacitated or Vulnerable Adult) FD 9-Mar-2007
The patient an elderly lady with limited mental capacity was to be returned from hospital, but her daughter said she was to come home. The local authority sought to prevent this, wanting to return her to a residential unit where she had lived for . .

Cited by:
Leave to appealG v E and Others CA 16-Jul-2010
E, now aged 19, suffered a genetic disorder leading to severe learning disability and lack of mental capacity. He had been in the care of his sister, the appellant, but had been removed by the local authority when his behaviour became disturbed. G, . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 25 February 2021; Ref: scu.416783

TTM v London Borough of Hackney and Others: Admn 11 Jun 2010

The claimant had said that his detention under the 1983 Act was unlawful, and that the court should issue a writ of habeas corpus for his release. Having been released he sought damages on the basis that his human rights had been infringed. The admission had been made despite the claimant’s brother having notified the defendant of his objections under 11(4), the hospital had made the order without reference to him.
Held: The claim failed.
Collins J
[2010] EWHC 1349 (Admin), [2010] Med LR 362, [2010] ACD 78
Bailii
Mental Health Act 1983 3 139, Human Rights Act 1998, European Convention on Human Rights 5 8
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedE, Regina (on the Application of) v Bristol City Council Admn 13-Jan-2005
The patient did not wish her nearest relative, namely her sister, to be involved with her case and there was evidence that she would be so distressed by the sister being consulted that it could harm her health. The sister likewise did not wish to . .
CitedRegina v Ashworth Hospital Authority (Now Mersey Care National Health Service Trust) ex parte Munjaz HL 13-Oct-2005
The claimant was detained in a secure Mental Hospital. He complained at the seclusions policy applied by the hospital, saying that it departed from the Guidance issued for such policies by the Secretary of State under the Act.
Held: The House . .
CitedRegina v Managers of South Western Hospital and Another, Ex Parte M QBD 24-Mar-1993
The patient was detained on the application of an AMHP. In purported pursuance of section 11(4) the AMHP had consulted the patient’s mother as her nearest relative. However, the patient’s mother was not ordinarily resident in the UK, and, according . .
CitedPrison Officers Association v Iqbal CA 4-Dec-2009
poa_iqbalCA2009
The claimant, a prisoner, alleged false imprisonment. The prison officers had taken unlawful strike action leaving him to be confined within his cell and unable to be involved in his normal activities. In view of the strike, a governor’s order had . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromTTM v London Borough of Hackney and Others CA 14-Jan-2011
The claimant had been found to have been wrongfully detained under section 3. He appealed against rejection of his claim for judicial review and for damages. The court found that his detention was lawful until declared otherwise. He argued that the . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 25 February 2021; Ref: scu.416634

Condliff, Regina (on The Application of) v North Staffordshire Primary Care Trust: Admn 7 Apr 2011

The patient sought judicial review of the decision not to fund laparoscopic gastric by-pass surgery. He said that the policy by which all such requests are to be considered and determined exclusively by reference to clinical factors, infringed his Article 8 rights.
Held: The claim failed.
Waksman QC J
[2011] EWHC 872 (Admin)
Bailii
National Health Service Act 2006, European Convention on Human Rights8
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromCondliff, Regina (on The Application of) v North Staffordshire Primary Care Trust CA 27-Jul-2011
the claimant, a morbidly obese man, made a funding request to the trust for gastric surgery. This was refused because he did not meet the trust’s policy of offering funding to people who had a body mass index which exceeded a certain level. The . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 22 February 2021; Ref: scu.432845

