The respondent had made an order banning the processing of milk products from the interested party’s farm into cheese products. Cheese manufacturers objected to the order. The order had been held unlawful, and the Secretary of State now appealed. Held: Proportionality itself is not always equated with intense scrutiny Judges: Lord Bingham of Cornhill LCJ, … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for Health ex parte Eastside Cheese Company (a Firm) and R A Duckett and Co Interested: CA 1 Jul 1999
The council had taken the applicant’s children into care alleging that the mother had harmed them. In the light of the subsequent cases casting doubt on such findings, the mother sought the return of her children. She applied now that the hearings be in public. Held: The applicant and her solicitors had already made significant … Continue reading Kent County Council v The Mother, The Father, B (By Her Children’s Guardian); Re B (A Child) (Disclosure): FD 19 Mar 2004
Where extra publicity might attach to proceedings because of the celebrity of the parents, it was wrong to attach extra restrictions on reporting without proper cause. There remains a need to balance the need for the freedom of speech and the child’s interests. That balance does not always fall one way.Thorpe LJ said that the … Continue reading In Re G (Minors) (Celebrities: Publicity): CA 4 Nov 1998
The Court gave guidance setting out recommended practice regarding any application for interim injunctive relief in civil proceedings to restrain the publication of information (referred to as an interim non-disclosure order). In particular guidance was provided as to ‘the proper approach to the general principle of open justice in respect of such applications’. Applications which … Continue reading Practice Guidance (Interim Non-disclosure Orders): 1 Jul 2011
A request for assistance came from the United States pursuant to the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty of 2nd December 1996. Pill LJ, giving the first judgment stressed the need for candour and full disclosure when a warrant is being sought, quoting Bingham LJ in ex parte Hill that the judge ‘should be told anything to … Continue reading Regina v Director of Serious Fraud Office ex parte KM and others: 7 Apr 1998
An allegation of contempt was made in proceedings related to the publication by a newspaper of extracts from a report by a social worker and a report by the Official Solicitor, both prepared after the commencement and for the purpose of the wardship proceedings. Held: What was published was ‘information relating to [the] proceedings’ within … Continue reading In re F (otherwise A ) (A Minor) (Publication of Information): CA 1977
The columnist Nigel Dempster had written that the mother in forthcoming proceedings relating to a child was a bad mother. Held: The article was a contempt of court. Such an allegation required proof to the criminal standard. At common law the publisher had no liability in contempt without knowledge. Contempt applied as regards wards of … Continue reading X v Dempster: FD 9 Nov 1998
Public Identification of Pedophiles by Police AB and CB had been released from prison after serving sentences for sexual assaults on children. They were thought still to be dangerous. They moved about the country to escape identification, and came to be staying on a campsite. The police sought to co-operate in the resettlement of the … Continue reading Regina v Chief Constable of North Wales Police and Others Ex Parte Thorpe and Another; Regina v Chief Constable for North Wales Police Area and others ex parte AB and CB: CA 18 Mar 1998
Conflicts of Duty with former Client The House was asked as to the duties of the respondent accountants (KPMG). KPMG had information confidential to a former client, the appellant, which might be relevant to instructions which they then accepted from the Brunei Investment Agency, of which Prince Jefri had been chairman, to investigate the whereabouts … Continue reading Prince Jefri Bolkiah v KPMG (A Firm): HL 16 Dec 1998
Discosure of Confidences must be at risk H sought to restrain W’s solicitors from acting. The firm was one of six firms approached to consider representing H, and he now said that certain matters had been diviluged to the firm. Held: The legal principles were clear, and it was for H to establish that some … Continue reading ZS v FS (Application To Prevent Solicitor Acting): FD 24 Oct 2017
The defendant had requested the Isle of Man authorities to investigate the part if any taken by the plaintiff in a major fraud. No charges were brought against the plaintiff, but the documents showing suspicion came to be disclosed in the later trial of others. The plaintiff sought damages in defamation. Held: The documents which … Continue reading Taylor and Others v Director of The Serious Fraud Office and Others: HL 29 Oct 1998
Limitation on Making of Anonymity Orders A firm of solicitors sought an order for anonymity in their proceedings against the LAB, saying that being named would damage their interests irrespective of the outcome. Held: The legal professions have no special part in the law as a party to entitle a court to allow a solicitors … Continue reading Regina v Legal Aid Board ex parte Kaim Todner (a Firm of Solicitors): CA 10 Jun 1998
Right of Recovery of Money Paid under Mistake Kleinwort Benson had made payments to a local authority under swap agreements which were thought to be legally enforceable when made. Subsequently, a decision of the House of Lords, (Hazell v. Hammersmith and Fulham) established that such swap agreements were unlawful. Kleinwort Benson then sought restitution of … Continue reading Kleinwort Benson Ltd v Lincoln City Council etc: HL 29 Jul 1998
The defendant had been convicted, under regulations made under the Act, of smoking in a railway carriage. He sought to challenge the validity of the regulations themselves. He wanted to argue that the power to ban smoking on carriages did not . .
