Fiona Trust and Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others: CA 24 Jan 2007

The court was asked whether when contracts have been induced by bribery and have been rescinded on discovery of the bribery, that constitutes a dispute which can be determined by arbitration in the context of a common form of arbitration clause.
Held: a dispute whether the contract can be set aside or rescinded for alleged bribery does fall within the arbitration clause on its true construction. ‘If arbitrators can decide whether a contract is void for initial illegality, there is no reason why they should not decide whether a contract has been procured by bribery, just as much as they can decide whether a contract has been procured by misrepresentation or non-disclosure. Illegality is a stronger case than bribery which is not the same as non est factum or the sort of mistake which goes to the question whether there was any agreement ever reached. It is not enough to say that the bribery impeaches the whole contract unless there is some special reason for saying that the bribery impeaches the arbitration clause in particular. ‘ and ‘we see no reason why the charterers should be prevented from arbitrating these claims; if the arbitration tribunal decides that the charters were indeed procured by bribery they will be able to decide what consequence that conclusion has on any claims which the charterers might otherwise legitimately have. ‘

Tuckey, Arden and Longmore LJJ
Times 29-Jan-2007, [2007] EWCA Civ 20, [2007] Bus LR 686, [2007] 1 CLC 144, [2007] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 267, [2007] ArbLR 22, [2007] 1 All ER (Comm) 891
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedHeyman v Darwins Limited HL 1942
An arbitration clause will survive a repudiatory breach: ‘I agree with the Lord Chancellor in thinking that the true ground of the decision in Jureidini v National British and Irish Millers Insurance Co Ltd was the narrowness of the field of . .
CitedMackender v Feldia AG CA 1966
A clause provided that an insurance policy should be governed by Belgian law and that ‘any disputes arising thereunder shall be exclusively subject to Belgian jurisdiction.’ The underwriters avoided the contract for non-disclosure of material facts . .
CitedEmpresa Exportadora de Azucar v Industria Azucarera Nacional S.A, The Playa Larga CA 1983
There had been a theft by Cuban sellers of one cargo of sugar, property in which had already passed to the buyers, and non-delivery of a second combined with trickery whereby the intended buyers were nonetheless induced to pay its price. The first . .
CitedUnion of India v Aaby’s Rederi A/S, The Evje HL 1975
Lord Dilhorne said of the words ‘to be settled in London’: ‘At first sight those words appear to me to mean no more and no less than that the contributions to be made have to be determined in London and paid there, and that implies determined in . .
CitedSamick Lines Co Ltd v Owners of The Antonis P Lemos HL 2-Jan-1985
The House was asked as to the effect of the section.
Held: Since the provisions of the statute under consideration were designed to give domestic effect to an international convention, a broad and liberal construction should be given to them . .
CitedThe Eschersheim; The Jade HL 1976
The 1956 Act implemented as part of the domestic law the treaty obligations of the United Kingdom under the International Convention Relating to the Arrest of Seagoing Ships signed at Brussels on 10 May 1952 (the Arrest Convention).
Held: The . .
CitedFillite (Runcorn) Ltd v Aqua-Lift CA 1989
The court considered whether claims arising from misrepresentation or breach of a collateral contrat were claims arising ‘under’ the contract so as to be governed by the disputes provisions in it.
Held: The disputes did not arise ‘under the . .
CitedThe Ermoupolis 1990
A claim for the tort of conversion fell within the phrase ‘any dispute arising in any way whatsoever out of this bill of lading’. . .
CitedAggeliki Charis Compania Maritima SA v Pagnan SpA The Angelic Grace QBD 1994
The court considered whether a claim for a collision between two ships was governed by an arbitration clause which read ‘all disputes from time to time arising out of this contract shall . . be referred to the arbitrament of two arbitrators carrying . .
CitedHarbour Assurance Co (UK) Ltd v Kansa General International Insurance Co Ltd CA 7-Apr-1993
An action was brought by re-insurers for a declaration that reinsurance policies were void for illegality, and that the plaintiffs were not liable under them. The illegality alleged was that the defendants were not registered or approved to carry on . .
CitedOverseas Union v AA Mutual International Insurance Co Ltd 1988
Evans J said that there was a broad distinction between clauses which referred ‘only those disputes which may arise regarding the rights and obligations which are created by the contract itself’ and those which ‘show an intention to refer some wider . .
CitedEthiopian Oil Fields v Rio del Mar 1990
A dispute about rectification came within the words ‘any dispute arising out of or under this contract’. The phrase ‘out of’ must add something to ‘under’, even though the words ‘out of ‘ were in fact the words which appeared first in the clause. . .
CitedHarbour Assurance Co (Uk) Ltd v Kansa General International Insurance Co Ltd 1993
The Court said that older (pre Heyman v Darwins Ltd) authorities about the width of arbitration clauses had to be approached with some care and that the words ‘arising from the contract’ have almost invariably been treated as ‘words of very wide . .
CitedDelos, Owners of Cargo v Delos Shipping Ltd ComC 31-Jan-2001
Claims for breach of duty and bailment could be brought within the phrase ‘any disputes under’ the contract. . .
CitedChimimport Plc v G d’Alesio SAS 1994
The phrase ‘arising under’ in a clause referring matters to arbitration is narrower than ‘arising out of’ and the court doubted whether a tortious claim could easily give rise to a dispute ‘under the contract’. . .
CitedLogicrose Ltd v Southend United Football Club Ltd CA 5-Feb-1988
The agent required the contractual counterparty to pay a bribe of pounds 70,000 to an offshore account.
Held: The bribe was held to be recoverable by the principal whether the principal rescinded or affirmed the contract because it was a . .
CitedFrancesco Benincasa v Dentalkit Srl ECJ 3-Jul-1997
A contract which forms a part of the customer’s arrangements for pursuing his trade or profession is not a consumer contract and a choice of jurisdiction clause in a distribution agreement was valid.
Europa . .
CitedCredit Suisse First Boston (Europe) Ltd v Seagate Trading Co Ltd 1999
An oral contract for the sale of Russian Notes was followed by a Trade confirmation with an English jurisdiction clause. It was said that this document was fraudulently presented by Credit Suisse as a mere perfunctory confirmation (which it was not) . .
CitedLaw Debenture Trust Corporation Plc v Elektrim Finance Bv and others ChD 1-Jul-2005
A bond contained an arbitration clause subject to a further clause giving the claimant an ‘exclusive right at its option to apply to the courts of England to settle any disputes which may arise out of or in connection with these presents’. The . .
CitedAhmad Al-Naimi (T/a Buildmaster Construction Services) v Islamic Press Agency Incorporated CA 28-Jan-2000
The court has an inherent power to stay proceedings. The court could refer a matter to arbitration where there was an arbitration clause, but could also do so under its inherent discretion, where this was not quite clear, but it was clear that good . .
CitedBirse Construction Limited v St David Limited TCC 12-Feb-1999
There are four approaches to deciding whether an arbitration agreement exists to which section 9 applies:- (1) to determine on the evidence before the court that such an agreement does exist in which case (if the disputes fall within the terms of . .
Appeal fromFiona Trust and Holding Corp and others v Privalov and others ComC 20-Oct-2006
The parties disputed whether their claim should be arbitrated.
Held: A claim as to whether the contract itself had been made was not one which could be arbitrated by provisions in that contract. It does not arise ‘under’ the contract. The . .
See AlsoFiona Trust Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others ComC 19-Jan-2007
. .