McCann v The State Hospitals Board for Scotland: SC 11 Apr 2017

A challenge by request for judicial review to the legality of the comprehensive ban on smoking at the State Hospital at Carstairs which the State Hospitals Board adopted. The appellant, a detained patient, did not challenge the ban on smoking indoors, but rather as to the ban on smoking in the grounds and on home visits, which, by creating a comprehensive ban, prevented detained patients from smoking anywhere.
Held: The appeal was allowed in part. The respondent had not considered the principle that their actions should represent the minimum interference with a restrained person’s freedoms necessary to achieve the intended purpose. The absolute prohibition on having tobacco products and the related powers to search and confiscate were illegal and were nullified.
‘The Board did not purport to act under the 2003 Act in instituting the policy of prohibiting the possession of tobacco products, searching for such products and confiscating them. It may be the case that the consultation exercises which the Board carried out during 2011 were sufficient to comply with the obligations in section 1(2) and (3) of the 2003 Act. But there appears to have been no consideration of the obligation under section 1(4) nor compliance with the obligations to inform and record in the 2005 Regulations. This is not surprising as the Board considered that it was acting under the 1978 Act.’
Lady Hale, Deputy President, Lord Mance, Lord Wilson, Lord Reed, Lord Hodge
[2017] UKSC 31, [2017] 1 WLR 1455, 2017 GWD 12-169, 2017 SLT 451, [2017] 4 All ER 449, (2017) 156 BMLR 35, [2017] WLR(D) 268, UKSC 2015/0135
Bailii, Bailii Summary, WLRD, SC, SC Summary, SC Summary Video
Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003, European Convention on Human Rights 8
Scotland
Citing:
Outer HouseCM, Re Judicial Review SCS 27-Aug-2013
(Outer House) The prisoner, held in a high security psychiatric hospital, challenged the outright ban on smoking.
Held: The Lord Ordinary declared that the impugned decision was unlawful so far as it affected Mr McCann both because it was not . .
Extra Div Inner HouseSN v Secretary of State for The Home Department SCS 14-Jan-2014
Extra Division, Inner House – . .
Appeal FromReclaiming Motion Charles McCann v The State Hospital Board for Scotland SCS 12-Aug-2014
Inner House – The house considered a reclaiming motion (appeal) as to the lawfulness of a decision by the respondents to prohibit smoking and the possession of tobacco in the buildings and grounds of the State Hospital, Carstairs. The Board . .
CitedLyons, Re Judicial Review SCS 2-Feb-2011
The petitioner was a detained patient, subject to both a compulsion and restriction orders. He objected to a policy restricting visitors from bringing food parcels, and restricting ordering food from outside.
Held: Lady Dorrian held that the . .
CitedG, Regina (on the Application of) v Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust Admn 20-May-2008
The applicants were detained at Rampton. The form of detention denied the access to space in which they would be able to smoke cigarettes to comply with the law.
Held: The claim failed. The legislative objectives were sufficiently serious to . .
CitedMunjaz v The United Kingdom ECHR 17-Jul-2012
The applicant was detained in a secure mental hospital. He complained that he had been held in seclusion.
Held: The complaints under articles 5 and 8 were admissible, but there had been no violation of the applicant’s rights in these . .
CitedBruggeman and Scheuten v Federal Republic of Germany ECHR 12-Jul-1977
(Commission) The applicants complained at restrictions on the termination of unwanted pregnancies.
Held: Article 8(1) secures to the individual a sphere within which he can freely pursue the development and fulfilment of his personality. He . .
CitedMarckx v Belgium ECHR 13-Jun-1979
Recognition of illegitimate children
The complaint related to the manner in which parents were required to adopt their own illegitimate child in order to increase his rights. Under Belgian law, no legal bond between an unmarried mother and her child results from the mere fact of birth. . .
CitedNiemietz v Germany ECHR 16-Dec-1992
A lawyer complained that a search of his offices was an interference with his private life.
Held: In construing the term ‘private life’, ‘it would be too restrictive to limit the notion of an ‘inner circle’ in which the individual may live his . .
CitedCountryside Alliance and others, Regina (on the Application of) v Attorney General and Another HL 28-Nov-2007
The appellants said that the 2004 Act infringed their rights under articles 8 11 and 14 and Art 1 of protocol 1.
Held: Article 8 protected the right to private and family life. Its purpose was to protect individuals from unjustified intrusion . .
CitedPretty v The United Kingdom ECHR 29-Apr-2002
The applicant was paralysed and suffered a degenerative condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to assist her suicide by accompanying her to Switzerland. English law would not excuse such behaviour. She argued that the right to die is not . .
CitedLondon Borough of Harrow v Qazi HL 31-Jul-2003
The applicant had held a joint tenancy of the respondent. His partner gave notice and left, and the property was taken into possession. The claimant claimed restoration of his tenancy saying the order did not respect his right to a private life and . .
CitedRaymond v Honey HL 4-Mar-1981
The defendant prison governor had intercepted a prisoner’s letter to the Crown Office for the purpose of raising proceedings to have the governor committed for an alleged contempt of court.
Held: The governor was in contempt of court. Subject . .
CitedRegina v Broadmoor Hospital Authority, Ex p S CA 1998
Routine and random searches may be an incident of therapeutic detention and treatment. . .
CitedHirst v United Kingdom (2) ECHR 6-Oct-2005
(Grand Chamber) The applicant said that whilst a prisoner he had been banned from voting. The UK operated with minimal exceptions, a blanket ban on prisoners voting.
Held: Voting is a right not a privilege. It was a right central in a . .
CitedBank Mellat v Her Majesty’s Treasury (No 2) SC 19-Jun-2013
The bank challenged measures taken by HM Treasury to restrict access to the United Kingdom’s financial markets by a major Iranian commercial bank, Bank Mellat, on the account of its alleged connection with Iran’s nuclear weapons and ballistic . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 18 February 2021; Ref: scu.581645