The claimant, the son of the leader of Libya, sought damages for defamation from the defendant for an article alleging his involvement in criminal activities. The defendant appealed orders striking out certain parts of his defence, and the claimant . .
The defendant, a structural engineer, was retained by the plaintiffs in a claim against insurers for the costs of remedying subsidence of the plaintiffs’ house. He advised total underpinning for pounds 77,000, but later while preparing a joint . .
An application was made by a local authority to restrict publication of the name of a defendant in criminal proceedings in order to protect children in their care. The mother was accused of having assaulted the second respondent by knowingly . .
A large number of plaintiffs brought actions against the defendants, three tobacco companies, claiming damages for personal injuries by reason of cancer which they claimed was caused by smoking cigarettes manufactured by the defendants. A hearing . .
The claimant alleged that the defendants had funded the purchase of various properties by secret and unlawful commissions taken by them whilst in power in Pakistan. They sought to recover the proceeds. They now sought permission to serve proceedings . .
Each defendant sought disclosure of materials concerning the intoximeter instruments, having been charged with driving with excess alcohol. The defendants said that the meters were inaccurate and that the manufacturers were in effect part of the . .
The defendant had requested the Isle of Man authorities to investigate the part if any taken by the plaintiff in a major fraud. No charges were brought against the plaintiff, but the documents showing suspicion came to be disclosed in the later . .
References: Unreported, 7 April 1998 Coram: Pill LJ A request for assistance came from the United States pursuant to the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty of 2nd December 1996. Pill LJ, giving the first judgment stressed the need for candour and full disclosure when a warrant is being sought, quoting Bingham LJ in ex parte Hill … Continue reading Regina v Director of Serious Fraud Office ex parte KM and others; 7 Apr 1998
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In a protected disclosure case, time runs from the occurrence of the alleged detriment and not from the alleged disclosure.Lord Nimmo Smith said: ‘It would appear to us to be consistent with the main purpose of the 1998 Act to approach the matter in this way, as to construe it in the manner suggested by … Continue reading Stolt Offshore Ltd v Miklaszewicz: SCS 21 Dec 2001
The claimant alleged that she had been dismissed for making qualifying disclosures about her employers. The employer said that her actions had not been in good faith. The claimant answered that her motive was irrelevant. The claimant appealed dismissal of her claim. Held: The minimum requirement of the Act was that the disclosures were made … Continue reading Street v Derbyshire Unemployed Workers’ Centre: CA 21 Jul 2004
Citations:  EAT 0518 – 02 – 1703,  UKEAT 0518 – 02 – 1703 Links: Bailii, Bailii Statutes: Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Employment Updated: 08 June 2022; Ref: scu.189298
The employee claimed that he had been unlawfully dismissed, and that his dismissal broke the protection given to whistleblowers under the Act. The employer appealed. Held: In such claims it was necessary first for the tribunal to establish whether it had jurisdiction, by testing whether a protected disclosure had taken place, and whether that had … Continue reading ALM Medical Services Limited v Bryan Bladon: CA 26 Jul 2002
The applicant had been employed for a short period. He was dismissed, and he claimed that this was because he had made a protected disclosure in complaining about the respondent’s health and safety practices. He had applied for interim relief. The respondent company had asked that the claim be treated as vexatious, and at the … Continue reading Parkins v Sodexho Ltd: EAT 22 Jun 2001
