Islamic Republic of Pakistan v Zardari and others: ComC 6 Oct 2006

The claimant alleged that the defendants had funded the purchase of various properties by secret and unlawful commissions taken by them whilst in power in Pakistan. They sought to recover the proceeds. They now sought permission to serve proceedings on the defendant companies abroad, outside a Lugano Convention country.
Held: The claim should proced. ‘There are plainly serious issues here which it is reasonable for the court to try. There is a strong case that the refurbishment of the Rockwood Estate can be traced to corrupt payments.’ The extended notion of a trust set out in Nabb Brothers was incorrect.
Lawrence Collins J
[2006] EWHC 2411 (Comm)
England and Wales
CitedGrant v Gold Exploration and Development Syndicate Ltd CA 1900
Secrecy is a badge of fraud. . .
CitedShahar v Tsitsekkos and others ChD 17-Nov-2004
The defendant wished to make a claim against another party outside the jurisdiction and was granted permission to serve documents which were headed ‘defence and counterclaim’. The proposed defendant argued that such a document could be served in . .
CitedIn Re Banco Nacional De Cuba ChD 7-Jun-2001
Where it was alleged that shares in a UK company had been sold at an undervalue, so as to allow a challenge in insolvency proceedings, the leave of the court was still required if the pleadings were to be served abroad. When the court considered . .
CitedAgip (Africa) Ltd v Jackson ChD 1990
The reference to ‘any wrongful act or omission’ in section 10 is not limited to torts or even to wrongs which were actionable at common law. ‘In paying or collecting money for a customer the bank acts only as his agent. It is otherwise, however, if . .
CitedLister and Co v Stubbs CA 1890
It was alleged by the plaintiffs that their foreman had received secret commissions which he had invested in land and other investments. They sought interlocutory relief to prevent him dealing with the land and requiring him to bring the other . .
CriticisedNabb Brothers Ltd v Lloyds Bank International (Guernsey) Ltd ChD 18-Mar-2005
It is not necessary that all the acts giving rise to liability occurred within the jurisdiction. . .
CitedNycal (UK) Ltd v Lacey 1994
. .
CitedMahesan v Malaysia Government Officers Co-operative Housing Society PC 1978
The appellant, the director and employee of a housing society was bribed by a real estate agent, one Manickam, and the appellant then caused the society to buy land at an overvalue. The agent was sued for money had and received (for the amount of . .
CitedMetal und Rohstoff AG v Donaldson Lufkin and Jenrette Inc CA 27-Jan-1989
The claimants sued for negligent advice and secured judgment. The defendant company became insolvent, and so the plaintiff now sued the US parent company alleging conspiracy. The court considered a tort of malicious prosecution of a civil claim, . .
CitedISC Technologies Limited v Guerin 1992
A fraud was alleged by the defendant against the arms manufacturer Ferranti.
Hoffman J said: ‘The question [on an application under Ord. 12 r. 8(1)(c) to discharge an order giving leave to serve a writ out of the jurisdiction] is . . whether . .
CitedCarvill America Incorporated and Another v Camperdown UK Ltd. and others CA 27-May-2005
The claimant must bring evidence to establish that he has a cause of action which can be tried is that his claim has ‘a reasonable prospect of success,’ and this threshold is the same as if the claimant were resisting an application by the defendant . .
CitedSpiliada Maritime Corporation v Cansulex Ltd, The Spiliada HL 1986
Forum Non Conveniens Restated
The House reviewed the authorities on the principle of forum non conveniens and restated how to apply the principle where the defendant seeks a stay of proceedings on the ground that there is another more appropriate forum.
Held: ‘In the . .
CitedLimit (No 3) Ltd and others v PDV Insurance Company Ltd QBD 7-Nov-2003
When considering allowing proceedings here, the court must consider the the effect on related proceedings in another jurisdiction. . .
CitedBanque Indosuez v Ferromet Resources 1993
There is a general principle in favour of giving judicial assistance to foreign insolvency proceedings by preventing their disruption by the actions of individual creditors. . .