Cited by:
See AlsoFiona Trust and Holding Corp and others v Privalov and others ComC 20-Oct-2006
The parties disputed whether their claim should be arbitrated.
Held: A claim as to whether the contract itself had been made was not one which could be arbitrated by provisions in that contract. It does not arise ‘under’ the contract. The . .
Appeal fromPremium Nafta Products Ltd (20th Defendant) and others v Fili Shipping Company Ltd and others; Fiona Trust and Holding Corporation v Privalov HL 17-Oct-2007
The owners of a ship sought to rescind charters saying that they had been procured by bribery.
Held: A claim to rescind a contract by reason of bribery fell within the scope of an arbitration clause under which the parties had agreed to refer . .
CitedScottish and Newcastle Plc v Raguz HL 29-Oct-2008
The lease had been assigned by the claimant to the defendant and on again to a tenant who became insolvent. The landlord had recovered sums said to be due from the claimant who now sought an indemnity from the defendant. The defendant said that the . .
See AlsoFiona Trust Holding Corp and others v Privalov and others ComC 21-May-2007
Allegations were made of different varieties of fraud. Applications were made for freezing orders. . .
See AlsoFiona Trust and Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others ComC 22-Jul-2008
. .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Arbitration

Updated: 19 November 2021; Ref: scu.248016

Geogas SA v Trammo Gas Ltd (The Baleares): CA 26 Nov 1990

Judge Wrong to Accept Appeal of Fact

The charterers had sought to appeal the arbitrators’ findings on foreseeability and remoteness. The judge had set aside the arbitration award. Though he certified that a point of law existed which was of general public importance, he had refused leave to appeal.
Held: The court granted leave. The judge’s action was illegitimate because these were issues of fact (or, at least, mixed fact and law) and thus not appealable as questions of law. On the application for leave to appeal, the test for the exercise of court’s discretion was whether the point was one which should be considered by the court, and not only whether the judge was thought to be in the wrong. The discretionary test for leave to appeal is that the question of law is ‘worthy of consideration by the Court of Appeal’: ‘In the final analysis, the question for this Court is: is its decision one which it considers open to any serious doubt; or (putting it another way), is there any realistic possibility that the Court of Appeal might come to a different result.’
As to an appeal under the section of the 1979 Act 1979 on ‘a question of law arising from an arbitration award’, Steyn LJ said: ‘For those concerned in this case that is a statement of the obvious. But it matters. It defines the limits of the jurisdiction of the Court hearing an appeal under the 1979 Act. The arbitrators are the masters of the facts. On an appeal the Court must decide any question of law arising from an award on the basis of a full and unqualified acceptance of the findings of fact of the arbitrators. It is irrelevant whether the Court considers those findings of fact to be right or wrong. It also does not matter how obvious a mistake by the arbitrators on issues of fact might be, or what the scale of the financial consequences of the mistake of the fact might be. That is, of course, an unsurprising position. After all, the very reason why parties conclude an arbitration agreement is because they do not wish to litigate in the Courts. Parties who submit their disputes to arbitration bind themselves by agreement to honour the arbitrators’ award on the facts. The principle of party autonomy decrees that a Court ought never to question the arbitrators’ findings of fact . . From time to time attempts are made to circumvent the rule that the arbitrators’ findings of fact are conclusive . . This catalogue of challenges to arbitrators’ findings of fact points to the need for the Court to be constantly vigilant to ensure that attempts to question or qualify the arbitrators’ findings of fact, or to dress up questions of fact as questions of law, are carefully identified and firmly discouraged.’

Steyn LJ
[1991] 3 All ER 554, [1991] 1 WLR 776, [1993] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 215, Times 26-Nov-1990, [1991] 2 Lloyds Rep 318
Arbitartion Act 1979 1(3)(b)
England and Wales
Citing:
ConsideredPioneer Shipping Ltd v BTP Tioxide Ltd (‘The Nema’) HL 1982
There is no fetter on the judicial discretion to refuse leave under Section 1(3)(b) to appeal against an arbitration award.
Frustration of a contract is ‘not likely to be invoked to relieve contracting parties of the normal consequences of . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromGeogas SA v Trammo Gas Ltd (The Baleares) HL 1991
Charterers had appealed an arbitration award. The judge set it aside. The CA gave leave and allowed the appeal saying that as a question of mixed fact and law sought leave to appeal against an arbitration award.
Held: The House had no . .
CitedGuangzhou Dockyards Co Ltd v Ene Aegiali I ComC 5-Nov-2010
No appeal on facts from award
The defendant ship owners sought to strike out the claimant’s appeal against an arbitration award to the extent that that appeal consisted of an appeal against the factual findings. The claimant argued that the parties had agreed that such an appeal . .
CitedWalsall Metropolitan Borough Council v Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government CA 6-Feb-2013
The Council sought permission to appeal against the setting aside of two enforcement notices, leave having been refused by the Administrative court. The court now considered whether it had jusridiction, and whether the rule in Lane v Esdaile was to . .
CitedHuggett v Secretary of State for the Environment Etc; Wendy Fair Markets Ltd v Same; Bello v Etc CA 1-Mar-1995
There is no power for Court of Appeal itself to give leave to appeal after High Court’s refusal of leave on an enforcement notice. The court rejected the applicant’s submission that a High Court judge’s decision refusing permission to appeal under . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Arbitration, Litigation Practice

Leading Case

Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.430592

Paal Wilson and Co v Partenreederei Hannah Blumenthal (The Hannah Blumenthal): HL 1983

The House was asked whether a contract to abandon an arbitration might be implied from conduct, or a lack of conduct.
Held: The abandonment of a contract can be effected by the entry of the parties, expressly or by necessary inference from conduct, into a fresh contract for mutual release from their obligations under the contract said to be abandoned. An argument that mere inactivity of the parties could be construed as an implied agreement to rescind the agreement to arbitrate, failed.
Lord Brandon of Oakbrook considered that an actual abandonment, as opposed to an estoppel precluding an assertion of continuance, required proof of conduct of each party, as evinced to the other party and acted on by him, as ‘leads necessarily to the inference of an implied agreement’ between them to abandon the contract. Lord Roskill referred to ‘the only possible inference [being] that the agreement to arbitrate has been rescinded by mutual consent’. Though Lord Diplock made no similar observation both Lords Keith of Kinkel and Brightman agreed with Lords Brandon and Roskill.
Lord Brandon said: ‘there are two essential factors which must be present in order to frustrate a contract. The first essential factor is that there must be some outside event or extraneous change of situation, not foreseen or provided for by the parties at the time of contracting, which either makes it impossible for the contract to be performed at all, or at least renders its performance something radically different from what the parties contemplated when they entered into it. The second essential factor is that the outside event or extraneous change of situation concerned, and the consequences of either in relation to the performance of the contract, must have occurred without either the fault or the default of either party to the contract.’

Lord Brandon, Lord Diplock
[1983] 1 AC 854, [1983] Com LR 20, [1983] 1 All ER 34, [1983] 1 Lloyds Rep 103, [1982] 3 WLR 1149
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedMartin v Medina Housing Association Ltd CA 31-Mar-2006
The former tenant had set out to buy the council house, but had written to say that she did not intend to go ahead. Her son who had taken over the tenancy after her death now sought, twelve years later, to require the authority to proceed at that . .
CitedMote v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and Another CA 14-Dec-2007
The appellant was accused of having received income benefits to which he was not entitled. A prosecution was commenced and at the same time he appealed to the tribunal against the decision that there had been an overpayment. The authorities . .
CitedSG and R Valuation Service Co v Boudrais and others QBD 12-May-2008
The claimant sought to require the defendants not to work during their notice period to achieve the equivalent of garden leave despite there being no provision for garden leave in the contracts. It was said that the defendants had conspired together . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Arbitration

Leading Case

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.242430

Commission v Thales Developpement And Cooperation: ECFI 12 Jul 2016

ECJ (Judgment) Arbitration clause – Fourth and fifth framework programs for research, technological development and demonstration – Contracts involving projects for the design and development direct methanol fuel cells – contracts void for fraud – Reimbursement financial interests of the Union – Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 2988/95 – Limitation period – Application of French and Belgian rights – rights of the defense – Interest

H. Kanninen, P
ECLI:EU:T:2016:403, [2016] EUECJ T-326/13
Bailii

European, Arbitration

Updated: 09 November 2021; Ref: scu.566855

ED and F Man Sugar Ltd v Belmont Shipping Ltd: ComC 18 Nov 2011

Allegation of serious irregularity in arbitration.
Held: The request was refused: ‘the present case can hardly be said to be an extreme case which justice calls out to be corrected.’.
‘Arbitrators are not barred from asking a party whether it has considered raising a different case from that which it has advanced but section 33 of the Arbitration Act 1996 does not oblige them to do so . . they often do so when there is an oral hearing. Such questions may be asked by a tribunal anxious to understand the basis upon which a case is being advanced. Such questions may also be asked where the arbitration is on documents alone. But in such cases the parties are often concerned to keep costs to a minimum because the amount in dispute is modest. In such circumstances it is understandable that a tribunal will be reluctant to ask a party, which has put in a detailed submission in a modest case, whether it wishes to run a different case.’