The Court was asked whether a district judge qualifies as a ‘worker’ for the purpose of the protection given to whistle-blowers under Part IVA of the 1996 Act, and if not then was the absence of protection an infringement of her human rights. Held: As an office holder, she was neither employee nor worker, and … Continue reading Gilham v Ministry of Justice: SC 16 Oct 2019
The complainant requested information held by Wakefield Metropolitan District Council (the council) in relation to the settlement of employment tribunal proceedings brought by six former council employees under the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 who were dismissed for whistle blowing. In particular, he asked for the total amount paid to the former employees. The council … Continue reading Wakefield Metropolitan District Council (Decision Notice): ICO 14 Oct 2009
EAT Unfair Dismissal – ‘This case is about whistle blowing, the treatment of an employee who makes disclosure in the public interest about wrong doing by others. ‘ Judges: His Hon Judge McMullen QC Citations: EAT/54/03 Links: EAT Statutes: Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 Cited by: Appeal from – De Haney v Mind and Another … Continue reading De Haney v Mind, Lang: EAT 10 Apr 2003
Jurisdictional Points: Worker, Employee or Neither – The Employment Judge made no error of law in concluding that District Judges are office-holders and do not also work under a contract of employment or for services. Judges: Simler DBE P J Citations:  UKEAT 0087 – 16 – 3110,  ICR 404,  IRLR 23 Links: … Continue reading Gilham v Ministry of Justice: EAT 31 Oct 2016
Appeal by employment judge against dismissal of whistleblower’s claim. Held: Dismissed. An employment judge is an office-holder, and neither office holder nor worker. Judges: Lady Justice Gloster (Vice President of the Court of Appeal (Civil Division)) Lord Justice Underhill And Lord Justice Singh Citations:  EWCA Civ 2220,  IRLR 315,  3 All ER … Continue reading Gilham v Ministry of Justice: CA 21 Dec 2017
UTAA Jobseekers allowance – voluntary unemployment – ‘This case raises some interesting and difficult questions about the relevance to the provision in section 19(6)(a) of the Jobseekers Act 1995 for a ‘sanction’ (ie the identification of a period up to 26 weeks for which jobseeker’s allowance (JSA) is not payable) where a claimant has ‘lost … Continue reading AA v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: UTAA 15 Mar 2012
The appellant challenged reversal by the EAT of a finding that it had not unlawfully victimised the respondents for the making of a protected disclosure. The claimant had reported a co-worker exaggerating his qualifications. After repeated investigations, the employer decided that the apology from the employee was enough. When the claimant persisted the employee who … Continue reading NHS Manchester v Fecitt and Others: CA 25 Oct 2011
The employee alleged harassment and bullying against a more senior officer. After an investigation and appeal, the respondent found against the applicant, and withdrew his work on the television. He complained that he had been made subject to . .
EAT VICTIMISATION DISCRIMINATION: Protected disclosure
The claimant, who had less than one year’s continuous employment fell out with his fellow directors and equal shareholders. He was removed as a . .
EAT The claimant had worked as an adviser for the respondent identifying investment opportunities. He said he had been unfairly dismissed after disclosing that the company had overpaid for an investment. He now . .
The court considered the damages to be awarded to a whistle blower on dismissal.
Held: The employee was entitled to damages for injuries to his feelings up to the point of his dismissal. Where there was available any adjustment in respect of . .
EAT Public Interest Disclosure – On the evidence and on the chronology presented to the Employment Tribunal there were no grounds for finding that the Claimant’s protected disclosures were not made in good faith. . .
The applicant was a school nurse who was suspended after disclosing facts about her employers. She said that the employers were in breach of the Act in failing to re-instate her once the 1998 Act came into force.
Held: The events about which . .