CitedDe Molestina v Ponton 2002
The claimants sought partial rescision of agreements of compromise of disputes within the etsate on the basis that agreement had been obtained by fraud.
Held: Recission of part only of an agreement was not possible. . .
CitedParagon Finance Plc (Formerly Known As National Home Loans Corporation Plc v D B Thakerar and Co (a Firm); Ranga and Co (a Firm) and Sterling Financial Services Limited CA 21-Jul-1998
Where an action had been begun on basis of allegations of negligence and breach of trust, new allegations of fraud where quite separate new causes of claim, and went beyond amendments and were disallowed outside the relevant limitation period. . .
CitedPolly Peck International Plc v Nadir and Others CA 17-Mar-1993
For a bank to be sued for breach of trust after receipt of funds, it was not necessary to show that the bank knew of the fraud, but rather that it knew the funds were trust funds, and that they were being misapplied. A Mareva injunction should be . .
CitedWestdeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale v Islington London Borough Council HL 22-May-1996
Simple interest only on rate swap damages
The bank had paid money to the local authority under a contract which turned out to be ultra vires and void. The question was whether, in addition to ordering the repayment of the money to the bank on unjust enrichment principles, the court could . .
CitedAttorney General for Hong Kong v Reid and Others PC 24-Nov-1993
Principalhas proprietary interest in Trust assets
Bribes were taken by an employee, a crown prosecutor in Hong Kong, in a fraud on his employer. He then invested the proceeds in the purchase of property in New Zealand. The property had increased in value. The employer sought repayment of the bribes . .
CitedSeaconsar Far East Ltd v Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran HL 15-Oct-1993
A plaintiff must show that there is a ‘serious issue for trial’ to support and justify an application for overseas service. The standard of proof in respect of the cause of action relied on is whether, on the evidence, there was a serious question . .
CitedBP Exploration Co (Libya) Ltd v Hunt 1976
The fact that the contract was governed by English law was the predominating factor to be borne in mind when deciding jurisdiction.
The court should be careful before describing as non-disclosure as material not included in an affidavit in . .
CitedKonamaneni v Rolls Royce Industrial Power (India) Limited ChD 20-Dec-2001
The claimants founded their action on the assertion that the defendants had been corrupt in obtaining contracts in India. The defendants argued that the English courts had no jurisdiction. The claimants held various small shareholdings in a company . .
CitedAmin Rasheed Shipping Corp v Kuwait Insurance Co HL 1983
A claimant must show good reason why service on a foreign defendant should be permitted. This head of jurisdiction was an exorbitant jurisdiction, one which, under general English conflict rules, an English court would not recognise as possessed by . .
CitedDaraydan Holdings Limited, Cairn Estates Limited and Others v Solland International Limited and Others ChD 26-Mar-2004
The court was asked whether Lister and Co v Stubbs 45 ChD 1, a decision of the Court of Appeal, was binding on him or whether he could apply the Privy Council’s decision in Attorney General for Hong Kong v Reid
Held: On the facts of the case . .
CitedBoscawen and Others v Bajwa and Others; Abbey National Plc v Boscawen and Others CA 10-Apr-1995
The defendant had charged his property to the Halifax. Abbey supplied funds to secure its discharge, but its own charge was not registered. It sought to take advantage of the Halifax’s charge which had still not been removed.
Held: A mortgagee . .
CitedISC Technologies Limited v Radcliffe 7-Dec-1990
It was alleged that a Mr Guerin had committed a fraud on the arms manufacturer Ferrari.
Held: The constructive trust provision in RSC Order 11, r 1(1)(t) applied only if all the acts necessary to impose liability were committed in England, and . .

Cited by:
CitedVTB Capital Plc v Nutritek International Corp and Others SC 6-Feb-2013
The claimant bank said that it had been induced to create very substantial lending facilities by fraudulent misrepresentation by the defendants. They now appealed against findings that England was not clearly or distinctly the appropriate forum for . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 31 January 2021; Ref: scu.245196