Broadmoor Hospital Authority v Robinson: QBD 12 Oct 1998

A secure hospital’s right to prevent a package or letter being sent out by a patient did not extend to allowing a restriction on publication or recovery of a book manuscript once it had already left the hospital.
Poole J
Times 15-Oct-1998
Mental Health Act 1983 134
England and Wales
Citing:
Appealed toBroadmoor Hospital Authority and Another v Robinson CA 20-Dec-1999
Where a body was given statutory duties, it would normally be entitled to orders restraining others from interfering with its performance of those duties. A patient detained under the Act had written a book, and the Hospital had sought to restrain . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromBroadmoor Hospital Authority and Another v Robinson CA 20-Dec-1999
Where a body was given statutory duties, it would normally be entitled to orders restraining others from interfering with its performance of those duties. A patient detained under the Act had written a book, and the Hospital had sought to restrain . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 18 February 2021; Ref: scu.78664

Blouet v Bath and Wansdyke Magistrates Court: Admn 12 Mar 2009

Application for judicial review of the decision of the district judge, sitting at Bath and Wansdyke Magistrates’ Court, not to order a fact-finding exercise rather than a trial.
[2009] EWHC 759 (Admin), [2009] MHLR 71
Bailii
Powers of Criminal Courts (Sentencing) Act 2000 11(1), Mental Health Act 1983 37(3)
England and Wales

Updated: 17 February 2021; Ref: scu.347435

KD and Another v London Borough of Havering: CoP 19 Oct 2009

The court may determine a case summarily of its own motion, but their power ‘must be exercised appropriately and with a modicum of restraint’.
Horowitz QC
(2009) 12 CCL Rep 671, [2010] Fam Law 244, [2010] WTLR 69, [2009] EW Misc 7 (EWCOP), [2010] 1 FLR 1393
Bailii
Mental Capacity Act 2005
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedN v ACCG and Others SC 22-Mar-2017
The local authority and a young man’s parents disputed his continued care, he having substantial incapacities. The parents wanted assistance caring for him on visits home. The LA declined to fund that support. The LA now argued that the CoP had not . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 14 February 2021; Ref: scu.406661