Application for leave to appeal. . .
The complainant’s son died in a traffic incident which occurred on the A1(M) in Hertfordshire in July 2003. Since then he has been in correspondence with the public authority seeking access to information relating to its investigation of this incident. Partial disclosure had been made to him as the father of the deceased (not as … Continue reading Hertfordshire Constabulary (Decision Notice): ICO 28 Feb 2008
Presumption in Favour of Open Proceedings There had been an unauthorised dissemination by the petitioner to third parties of the official shorthand writer’s notes of a nullity suit which had been heard in camera. An application was made for a committal for contempt. Held: The House equated the contempt to a breach of an injunction … Continue reading Scott v Scott: HL 5 May 1913
The defendants appealed against their convictions for conspiracy to manufacture and distribute counterfeit Microsoft products. They said that inadequate disclosure had been provided by Microsoft. The principal witness was a participating informant whose evidence had contained many demonstrable lies. Held: Longmore LJ said: ‘the Crown does have obligations in respect of material in the hands … Continue reading Regina v Alibhai and Others: CACD 30 Mar 2004
The complainant has requested information concerning a list of Articles in Directive 95/46/EC (the repealed Data Protection Directive) which the European Commission have alleged were not implemented properly by the UK Government via the provisions in the (repealed) Data Protection Act 1998 and identification of the sections in the 1998 Act to which each allegation … Continue reading Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (Central Government): ICO 5 Feb 2020
Six appeals concerned a number of aspects of the new Conditional Fee Agreement. Held: It should be normal for a CFA, redacted as necessary, to be disclosed for costs proceedings where a success fee is claimed. If a party seeks to rely on the CFA, as a matter of fairness she should ordinarily be put … Continue reading Hollins v Russell etc: CA 22 May 2003
The defendants applied for the defence statements of co-defendants to be disclosed. A co-defendant was to give evidence for the Crown, and they sought to have it excluded as unreliable. Held: The 1996 Act created a duty of secondary disclosure, where a defence statement might be of assistance to the co-defendants. Actual disclosure remained for … Continue reading Regina v Cairns; Regina v Zaldi, Regina v Chaudary: CACD 22 Nov 2002
The claimants sought an interlocutory injunction restraining the defendants from publishing a report in breach of a contractual duty of confidence. This was granted but then discharged on the defendant undertaking only to publish a redacted version. On an application for permission to appeal, it was alleged that Sullivan J had wrongly conducted a balancing … Continue reading London Regional Transport, London Underground Limited v Mayor of London Transport for London: CA 24 Aug 2001
The claimant journalist sought disclosure of papers acquired by the respondent in its conduct of enquiries into the charitable Mariam appeal. The Commission referred to an absolute exemption under section 32(2) of the 2000 Act, saying that the exemption continued until the papers were destroyed, or for 20 years under the 1958 Act. Held: The … Continue reading Kennedy v The Charity Commission: SC 26 Mar 2014
The prosecution have a duty to disclose to the defence the statement of an adverse witness and not just to provide the name and address, even though that person was not seen as credible witness by the prosecution. ‘the rule in Bryant and Dickson is not in conformity with the principles relating to disclosure established … Continue reading Regina v Mills, Regina v Poole: HL 24 Jul 1997
The police have power to release limited information about offenders. In this case known paedophiles were staying at a campsite, and their criminal record was disclosed to the site owner. There was no harrassment under s3 of the 1968 Act. On any duty of confidence: ‘I have great difficulty in accepting that the information which … Continue reading Regina v Chief Constable for North Wales Police Area Authority ex parte AB and CD etc: Admn 10 Jul 1997
Where a body was given statutory duties, it would normally be entitled to orders restraining others from interfering with its performance of those duties. A patient detained under the Act had written a book, and the Hospital had sought to restrain its publication. It was argued that such a restraint went beyond the express powers … Continue reading Broadmoor Hospital Authority and Another v Robinson: CA 20 Dec 1999
The victim had been stabbed outside a nightclub. Two witnesses identified the defendant. The defendants complained that evidence had not been disclosed to them. Held: There is no duty at common law on the prosecution to warn the defence of material which might be used to attack the credibility of defence witnesses. Fairness, so far … Continue reading Regina v Brown (Winston): HL 20 Feb 1997