Teare J
[2011] EWHC 2992 (Comm), [2011] ArbLR 50
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 33 68
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedFlacker Shipping Ltd v Glencore Grain Ltd (Happy Day) CA 15-Jul-2002
. .
CitedF Ltd v M Ltd TCC 11-Feb-2009
The claimant sought rmission of part of the final award.
Held: Coulson J said: ‘It is not, I think, for the arbitral tribunal to hunt through the contract and find other ways in which the claimant’s claim might be put, and then offer the . .
CitedBandwidth Shipping Corporation v Intaari (‘Magdalena Oldendorrf’) CA 17-Oct-2007
An arbitrator hearing a case, and who appreciated that counsel had failed to take a point, should draw counsel’s attention to the point. No duty could arise if the arbitrator did not himself see the point.
An applicant under section 68 faces a . .
CitedF Ltd v M Ltd TCC 11-Feb-2009
The claimant sought rmission of part of the final award.
Held: Coulson J said: ‘It is not, I think, for the arbitral tribunal to hunt through the contract and find other ways in which the claimant’s claim might be put, and then offer the . .
CitedLesotho Highlands Development Authority v Impregilo Spa and others HL 30-Jun-2005
The House had to consider whether the arbitrator had acted in excess of his powers under s38, saying the arbitrator had misconstrued the contract. The arbitrator had made his award in different currencies.
Held: The question remained whether . .
CitedPacol Ltd v Joint Stock Co Rossakhar 2000
The respondents to the arbitration admitted breaches of contracts that raised some issue as to the amount of damages payable. The arbitrators made an award on the basis that the admission of liability was not justified.
Held: It was a clear . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Arbitration

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.449005

Dallah Real Estate and Tourism Holding Company v The Ministry of Religious Affairs, Government of Pakistan: SC 3 Nov 2010

The claimant had achieved a judgment in arbitration proceedings abroad against the respondent foreign government regarding contracts providing services for the Holy Places in Saudi Arabia. The contract made no express provision for the nationality of applicable law. The respondent had not been party itself to the contract. The ICC award, given according to French law, was sought to be enforced in London. This had been ordered at first instance, but the respondent succeeded at the Court of Appeal.
Held: The appeal failed. A court asked to enforce a foreign arbitration award against a party could, if this was challenged, decide agains whether that party had in fact been a party to the contract, and the tribunal’s own view of its jurisdiction had no legal or evidential value, though a court should examine carefully its reasoning and conclusions. French law, as the governing law required a common intention to treat a non-signatory to a contract as bound by an arbitration agreement. The agreement arrangements had been designed to avoid this result, and therefore the respondent was not to be treated a party, and was not subject to the award.

Lord Hope, Deputy President, Lord Saville, Lord Mance, Lord Collins, Lord Clarke
[2010] UKSC 46, UKSC 2009/0165, [2010] WLR (D) 279, [2011] Bus LR 158, 133 Con LR 1, [2011] 1 All ER 485, [2011] 1 AC 763, [2010] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 691, [2010] 3 WLR 1472, [2011] 1 All ER (Comm) 383, [2010] 2 CLC 793
Bailii, SC Summary, SC, WLRD, Bailii Summary
Arbitration Act 1996 103(2)
England and Wales
Citing:
At first instanceDallah Real Estate and Tourism Holding Company v Ministry of Religious Affairs, Government of Pakistan ComC 1-Aug-2008
The claimant had obtained an arbitration award, and a without notice order for its enforcement. The defendant applied for it to be set aside on the basis that no law had been agreed which would set the basis for the arbitration, and that the award . .
Appeal from.Dallah Estates and Tourism Holding Company v Ministry of Religious Affairs, Government Of Pakistan CA 20-Jul-2009
The claimant sought to enforce an international arbitration award against the defendant in respect of the provision of accommodation for Hajj pilgrims. A without notice order had been made to allow its enforcement, but that had been set aside.
Arbitration

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.425743

Whitworth Street Estates (Manchester) Ltd v James Miller and Partners Ltd: HL 1970

The parties disagreed as to the curial law of an arbitration agreement. The proper law of the building contract and the arbitration agreement was English but the reference was conducted in Scotland.
Held: Evidence of behaviour after a contract had been made is inadmissible to assist in the construction of an entirely written contract. An application for the appointment of an arbitrator stated that there was a submission to arbitration within the meaning of the Arbitration Act 1950, but the arbitration was held to be subject to the law of Scotland. While evidence of subsequent conduct is admissible to determine the existence of a contract, it is not admissible to determine the terms of a contract.
Lord Reid: ‘It has been assumed in the course of this case that it is proper, in determining what was the proper law, to have regard to actings of the parties after their contract had been made. Of course the actings of the parties (including any words which they used) may be sufficient to show that they made a new contract. If they made no agreement originally as to the proper law, such actings may show that they made an agreement about that at a later stage. Or if they did make such an agreement originally such actings may show that they later agreed to alter it. But with regard to actings of the parties between the date of the original contract and the date of Mr. Underwood’s appointment I did not understand it to be argued that they were sufficient to establish any new contract, and I think they clearly were not. As I understood him, counsel sought to use those actings to show that there was an agreement when the original contract was made that the proper law of that contract was to be the law of England. I must say that I had thought that it is now well settled that it is not legitimate to use as an aid in the construction of the contract anything which the parties said or did after it was made. Otherwise one might have the result that a contract meant one thing the day it was signed, but by reason of subsequent events meant something different a month or a year later.’
Lord Hodson: ‘I should add that I cannot assent to the view which seems to have found favour in the eyes of the Master of the Rolls and Widgery LJ. that as a matter of construction the contract can be construed not only in its surrounding circumstances but also by reference to the subsequent conduct of the parties.’
Viscount Dilhorne: ‘I do not consider that one can properly have regard to the parties’ conduct after the contract has been entered into when considering whether an inference can be drawn as to their intention when they entered into the contract, though subsequent conduct by one party may give rise to an estoppel.’
Lord Wilberforce said: ‘once it was seen that the parties had made no express choice of law, the correct course was to ascertain from all relevant contemporary circumstances including, but not limited to, what the parties said or did at the time, what intention ought to be imputed to them on the formation of the contract. Unless it were to found an estoppel or a subsequent agreement, I do not think that subsequent conduct can be relevant to this question.’

Lord Reid, Lord Hodson, Viscount Dilhorne, Lord Wilberforce,
[1970] AC 572, [1970] 1 Lloyds Rep 269, [1970] 1 All ER 796, [1970] AC 583
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromWhitworth Street Estates (Manchester) Ltd v James Miller and Partners Ltd CA 1969
The parties, one in England and one in Scotland agreed to perform certain actions in Scotland. Any dispute was to be settled by arbitration, but it was not said whether this would be in England or Scotland. The curial law of arbitration would decide . .