John M, Regina v: CACD 14 Nov 2003

The trial judge had directed the jury, determining fitness to plead, with an extended formulation of the test, including the appellant’s ability to give evidence, if he wished, in his own defence. This facility had been described to mean that ‘the defendant must be able (a) to understand the questions he is asked in the witness box, (b) to apply his mind to answering them, and (c) to convey intelligibly to the jury the answers which he wishes to give. It is not necessary that his answers should be plausible or believable or reliable… Nor is it necessary that the defendant should be able to remember all or any of the matters which give rise to the charge against him…’
Held: The judge’s direction ws approved. The court considered the authorities on the test for whether a defendant was fit to plead. The court summarised the questions to be asked: ‘Does the defendant understand the charges that have been made against him? Is he able to decide whether to plead guilty or not? Is he able to exercise his right to challenge the jurors? Is he able intelligently to convey to his lawyers the case which he wishes them to advance on his behalf, and the matters which he wishes to put forward in his defence? Is he able to follow the proceedings when they come to court? And is he able, if he wishes, to give evidence on his own behalf? ‘
Keene LJ, Roderick Evans, J Cooke J
[2003] EWCA Crim 3452, [2004] MHLR 86
Bailii
Criminal Procedure (Insanity) Act 1964 4(5)
Citing:
ExplainedRex v Pritchard 21-Mar-1836
A person, deaf and dumb, was to be tried for a capital felony the Judge ordered a Jury to be impanneled, to try whether he was mute by the visitation of God, the jury found that he was so. The jury were then sworn to try whether he was able to . .
CitedRegina v Berry CACD 1978
Although a person was highly abnormal, it did not mean that he was incapable of doing those things set out in Pritchard as the requirements to be fit to be tried. Lord Lane CJ set aside a finding that the defendant was unfit to stand trial, saying: . .
CitedRegina v Robertson CACD 1968
The evidence suggested that the defendant had a complete understanding of the legal proceedings in which he was involved but, also that, through mental illness, he had suffered delusions which may have effected his ability ‘properly’ to conduct his . .
CitedRegina v Robertson CACD 1968
The evidence suggested that the defendant had a complete understanding of the legal proceedings in which he was involved but, also that, through mental illness, he had suffered delusions which may have effected his ability ‘properly’ to conduct his . .

Cited by:
CitedMoyle v Regina CACD 18-Dec-2008
The defendant appealed from his conviction for murder. He said that he had not been fit to plead at the time of the trial. A medical report had said that whilst his responsibility was impaired, it had not been substantially so. The report warned of . .
CitedTaitt v The State PC 8-Nov-2012
(Trinidad and Tobago) The defendant sought leave to appeal against his conviction for murder, with the death penalty mandatory sentence. He was of severely low intelligence.
Held: The appeal against conviction would not be allowed. Settled law . .
CitedOrr, Regina v CACD 7-Jul-2016
The court considered whether the trial court had correctly identified the test for fitness to plead.
Held: The appeal was allowed: ‘Once the issue of fitness to plead has been raised it must be determined. In this case, the judge explicitly . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 12 February 2021; Ref: scu.279859

A v United Kingdom: ECHR 1980

The Commission declared admissible a complaint from a Broadmoor patient who had been secluded for five weeks after a fire. A friendly settlement was reached, without admission of liability but on the basis that new guidelines for the use of seclusion would be issued, as indeed they were.
(1980) 3 EHRR 131
Human Rights
Cited by:
CitedMunjaz v Mersey Care National Health Service Trust And the Secretary of State for Health, the National Association for Mental Health (Mind) Respondent interested; CA 16-Jul-2003
The claimant was a mental patient under compulsory detention, and complained that he had been subjected to periods of seclusion.
Held: The appeal succeeded. The hospital had failed to follow the appropriate Code of Practice. The Code was not . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 12 February 2021; Ref: scu.185209

LLBC v TG: FD 14 Nov 2007

The court heard a dispute between the local authority and members of TC’s family as to his future care. TC suffered dementia and had been given notice to leave his nursing home, and was in hospital.
McFarlane J
[2007] EWHC 2640 (Fam)
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 11 February 2021; Ref: scu.279033