The complainant requested copies of any correspondence between council officers or between council officers and councillors that relate in any way to requests for information that he had made about ‘the Challenge panel papers’. The council relied on the exemption under section 36(2)(b)(i) and (ii). The Commissioner investigated and found that a small amount of … Continue reading Harrow Council (Decision Notice): ICO 29 Nov 2011
The parties had lived together in a house owned in the defendant’s name and in which she claimed an interest. The claimant’s solicitors notified NCIS that they thought the defendant had acted illegally in setting off against his VAT liability the VAT on works carried out on his own property. Because of the delay which … Continue reading Bowman v Fels (Bar Council and Others intervening): CA 8 Mar 2005
The trust, operators of Ashworth Secure Hospital sought from the defendant journalist disclosure of the name of their employee who had revealed to the defendant matters about the holding of Ian Brady, the Moors Murderer, and in particular medical records. Held: The need for involvement by the third party in the source’s wrongdoing is a … Continue reading Mersey Care NHS Trust v Ackroyd: QBD 7 Feb 2006
The claimants sought to set aside warrants and executions under them to provide assistance to a foreign court investigating alleged unlawful assistance to companies in Bosnia Herzegovina. Held: The issue of such a warrant was a serious step. The court gave guidance on the practice to be followed, but it was not correct for the … Continue reading Energy Financing Team Ltd and others v The Director of the Serious Fraud Office, Bow Street Magistrates Court: Admn 22 Jul 2005
Damages were awarded for a breach of statutory duty where the claimant had suffered loss or damage by reason of the breach. The publication at issue went beyond reporting and ‘it reached deeply into the substance of the matter which the court had closed its doors to consider’. A mental health review tribunal is a … Continue reading Pickering v Liverpool Daily Post and Echo Newspapers plc: HL 1991
Guidance was given on the procedures to be followed for applications for non-disclosure for public interest immunity. The court identified three types of case. In the first, and most frequent case the prosecution must notify the defence of the application, and indicate at least the category of material held and the broad ground of the … Continue reading Regina v Davis; Regina v Rowe; Regina v Johnson: CA 10 Mar 1993
The applicant sought to bring an action to challenge new rules on approval of export credit guarantees. The company was non-profit and founded to support investigation of bribery. It had applied for a protected costs order to support the application, and now appealed its refusal. Held: The court restated the practice on the making of … Continue reading Corner House Research, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry: CA 1 Mar 2005
Bingham LJ said: ‘The Police and Criminal Evidence Act governs a field in which there are two very obvious public interests. There is, first of all, a public interest in the effective investigation and prosecution of crime. Secondly, there is a public interest in protecting the personal and property rights of citizens against infringement and … Continue reading Regina v Lewes Crown Court ex parte Hill: 1991
The court considered the law relating to post employment restrictive covenants. Gloster J said: ‘(1) Covenants in Restraint of Trade are prima-facie unlawful and accordingly are ‘to be treated with suspicion’ see per Laddie J in Countrywide Assured Financial Services Limited v Smart ChD 7 May 2004. It is for the covenantee to identify a … Continue reading Brake Brothers Limited v Ungless: QBD 2004
(Scotland) By the 2014 Act, the Scottish Parliament had provided that each child should have a named person to monitor that child’s needs, with information about him or her shared as necessary. The Institute objected that the imposed obligation to share information was outwith the powers of the Parliament. It extended the information to be … Continue reading The Christian Institute and Others v The Lord Advocate: SC 28 Jul 2016
A solicitor moving from a firm acting on one side of a dispute to the firm on the other side must be able to show that no conflict of interest would arise. The court should intervene unless it is satisfied that there is no risk of disclosure. It goes without saying that the risk must … Continue reading In Re A Firm of Solicitors: ChD 9 May 1995
The police were asked by shopkeepers concerned about shoplifting, for photographs of thieves so that the staff would recognise them. The police provided photographs including one of the claimant taken in custody. The traders were told only to show them to staff. Held: A duty of confidence could arise when the police photographed a suspect … Continue reading Hellewell v Chief Constable of Derbyshire: QBD 13 Jan 1995