Cited by:
CitedMontgomery v Johnson Underwood Ltd CA 9-Mar-2001
A worker who had strictly been employed by an agency but on a long term placement at a customer, claimed to have been unfairly dismissed by the customer when that placement ended.
Held: To see whether she was an employee the tribunal should . .
CitedHalpern and Another v Halpern and others ComC 24-Mar-2006
The deceased parents, being orthodox Jews, had first made standard wills and then made provision accoding to Jewish law. A dispute after the second death was referred to a Beth Din arbitration. After an initial resolution, various distributions were . .
CitedBeale v Harvey CA 28-Nov-2003
Land had been divided into three lots on its development, but the site plan did not match the line of a fence actually erected.
Held: The court was not bound by the Watcham case, and would not follow it to allow reference to the later . .
CitedF L Schuler AG v Wickman Machine Tools Sales Limited HL 4-Apr-1973
The parties entered an agreement to distribute and sell goods in the UK. They disagreed as to the meaning of a term governing the termination of the distributorship.
Held: The court can not take into account the post-contractual conduct or . .
CitedAB and others v British Coal Corporation (Department of Trade and Industry) QBD 27-Jun-2007
The parties disputed the effect of the Claims Handling Agreement (CHA) which regulated claims for compensation for respiratory diseases incurred by people working for the defendant as regards the circumstances for claimants with chronic bronchitis. . .
CitedSattar v Sattar and Another ChD 20-Feb-2009
The parties disputed the effect of a Tomlin order settling litigation between them. Under the order, if certain sums were not paid, the company was to be sold.
Held: Later behaviour could not be used to help interpret an agreement, and in this . .
CitedLexington Insurance Co v AGF Insurance Ltd HL 30-Jul-2009
The respondent insurers had been held liable in Washington, and had been granted indemnity against the appellants by the Court of Appeal. The insurance contract had been under the law of Pennsylvania, but that of the re-insurance under the law of . .
CitedRadford and Another v Frade and Others QBD 8-Jul-2016
The court was asked as to the terms on which solicitors and Counsel were retained to act for the defendants. The appeals did not raise any issues concerning costs practice, and were by way of review of the Costs Judge’s rulings, and not by way of . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Contract, Arbitration

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.194302

Lesotho Highlands Development Authority v Impregilo Spa and others: HL 30 Jun 2005

The House had to consider whether the arbitrator had acted in excess of his powers under s38, saying the arbitrator had misconstrued the contract. The arbitrator had made his award in different currencies.
Held: The question remained whether the arbitrator had exceeded its powers, not whether they had been wrongly exercised. An error of law on its own did not constitute an excess of power. The House allowed the appeal, set aside the order for remission of the award, and dismissed the employer’s application.
Lord Steyn stated: ‘But the issue was whether the tribunal ‘exceeded its powers’ within the meaning of section 68(2) (b). This required the courts below to address the question whether the tribunal purported to exercise a power which it did not have or whether it erroneously exercised a power that it did have. If it is merely a case of erroneous exercise of power vesting in the tribunal no excess of power under section 68(2) (b) is involved. .
section 68(2) (b) does not permit a challenge on the ground that the tribunal arrived at a wrong conclusion as a matter of law or fact. It is not apt to cover a mere error of law . .
In order to decide whether section 68(2)(b) is engaged it will be necessary to focus intensely on the particular power under an arbitration agreement, the terms of reference, or the 1996 Act which is involved, judged in all the circumstances of the case. In making this general observation it must always be borne in mind that the erroneous exercise of an available power cannot by itself amount to an excess of power. A mere error of law will not amount to an excess of power under section 68(2) (b).’

Lord Steyn, Lord Hoffmann, Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers, Lord Scott of Foscote, Lord Rodger of Earlsferry
[2005] UKHL 43, Times 06-Jul-2005, [2005] 27 EG 220, [2005] 3 WLR 129, [2006] AC 221, [2005] 3 All ER 789, 101 Con LR 1, [2005] 2 All ER (Comm) 265, [2005] BLR 351, [2005] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 310, [2005] 2 CLC 1
Bailii, House of Lords
Arbitration Act 1996 48(4) 68
England and Wales
Citing:
First InstanceLesotho Highlands Development Authority v Impreglio SpA and Others QBD 15-Nov-2002
The parties had submitted their dispute to arbitration. The arbitrator had made his award payable in certain currencies. The payer contended that this was in excess of his jurisdiction.
Held: The reference to the arbitrator continued the . .
Appeal fromLesotho Highlands Development Authority v Impregilo Spa and others CA 31-Jul-2003
The parties went to arbitration to resolve disputes in a construction contract. The award appeared to have been made for payment in currencies different from those set out in the contract. The question was asked as to whether the award of interest . .
ApprovedSeabridge Shipping AB v AC Orssleff’s EFtF’s A/S QBD 1999
The court discussed the policies underlying the 1996 Act: ‘One of the major purposes of the Arbitration Act 1996 was to set out most of the important principles of the law of arbitration of England and Wales in a logical order and expressed in a . .
CitedIn re United Railways of the Havana v Regla Warehouses Ltd CA 1960
There had been a financing transaction by way of a lease by a Pennsylvania corporation, as trustee for foreign bondholders, to an English company carrying on business in Cuba, of assets in Cuba. By a Cuban decree the assets were transferred to the . .
CitedPatel v Patel CA 24-Mar-1999
A party applying to set a default judgment aside with associated leave to defend did not thereby take any substantial step in proceedings which would debar him from insisting that the matter be stayed pending a referral to arbitration. . .
CitedJugoslavenska Oceanske Plovidba v Castle Investment Co Inc CA 1974
London arbitrators had made an award for unpaid hire in US dollars, being the currency of the hire contract. An issue arose whether an English court could give leave under the Act to enforce the award in the same manner as a judgment to the same . .
CitedHarbour Assurance Co (UK) Ltd v Kansa General International Insurance Co Ltd CA 7-Apr-1993
An action was brought by re-insurers for a declaration that reinsurance policies were void for illegality, and that the plaintiffs were not liable under them. The illegality alleged was that the defendants were not registered or approved to carry on . .
CitedMiliangos v George Frank (Textiles) Ltd HL 1975
The issue was whether an English court was able to award damages in Sterling only.
Held: The House distinguished clearly between the substance of the debtor’s obligations and the effect of English procedural law when a debt in a foreign . .
CitedServices Europe Atlantique Sud (SEAS) v Stockholms Rederiaktiebolag Svea HL 1979
. .
CitedAnisminic Ltd v Foreign Compensation Commission HL 17-Dec-1968
There are no degrees of nullity
The plaintiffs had owned mining property in Egypt. Their interests were damaged and or sequestrated and they sought compensation from the Respondent Commission. The plaintiffs brought an action for the declaration rejecting their claims was a . .
CitedK/S A/S Bill Biakh v Hyundai Corporation 1988
. .
CitedBank Mellat v GAA Development and Construction Co 1988
. .
CitedServices Europe Atlantique Sud (SEAS) v Stockholms Rederiaktiebolag Svea HL 1979
. .