Swap deals outwith Council powers The authority entered into interest rate swap deals to protect itself against adverse money market movements. They began to lose substantial amounts when interest rates rose, and the district auditor sought a declaration that the contracts were void, there being no express power in the relevant legislation. Held: The arrangements … Continue reading Hazell v Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough Council: HL 1991
The complainant requested a copy of a report written by a senior officer of the public authority regarding an investigation into alleged corruption at Hartlepool Borough Council between 1996 and 1998. The public authority said that it was unable to locate the final report following extensive enquiries but it had located an interim report into … Continue reading Cleveland Police (Decision Notice): ICO 23 Feb 2009
Reference to Parliamentary Papers behind Statute The inspector sought to tax the benefits in kind received by teachers at a private school in having their children educated at the school for free. Having agreed this was a taxable emolument, it was argued as to whether the taxable benefit was the cost to the employer, or … Continue reading Pepper (Inspector of Taxes) v Hart: HL 26 Nov 1992
The appeal concerned a final third party debt order (formerly a garnishee order). A judgment in France was registered here for enforcement. That jurisdiction was now challenged. Held: A third party debt order is a proprietary remedy operating by attachment against the property of the judgment debtor. The property so attached is the chose in … Continue reading Societe Eram Shipping Company Limited and others v Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp Ltd, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation: HL 12 Jun 2003
Parents of children had falsely and negligently been accused of abusing their children. The children sought damages for negligence against the doctors or social workers who had made the statements supporting the actions taken. The House was asked if the suffering of psychiatric injury by the parent was a foreseeable result of making it and … Continue reading JD v East Berkshire Community Health NHS Trust and others: HL 21 Apr 2005
The complainant has requested information from Horsham District Council about the proposed restoration of a quarry site. The Council disclosed some information and withheld the remainder under the exception provided by section 12(4)(e) of the Environmental Information Regulations. The complainant subsequently contested the Council’s application of this exception. The Commissioner’s decision is that part of … Continue reading Horsham District Council (Local Government (District Council)): ICO 24 Jan 2017
After increasing university fees, the student loan system was part funded by the government. They introduced limits to the availability of such loans, and a student must have been lawfully ordinarily resident in the UK for three years before the day the academic year begins. The claimant came as a child with her mother some … Continue reading Tigere, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills: SC 29 Jul 2015
The claimants challenged the 1967 Act, saying that it deprived them of their property rights when lessees were given the power to purchase the freehold reversion. Held: Article 1 (P1-1) in substance guarantees the right of property. Allowing a mechanism for the compulsory transfer of the freehold interest in the house and the land to … Continue reading James and Others v The United Kingdom: ECHR 21 Feb 1986
The claimants, Pakistani students in the UK on student visas, had been arrested and held by the defendants under the 2000 Act before being released 13 days later without charge. They were at first held incognito. They said that their arrest and detentions had been unlawful since they had not been given sufficient information about … Continue reading Sher and Others v Chief Constable of Greater Manchester Police and Others: Admn 21 Jul 2010
The complainant requested copies of the legal advice sought by the Department for Communities and Local Government relating to the issue of whether Energy Performance Certificates for private dwellings contain personal data according to the definition in the Data Protection Act 1998. DCLG withheld the legal advice using section 42(1) of the Freedom of Information … Continue reading Department for Communities and Local Government (Decision Notice): ICO 13 Sep 2011
The deceased was shot by police officers raiding his flat in 1998. The claimants sought damages for his estate. They had succeeded in claiming damages for false imprisonment, but now appealed dismissal of their claim for damages for assault and misfeasance. The judge below had accepted that the officer had acted in self-defence, and entered … Continue reading Ashley and Another v Sussex Police: CA 27 Jul 2006
Application was made for the name of the defendant not to be published. Held: To the extent that a claimant seeks an order for the anonymisation of any reports of the SOPO proceedings, then that jurisdiction derives from section 6(1) of the Human Rights Act 1998. However: ‘an order for anonymity and reporting restrictions cannot … Continue reading Gray v UVW: QBD 21 Oct 2010
The complainant has requested correspondence between the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) and Richard Thomas, the previous Information Commissioner, since 1 January 2011. This was later refined to focus on correspondence relating to the investigations into phone hacking by private investigators and the Leveson Inquiry into press standards. The ICO refused the request by applying section … Continue reading Information Commissioners Office (Decision Notice): ICO 27 Mar 2014
No collateral attack on Jury findigs. An attempt was made to open up in a civil action, allegations of assaults by the police prior to the making of confessions which had been disposed of in a voir dire in the course of a criminal trial. The plaintiffs had imprisoned having spent many years after conviction … Continue reading Hunter v Chief Constable of the West Midlands Police: HL 19 Nov 1981
Shareholder May Sue for Additional Personal Losses A company brought a claim of negligence against its solicitors, and, after that claim was settled, the company’s owner brought a separate claim in respect of the same subject-matter. Held: It need not be an abuse of the court for a shareholder to seek damages against advisers to … Continue reading Johnson v Gore Wood and Co: HL 14 Dec 2000
Balancing Rights of Prisoner and Society The appellant had been convicted of the murder of three police officers in 1966. His tariff of thirty years had now long expired. He complained that material put before the Parole Board reviewing has case had not been disclosed to him. Held: The appeal failed (by a majority). The … Continue reading Roberts v Parole Board: HL 7 Jul 2005
Wives had charged the family homes to secure their husband’s business borrowings, and now resisted possession orders, claiming undue influence. Held: Undue influence is an equitable protection created to undo the effect of excess influence of one person over the will of another, though it should not always be presumed to arise from the existence … Continue reading Royal Bank of Scotland v Etridge (No 2); Barclays Bank plc v Harris; Midland Bank plc v Wallace, etc: HL 11 Oct 2001
The claimants, two solicitors and their employer firm sought damages alleging trespass and malicious procurement by police officers in obtaining and executing search warrants against the firm in 2007 when they were investigating suspected offences of money laundering. Clients of the firm had been arrested and convicted of drug dealing related offences. The firm was … Continue reading Fitzpatrick and Others v The Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis: QBD 11 Jan 2012
Parties had fought each other in wide ranging litigation. The claimant found covert surveillance devices in his home, and discovered evidence that the defendant may have information as to who had placed them. Earlier orders had been made for the disclosure of some information. The party opposing the claimant in the ongoing litigation then applied … Continue reading Coward v Harraden: QBD 2 Dec 2011
The defendant published a film showing the claimant involved in sex acts with prostitutes. It characterised them as ‘Nazi’ style. He was the son of a fascist leader, and a chairman of an international sporting body. He denied any nazi element, and claimed in breach of confidence. Held: ‘The law [of confidence] now affords protection … Continue reading Mosley v News Group Newspapers Ltd: QBD 24 Jul 2008
The complainant requested information concerning legal advice received by the public authority on the issue of whether the television licence fee is compliant with the Human Rights Act 1998. The public authority confirmed that information falling within the scope of this request is held by it. However, this information was withheld on the grounds that … Continue reading BBC (Decision Notice): ICO 22 Feb 2007
Application was made by the claimant for orders discharging an order made in 1991 to protect the identity of children and social workers embroiled in allegations of satanic sex abuse. The defendant opposed disclosure of the names of two social workers. Held: The names of the social workers had been withheld originally to protect the … Continue reading British Broadcasting Company v Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council and X and Y: FD 24 Nov 2005
Police Data Retention Justifiable The appellants challenged the collection of data by the police, alleging that its retention interfered with their Article 8 rights. C complained of the retention of records of his lawful activities attending political demonstrations, and T complained of the retention of an harassment warning issued against him. The Commissioner now appealed … Continue reading Catt and T, Regina (on The Applications of) v Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis: SC 4 Mar 2015