Cited by:
CitedED and F Man Sugar Ltd v Belmont Shipping Ltd ComC 18-Nov-2011
Allegation of serious irregularity in arbitration.
Held: The request was refused: ‘the present case can hardly be said to be an extreme case which justice calls out to be corrected.’.
‘Arbitrators are not barred from asking a party . .
CitedKaneria v The English and Wales Cricket Board Ltd ComC 6-May-2014
kaneira)ecbComc0514
The claimant, a professional cricketer disciplined for alleged match fixing, sought to challenge the results of an arbitration of his dispute with the respondent. He alleged a serious irregularity in that the Arbitral Panel had exceeded its powers . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Arbitration

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.228062

Premium Nafta Products Ltd (20th Defendant) and others v Fili Shipping Company Ltd and others; Fiona Trust and Holding Corporation v Privalov: HL 17 Oct 2007

The owners of a ship sought to rescind charters saying that they had been procured by bribery.
Held: A claim to rescind a contract by reason of bribery fell within the scope of an arbitration clause under which the parties had agreed to refer to arbitration ‘any dispute arising under this charter’. The issue of bribery could be dealt with within that arbitration.
Lord Hoffmann said: ‘It depends upon the intention of the parties as expressed in their agreement. Only the agreement can tell you what kinds of disputes they intended to submit to arbitration. But the meaning which the parties intended to express by the words which they used will be affected by the commercial background and the readers’ understanding of the purpose for which the agreement was made. Businessmen in particular are assumed to have entered into agreements to achieve some rational commercial purpose and an understanding of this purpose will influence the way in which one interprets their language’.
and ‘the construction of an arbitration clause should start from the assumption that the parties, as rational businessmen, are likely to have intended any dispute arising out of the relationship into which they have entered or purported to enter to be decided by the same tribunal. The clause should be construed in accordance with this presumption unless the language makes it clear that certain questions were intended to be excluded from the arbitrator’s jurisdiction.’

Lord Hoffmann, Lord Hope of Craighead, Lord Scott of Foscote, Lord Walker of Gestingthorpe, Lord Brown of Eaton-under-Heywood
[2007] ArbLR 24, [2007] UKHL 40, [2008] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 254, [2007] 4 All ER 951, [2007] Bus LR 1719, [2007] 114 Con LR 69, [2007] 2 CLC 553, [2007] 2 All ER (Comm) 1053, [2007] CILL 2528
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 7 9
England and Wales
Citing:
At first instanceFiona Trust and Holding Corp and others v Privalov and others ComC 20-Oct-2006
The parties disputed whether their claim should be arbitrated.
Held: A claim as to whether the contract itself had been made was not one which could be arbitrated by provisions in that contract. It does not arise ‘under’ the contract. The . .
See AlsoFiona Trust Holding Corp and others v Privalov and others ComC 21-May-2007
Allegations were made of different varieties of fraud. Applications were made for freezing orders. . .
Appeal fromFiona Trust and Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others CA 24-Jan-2007
The court was asked whether when contracts have been induced by bribery and have been rescinded on discovery of the bribery, that constitutes a dispute which can be determined by arbitration in the context of a common form of arbitration clause.
CitedOverseas Union v AA Mutual International Insurance Co Ltd 1988
Evans J said that there was a broad distinction between clauses which referred ‘only those disputes which may arise regarding the rights and obligations which are created by the contract itself’ and those which ‘show an intention to refer some wider . .
CitedHarbour Assurance Co (UK) Ltd v Kansa General International Insurance Co Ltd CA 7-Apr-1993
An action was brought by re-insurers for a declaration that reinsurance policies were void for illegality, and that the plaintiffs were not liable under them. The illegality alleged was that the defendants were not registered or approved to carry on . .
CitedFillite (Runcorn) Ltd v Aqua-Lift CA 1989
The court considered whether claims arising from misrepresentation or breach of a collateral contrat were claims arising ‘under’ the contract so as to be governed by the disputes provisions in it.
Held: The disputes did not arise ‘under the . .
CitedUnion of India v Aaby’s Rederi A/S, The Evje HL 1975
Lord Dilhorne said of the words ‘to be settled in London’: ‘At first sight those words appear to me to mean no more and no less than that the contributions to be made have to be determined in London and paid there, and that implies determined in . .
CitedHeyman v Darwins Limited HL 1942
An arbitration clause will survive a repudiatory breach: ‘I agree with the Lord Chancellor in thinking that the true ground of the decision in Jureidini v National British and Irish Millers Insurance Co Ltd was the narrowness of the field of . .
CitedMackender v Feldia AG CA 1966
A clause provided that an insurance policy should be governed by Belgian law and that ‘any disputes arising thereunder shall be exclusively subject to Belgian jurisdiction.’ The underwriters avoided the contract for non-disclosure of material facts . .
CitedAshville Investments Ltd v Elmer Contractors Ltd CA 1987
A clause in the contract refered to arbitration: ‘any dispute or difference as to the construction of this contract or as to any matter or thing of whatsoever nature arising thereunder or in connection therewith.’
Held: The court should adopt . .
See AlsoFiona Trust Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others ComC 19-Jan-2007
. .

Cited by:
See AlsoFiona Trust and Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others ComC 22-Jul-2008
. .
CitedTrident Turboprop (Dublin) Ltd v First Flight Couriers Ltd CA 2-Apr-2009
The appellant entered into two aircraft leasing agreements but were unable to maintain payments. They appealed against rejection of their argument that the agreements were not exempt from the controls under the 1977 Act by being international supply . .
CitedS Ltd v C Ltd ComC 27-Feb-2009
Defamation allegation not subject to arbitration
The parties had an agreement referring disputes between them to arbitration. One party raised an allegation of defamation, but the arbitrator refused jurisdiction. The parties had chosen the London Metal Exchange for its expertise in metals trading, . .
CitedAspect Contracts (Asbetos) Ltd v Higgins Construction Plc SC 17-Jun-2015
Aspect had claimed the return of funds paid by it to the appellant Higgins under an adjudication award in a construction contract disute. The claimant had been asked to prpare asbestos surveys and reports on maisonettes which Higgins was to acquire . .
CitedEmmott v Michael Wilson and Partners Ltd ComC 12-Jan-2009
The claimant, a party to an arbitration, sought first an order requiring the defendant to comply with an order made by the arbitrator for the transfer of certain shares, and second an asset freezing order.
Held: The conditions for a peremptory . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Arbitration, Contract

Leading Case

Updated: 01 November 2021; Ref: scu.259907

Binder v Alachouzos: CA 1972

A contract recited that the parties had been advised by solicitors and counsel that the Moneylenders Acts did not apply to transactions which were the subject of legal proceedings between them, and went on to provide for a compromise.
Held: There can be a bona fide compromise of an issue as to whether a contract is illegal. Lord Denning: ‘In my judgment, a bona fide agreement of compromise such as we have in the present case (where the dispute is as to whether the plaintiff is a moneylender or not) is binding. It cannot be reopened unless there is evidence that the lender has taken undue advantage of the situation of the borrower. In this case no undue advantage was taken. Both sides were advised by competent lawyers on each side. There was a fair arguable case for each. The agreement they reached was fair and reasonable. It should not be reopened. I agree with the judge below that this agreement of compromise was binding and I would dismiss the appeal.’
Phillimore LJ said: ‘Speaking for myself, I think it is entirely plain that this was a bona fide compromise, and that there is nothing in the evidence here which could make this court say with any confidence that these were moneylending transactions, illegal transactions; and accordingly, as it seems to me, here the court is faced with a bona fide compromise of what was a question of fact. The terms of the agreement are not to be described as colourable. The court ought to be very slow to look behind an agreement reached in such circumstances as these. I cannot think that Mr Jackson has made out anything like a case which would be strong enough to justify this court in looking behind the terms of what was clearly a bona fide compromise, and I also would accordingly dismiss this appeal.’
Lord Denning MR, Phillimore LJ, Roskill LJ
[1972] 2 QB 151
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedThakrar v Ciro Citterio Menswear Plc In Administration ChD 1-Oct-2002
Disputes arose between shareholders in a family company. Proceedings which expressly excluded the company were settled, but the company became insolvent. A later settlement was refused approval by the judge without the creditors consent. The . .
CitedSoleimany v Soleimany CA 4-Mar-1998
The parties were Iranian Jews, father and son. The son arranged to export carpets from Iran in contravention of Iranian law. The father and son fell into dispute about their contracts and arranged for the issues to be resolved by the Beth Din . .
CitedAttorney General v British Museum ChD 27-May-2005
The trustees brought a claim against the Attorney-General seeking clarification of their duties and powers to return objects which were part of the collection in law, but where a moral duty might exist to return it to a former owner. Here drawings . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 23 October 2021; Ref: scu.180982