ECHR (Grand Chamber) Article 10-1 Freedom of expression Refusal of permission for non-governmental organisation to place television advert owing to statutory prohibition of political advertising: no violation Facts – The Communications Act 2003 prohibits political advertising in television or radio services, the aim being to maintain impartiality in the broadcast media and to prevent powerful … Continue reading Animal Defenders International v The United Kingdom: ECHR 22 Apr 2013
Ban on Prisoners talking to Journalists unlawful The two prisoners, serving life sentences for murder, had had their appeals rejected. They continued to protest innocence, and sought to bring their campaigns to public attention through the press, having oral interviews with journalists without undertakings from the journalists not to publish any element of the interview. … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for The Home Department Ex Parte Simms: HL 8 Jul 1999
A prison policy requiring prisoners not to be present when their property was searched and their mail was examined was unlawful. The policy had been introduced after failures in search procedures where officers had been intimidated by the presence of prisoners. Particularly when examining documents subject to legal professional privilege, the rules did not allow … Continue reading Regina (Daly) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 23 May 2001
ECHR Article 10-1 Freedom of expression Injunction against newspaper restraining further publication of article concerning former head of government: violation Facts – The applicant was the limited company Axel Springer AG. Among other activities, it was the publisher of the mass-circulation daily newspaper Bild. The German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder, in power since 1998, had lost … Continue reading Axel Springer Ag v Germany (No 2): ECHR 10 Jul 2014
Evidence from 3rd Party Torture Inadmissible The applicants had been detained following the issue of certificates issued by the respondent that they posed a terrorist threat. They challenged the decisions of the Special Immigration Appeals Commission saying that evidence underlying the decisions had probably been obtained by torture committed by foreign powers, and should not … Continue reading A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department (No 2): HL 8 Dec 2005
ICO The complainant made a request for a petition supporting a proposed footpath submitted to Cardiff County Council (‘the Council’) by a local Councillor. This was refused under section 40 of the Act on the grounds that the information requested constituted personal data of which the applicant was not the subject, and that disclosure of … Continue reading Cardiff Council (Decision Notice): ICO 30 Apr 2009
The parties were engaged in ancillary relief proceedings. The Husband complained that the wife had sought to use unlawfully obtained information, and in these proceedings sought delivery up of the material from the wife and her solicitors. He said that the information was subject to professional legal privilege and was otherwise confidential. They had admitted … Continue reading L v L and Hughes Fowler Carruthers: QBD 1 Feb 2007
Disapplication of Without Prejudice Rules The House was asked whether a letter sent during without prejudice negotiations which acknowledged a debt was admissible to restart the limitation period. An advice centre, acting for the borrower had written, in answer to a claim by the lender for the sum still due after the sale of the … Continue reading Bradford and Bingley Plc v Rashid: HL 12 Jul 2006
Use of ‘Without Prejudice Save as to Costs” A sub-contractor sought payment from the appellants under a construction contract for additional expenses incurred through disruption and delay. The appellants said they were liable to pay the costs, and were entitled to re-imbursement from the client, the respondent. The claim was compromised but without disclosing the … Continue reading Rush and Tompkins Ltd v Greater London Council and Another: HL 1988
ECHR Article 2-1 Effective investigation Allegedly ineffective investigation into deaths of football supporters in the Hillsborough disaster in 1989: inadmissible Facts – In 1989 ninety-six football supporters were killed in a crush at a football stadium. Inquests into the deaths ended in 1991 after the coroner’s jury reached a majority verdict of accidental deaths in … Continue reading Harrison And Others v The United Kingdom (Dec): ECHR 25 Mar 2014
Domestic Offence requires Domestic Defence Each defendant sought to raise by way of defence of their otherwise criminal actions, the fact that they were attempting to prevent the commission by the government of the crime of waging an aggressive war in Iraq, and that their acts were accordingly justified in law. Held: The law on … Continue reading Regina v Jones (Margaret), Regina v Milling and others: HL 29 Mar 2006