Homer Burgess Ltd v Chirex (Annan) Ltd: OHCS 25 Jan 2000

Although an adjudicator’s decision would normally be binding on the parties pending an appeal, that was not the case where the mistake alleged was as to his jurisdiction. In such cases the decision was reviewable, and was ineffective as a decision under the Act.
163696
Times 25-Jan-2000, [1999] ScotCS 264
Bailii
Housing Grants Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 108
Scotland
Citing:
CitedYarmouth v France CA 11-Aug-1887
The plaintiff was employed by the defendant to drive carts. He objected that the horse had a vicious nature, but was obliged to drive it in any event. The horse kicked him.
Held: For the purposes of the 1880 Act, the plaintiff was an employee, . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 14 September 2021; Ref: scu.81458

Dubai Islamic Bank Pjsc v Paymentech Merchant Services Incorporated: ComC 27 Oct 2000

The court was asked ‘how should the court apply section 3 when determining what is the ‘juridical seat of the arbitration’, if neither the parties to the arbitration agreement nor any arbitral or other institutions have designated the ‘seat’ of the arbitration? In particular the question arises: is there a particular point in time during the arbitral process at which the court should consider ‘all the relevant circumstances’ in order to determine the ‘juridical seat of the arbitration’? If I conclude that the ‘seat’ of the arbitration is England, then the second question is: how should the court approach an application for an extension of time in which to make an application for permission to appeal an arbitration award, under section 80(5)?’
Aikens J
[2000] EWHC 228 (Comm), [2001] 1 LLR 65
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 01 September 2021; Ref: scu.341868

Agrimex Ltd v Tradigrain Sa and others: ComC 9 Jul 2003

Challenge was brought against the fees charged by the arbitrator, and in particular at the cost of the arbitrator bringing in a legally qualified draftsman.
Held: A draftsman’s task would not be himself to refine the arbitrator’s reasoning, but rather to express it as exactly as was necessary for the case. Such an appointment would be unnecessary in most cases, and particularly where the amount at issue was not great, but could apply where the issues were complex, although an assessor might be more appropriate. Antagonism and a legalistic approach would not of itself justify such an appointment, though the attitude of the parties in general could be taken into account. Old cases were not useful in such a context. The court would not say that the appointment was wrong, but the costs incurred were quite disproportionate and reduced accordingly.
The Honourable Mr Justice Thomas
[2003] EWHC 1656 (Comm), Times 12-Aug-2003, [2003] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 537
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 28(2) 28(3)
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedThrelfall v Fanshawe 1850
There was a dispute about the entitlement of a lay arbitrator, who had been appointed by order of the Court to determine a boundary dispute between two estates, to charge for the attorney he had employed.
Held: ‘Where parties appoint a lay . .
CitedRe Collyer-Bristow and Co 1901
The issue was whether a bill of the solicitors employed to advise the Umpire was taxable and, if so, in which Division of the High Court . .
CitedTranscatalana de Commercio SA v Incobrassa Industrial e Commercial Brazileira SA 1995
. .
CitedKurkjian v Marketing Exchange No 2 1986
If a tribunal employs a lay or legal draftsman, the tribunal has a duty to satisfy themselves that the fee he charges is fair and reasonable; the extent of the work required of the tribunal in examining the fees charged by the lawyer is . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.
Updated: 29 August 2021; Ref: scu.184651

Sumukan Ltd v The Commonwealth Secretariat: CA 21 Mar 2007

The appellants sought to challenge a finding that they had by their contract with the defendants excluded the right to appeal to a court on a point of law. The defendants replied that the appeal court had no jurisdiction to hear such an appeal.
Held: The Court of Appeal did have jurisdiction. The argument that it did not was in practice circular, and ‘although there might be a temptation (in the interest of speed and saving expense) to construe any part of the language of the 1996 Act in a way that renders all decisions under the various sections where permission of the court is required as final, if the first instance court so rules, there is a distinction between those cases where the court is assisting or overseeing the arbitration process and the cases where the question is whether the jurisdiction of the court has been excluded. ‘
Waller LJ, Clarke MR, Sedley LJ
[2007] EWCA Civ 243, Times 13-Apr-2007, [2007] 2 All ER (Comm) 23, [2007] 3 All ER 342, [2007] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 87, [2007] Bus LR 1075, [2007] 1 CLC 282, [2007] ArbLR 56
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1979
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedHenry Boot Construction (UK) Limited v Malmaison Hotel (Manchester) Limited CA 25-May-2000
Where a party appealed against an arbitration to the County or High Court, the court which gave judgment was the sole body able to give permission to enter an appeal under the Act. An appellate court did not have jurisdiction to give leave to . .
Appeal fromSumukan Ltd v Commonwealth Secretariat ComC 14-Feb-2007
The claimant had created a web-site for the defendant. The claimant sought to appeal an arbitration award. . .
CitedAthletic Union of Constantinople v National Basketball Association and Others CA 28-May-2002
A party had been refused leave to appeal against an arbitration under the Act by the judge, but later obtained leave to appeal.
Held: Such leave could only be granted by the trial judge, and the Court of Appeal could set aside the leave . .
CitedASM Shipping Ltd of India v TTMI Ltd of England CA 16-Oct-2006
The court at first instance had dismissed the ship-owner’s application to set aside the arbitration award, and then refused leave to appeal. The court of appeal had to consider whether it had jurisdiction itself to hear an application for leave.
CitedCetelem Sa v Roust Holdings Ltd CA 24-May-2005
The parties were engaged in arbitration proceedings. The claimant had sought and obtained an interim mandatory order intended to prevent the defendant dissipating its assets in anticipation of an adverse ruling. The defendant sought leave to appeal. . .
CitedArab African v Olieprodukten 1983
By section 3(1) of the 1979 Act, the High Court was precluded from granting permission to appeal on a point of law from an award ‘if the parties to the reference in question have entered into an agreement in writing (in this section referred to as . .
CitedCircle Freight International Ltd v Medeast Gulf Imports Ltd CA 1988
The court considered the effect of a driver’s behaviour on the ability to claim under his insurance policy, on the basis that his behaviour would constitute ‘wilful misconduct’. Taylor LJ: ‘Mr Malins has sought to argue that although Huggins (the . .
CitedInterfoto Picture Library Ltd v Stiletto Visual Programmes Ltd CA 12-Nov-1987
Incorporation of Onerous Terms Requires More Care
Photographic transparencies were hired out to the advertising agency defendant. The contract clauses on the delivery note included a fee which was exorbitant for the retention of transparencies beyond the set date.
Held: The plaintiff had not . .
CitedCzarnikow v Roth Schmidt and Co 1922
It is aganst public policy to allow the parties to seek to oust the jurisdiction of the court. An agreement to submit disputes to arbitration does not, apart from statute, take from a party the power to invoke the jurisdiction of the courts to . .
CitedStretford v The Football Association Ltd and Another CA 21-Mar-2007
The claimant was a football player’s agent. The licensing scheme required disputes, including disciplinary procedures, to be referred to arbitration. He denied that the rule had been incorporated in the contract. He also complained that the . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 19 July 2021; Ref: scu.250453

Bunge Sa v Nidera Bv: CA 12 Dec 2013

The court heard an appeal from an order upholding an award made by the Board of Appeal of the Grain and Feed Trade Association concerning the effect of the Prohibition clause in the GAFTA standard form of contract for delivery on f.o.b. terms of goods from Central and Eastern Europe in bulk or bags, generally known as Gafta 49.
Held: The sellers abandoned their arguments on mitigation. On the remaining issues, the Court affirmed the decision below.
Moore-Bick, Floyd, Chrisopher Clarke LJJ
[2013] EWCA Civ 1628, [2014] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 404
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromBunge Sa v Nidera Bv ComC 29-Jan-2013
The Court was asked: ‘2.1 Is the application of the GAFTA prohibition clause limited to a case where it can be seen after the event that performance of the contract has in fact been prevented by the prohibition in question?
2.2. Does the GAFTA . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromBunge Sa v Nidera Bv SC 1-Jul-2015
The court considered the effect of the default clause in a standard form of contract which is widely used in the grain trade. On 10 June 2010 the respondents, Nidera BV, whom I shall call ‘the buyers’, entered into a contract with the appellants, . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 17 July 2021; Ref: scu.518934

Novasen Sa v Alimenta Sa: ComC 27 Feb 2013

Arbitration appeal raising issues concerning the construction and application of the FOSFA Prohibition and Default Clauses, and the relevance of subsequent events to the assessment of damages in accordance with common law principles.
Popplewell J
[2013] EWHC 345 (Comm), [2013] Bus LR D79, [2013] 1 CLC 405, [2013] 2 All ER (Comm) 162, [2013] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 648
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedBunge Sa v Nidera Bv SC 1-Jul-2015
The court considered the effect of the default clause in a standard form of contract which is widely used in the grain trade. On 10 June 2010 the respondents, Nidera BV, whom I shall call ‘the buyers’, entered into a contract with the appellants, . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 30 April 2021; Ref: scu.471225

Bunge Sa v Nidera Bv: ComC 29 Jan 2013

The Court was asked: ‘2.1 Is the application of the GAFTA prohibition clause limited to a case where it can be seen after the event that performance of the contract has in fact been prevented by the prohibition in question?
2.2. Does the GAFTA default clause exclude common law principles for the assessment of damages for anticipatory repudiatory breach and in particular (i) the principle of mitigation and/or (ii) the compensation principle identified in The Golden Victory [2007] 2 AC 353?
2.3. Is the ‘overriding compensatory principle’ established by The Golden Victory limited to instalment contracts?
2.4. Was the board wrong in law to conclude that the buyers’ rejection of the sellers’ offer to reinstate the contract did not constitute a failure to mitigate on the ground that the sellers did not offer to reinstate the contract on different and more favourable terms than contained in the original contract?’
Held: The Court dismissed the appeal on issues 2.1, 2.2 and 2.4. Clause 20 of GAFTA determined the measure of damages whether or not it produced a result corresponding to the common law and issue 2.3 did not arise.
HamblenJ
[2013] EWHC 84 (Comm)
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromBunge Sa v Nidera Bv CA 12-Dec-2013
The court heard an appeal from an order upholding an award made by the Board of Appeal of the Grain and Feed Trade Association concerning the effect of the Prohibition clause in the GAFTA standard form of contract for delivery on f.o.b. terms of . .
At First InstanceBunge Sa v Nidera Bv SC 1-Jul-2015
The court considered the effect of the default clause in a standard form of contract which is widely used in the grain trade. On 10 June 2010 the respondents, Nidera BV, whom I shall call ‘the buyers’, entered into a contract with the appellants, . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 28 April 2021; Ref: scu.470708

Bunge Sa v Kyla Shipping Company Ltd: ComC 10 Dec 2012

Flaux J
[2012] EWHC 3522 (Comm)
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedBank Line Ltd v Arthur Capel and Co HL 12-Dec-1918
The defendant ship-owners contracted to lease the ship on charter to the plaintiffs. Before the term, the ship was requisitioned for the war effort. The plaintiffs did not exercise the contractual right given to them to cancel the charterparty. The . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromKyla Shipping Company Ltd v Bunge Sa CA 20-Jun-2013
. .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 23 April 2021; Ref: scu.467262

Wallace v C Brian Barratt and Son Limited and Lock: CA 19 Mar 1997

The court was asked whether the defendant company, which was the tenant under an agricultural tenancy agreement of land comprising arable fields, was in breach of a covenant in the tenancy not to assign, underlet, or part with or share possession or occupation of the whole or any part of the holding by virtue of farming the holding through a partnership. The individual partners were related and held most of the shares in the tenant company.
Held: There was no breach of the covenant since, among other things, the partnership activities were carried out as agent for the tenant company.
[1997] EWCA Civ 1281, [1997] EGLR 1, (1997) 74 P and CR 408, [1997] EG 40
Bailii
Agricultural Holdings (Arbitration on Notice) Order 1987
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedClear Channel United Kingdom Ltd, Regina (on the Application of) v First Secretary of State and Another Admn 14-Oct-2004
The claimant sought a declaration that it had a tenancy for its occupation by an advertising station, and that it had protection under the 1954 Act. The defendant council said that only a licence had been granted.
Held: The grants included the . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 21 April 2021; Ref: scu.141677

Laker Airways Inc v FLS Aerospace Ltd: ComC 20 Apr 1999

The court was asked: ‘whether a barrister who has been appointed an arbitrator by one party to the arbitration should be removed by the court on the ground that another barrister from the same chambers has been instructed in the arbitration by the appointing party’. The arbitrator had offered to recuse himself if both parties requested, but not only at the request of one. The claimant said that the members of chambers shared office space and administration, and that there was no formal system to protect confidential materials.
Rix J
[1999] EWHC B3 (Comm), [2000] 1 WLR 113
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 24(1)(a)
Cited by:
CitedO’Leary International Ltd v North Wales Police Admn 31-May-2012
oleary_nwpAdmn2012
The company employed drivers to cross the UK. They were stopped and did not have the requisite drivers records. Instead they produced certificates as to having had rest days. These proved false, and the drivers said that the had been produced for . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 20 April 2021; Ref: scu.464592

Beck Interiors Ltd v UK Flooring Contrcators Ltd: TCC 4 Jul 2012

Adjudication enforcement raising issues, the first being whether all or part of a dispute or disputes had crystallised before the adjudication was commenced and the second being whether part of the adjudicator’s decision can be severed leaving the rest to be enforced.
Akenhead J
[2012] EWHC 1808 (TCC), [2012] BLR 417
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 15 April 2021; Ref: scu.463091

Harbour Assurance Co (UK) Ltd v Kansa General International Insurance Co Ltd: CA 7 Apr 1993

An action was brought by re-insurers for a declaration that reinsurance policies were void for illegality, and that the plaintiffs were not liable under them. The illegality alleged was that the defendants were not registered or approved to carry on insurance or reinsurance business under the Insurance Companies Acts. The illegality was denied, and the defendant sought a stay and reference to arbitration.
Held: A stay was granted. An arbitration clause in an insurance contract was separate from the main contract with the effect that (a) invalidity of the main contract did not deprive the arbitrator of jurisdiction, and (b) the arbitrator had jurisdiction to decide the question of illegality of the main contract.
Ralph Gibson LJ: ‘Mr Longmore pointed out that a party to a contract the making of which he says was induced by fraud, would be surprised to be told that he is bound to have the issue tried by an arbitrator appointed under a clause in that contract. He also pointed out that when such a party alleges that the contract is void for illegality, he might well be astonished to be told that the issue of that illegality is to be determined by an arbitrator appointed under it.
There is, I think, force in these comments, but I add that in my view they are no more than forceful comments. Mr Justice Steyn said that the question of fraud or initial illegality was capable of being referred to arbitration. He did not qualify the clearly stated principle that if the validity of the arbitration clause itself is attacked the issue cannot be decided by the arbitrator. His reference to direct impeachment was, as I understand his judgment, to distinguish an attack upon the clause otherwise than by the logical proposition that the clause falls within the containing contract. When it is said that the contract was induced by fraud it may well be clear that, if it was, the making of the independent arbitration clause was also induced by fraud.’
Hoffmann LJ: ‘Mr Longmore therefore accepts, as he must, that for some purposes the arbitration clause is treated as severable and may survive the termination or even the avoidance with retrospective effect of all the other obligations under the contract .. He submits however that the severability doctrine cannot apply to any rule which prevents the contract from coming into existence or makes it void ab initio. In particular, it does not apply to a statute or other rule of law which makes the contract void for illegality.
It seems to me impossible to accept so sweeping a proposition. There will obviously be cases in which a claim that no contract came into existence necessarily entails a denial that there was any agreement to arbitrate. Cases of non est factum or denial that there was a concluded agreement, or mistake as to the identity of the other contracting party suggest themselves as examples. But there is no reason why every case of initial invalidity should have this consequence.’
Ralph Gibson LJ, Hoffmann LJ
Gazette 07-Apr-1993, [1993] 1 QB 701, [1993] 1 Lloyd’s Law Reports 455
Arbitration Act 1979 1
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromHarbour Assurance Co (Uk) Ltd v Kansa General International Insurance Co Ltd 1993
The Court said that older (pre Heyman v Darwins Ltd) authorities about the width of arbitration clauses had to be approached with some care and that the words ‘arising from the contract’ have almost invariably been treated as ‘words of very wide . .

Cited by:
CitedAbner Soleimany v Sion Soleimany CA 4-Mar-1998
The parties were Iranian Jews, father and son. The son arranged to export carpets from Iran in contravention of Iranian law. The father and son fell into dispute about their contracts and arranged for the issues to be resolved by the Beth Din . .
CitedLesotho Highlands Development Authority v Impregilo Spa and others HL 30-Jun-2005
The House had to consider whether the arbitrator had acted in excess of his powers under s38, saying the arbitrator had misconstrued the contract. The arbitrator had made his award in different currencies.
Held: The question remained whether . .
CitedFiona Trust and Holding Corp and others v Privalov and others ComC 20-Oct-2006
The parties disputed whether their claim should be arbitrated.
Held: A claim as to whether the contract itself had been made was not one which could be arbitrated by provisions in that contract. It does not arise ‘under’ the contract. The . .
CitedFiona Trust and Holding Corporation and others v Privalov and others CA 24-Jan-2007
The court was asked whether when contracts have been induced by bribery and have been rescinded on discovery of the bribery, that constitutes a dispute which can be determined by arbitration in the context of a common form of arbitration clause.
CitedPremium Nafta Products Ltd (20th Defendant) and others v Fili Shipping Company Ltd and others; Fiona Trust and Holding Corporation v Privalov HL 17-Oct-2007
The owners of a ship sought to rescind charters saying that they had been procured by bribery.
Held: A claim to rescind a contract by reason of bribery fell within the scope of an arbitration clause under which the parties had agreed to refer . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.81228

Secretary of State for the Environment v Euston Centre Investments Ltd: CA 6 Jul 1994

Arbitration appeal may be struck out for delay without the need to show evidence of prejudice from that delay. Nevertheless relief against an order striking out an appeal should given where some substantial part of the fault for the delay was the court’s fault.
Times 06-Jul-1994, Independent 10-Aug-1994, Gazette 03-Aug-1994
Arbitration Act 1979 1
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromSecretary of State for the Environment v Euston Centre Investments Ltd ChD 5-Jan-1994
Appeals from arbitrators must be prosecuted speedily or will risk being struck out. The tests will be applied stringently. . .

Cited by:
Appealed toSecretary of State for the Environment v Euston Centre Investments Ltd ChD 5-Jan-1994
Appeals from arbitrators must be prosecuted speedily or will risk being struck out. The tests will be applied stringently. . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.89099

Mercury Communications Ltd v Director General of Telecommunications and Another: CA 3 Aug 1994

Parties having contracted to resolve differences by an agreed procedure, could not go back on that agreement. The court will not replace an agreement for a resolution method chosen by parties with own advice and freely.
Independent 19-Aug-1994, Times 03-Aug-1994, Gazette 07-Oct-1994
England and Wales
Citing:
Appealed toMercury Communications Ltd v Director General of Telecommunications and Another HL 10-Feb-1995
The Secretary of State’s decision on the grant of a Telecommunications licence was challengeable by Summons and not by Judicial Review. A dispute between Mercury and BT as to charges as set by the Director General is a private not a public dispute. . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromMercury Communications Ltd v Director General of Telecommunications and Another HL 10-Feb-1995
The Secretary of State’s decision on the grant of a Telecommunications licence was challengeable by Summons and not by Judicial Review. A dispute between Mercury and BT as to charges as set by the Director General is a private not a public dispute. . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.83653

Arnold and Others v National Westminster Bank Plc: CA 14 Mar 1994

There was no power to remit a case to an arbitrator after a later court decision decision which showed that the law applied by the arbitrator was wrong. The arbitrator’s award was on the basis that a new lease should contain a rent review, but the basis was not followed in British Gas. The judge had remitted the award to the arbitrator to be assessessed on the British Gas basis.
Held: The court did not have that power. Decisions of arbitrators were not to be acceoted for review easily, and remission was available only in certain limited cases. A change in the law was not to be seen as equivalent to new evidence.
Ind Summary 14-Mar-1994, [1994] NPC 37 CA, [1994] CLY 2807
Arbitration Act 1950 22
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedBritish Gas Corporation v Universities Superannuation Scheme ChD 1986
The lease had a five yearly rent review, to be the highest of the current rent the rack rental value at the relevant rate. The rack rent was calculated under a hypothetical lease containing the same provisions (save for rent). The tenant sought a . .
CitedKing v Thomas McKenna 1991
. .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 09 April 2021; Ref: scu.77871

Taurus Petroleum Limited v State Oil Marketing Company of The Ministry of Oil, Republic of Iraq: SC 25 Oct 2017

The parties disputed their contract arrangements. It was referred to an arbitration in London, but applying Iraqi law. The respondent failed to meet the award made against it, and the claimant sought to enforce the award here by means of third party debt orders. Issues arose as to who could take the benefit of the letters of credit.
Held: (Lord Mance DPSC and Lord Neuberger of Abbotsbury dissenting) The appeal was allowed. The defendant was, under the contract, and remained the beneficiary of the letters and was the only proper owner of the debts due from the French bank. The Central Bank of Iraq, having no beneficial interest in the contract had no say in the chosen means of execution.
The situs in law of this debt was London, being the legal residence of the debtor.
Lord Neuberger, Lord Mance, Lord Clarke, Lord Sumption, Lord Hodge
[2017] UKSC 64, UKSC 2015/0199, [2017] WLR(D) 701, [2018] AC 690, [2017] 3 WLR 1170
Bailii, Bailii Summary, SC, SC Summary, SC 20170321 am Video, SC Summary Video, SC 20170321 pm Video, SC 20170322 am Video, SC 20170322 pm Video, WLRD
England and Wales
Citing:
At ComC (1)Taurus Petroleum Ltd v State Oilmarketing Company ComC 18-Nov-2013
The parties referred their contract disputes to an arbitration in London which was to apply Iraqi law. As to enforcement of the award, the defendant denied that they were situated in London.
Held: The debts were situated in London rather than . .
At ComC (2)Taurus Petroleum Led v State Oil Marketing Company of The Ministry of Oil, Republic of Iraq ComC 18-Nov-2013
. .
Appeal fromTaurus Petroleum Ltd v State Oil Company of The Ministry of Oil, Republic of Iraq CA 28-Jul-2015
The parties had contractual disputes as to letters of credit governed by Iraqi law. The arbitration was in London applying Iraqi law. They now disputed whether the Enforcement of arbitration award was as an award made in London. Each appealed . .
CitedSociete Eram Shipping Company Limited and others v Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp Ltd, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation HL 12-Jun-2003
The appeal concerned a final third party debt order (formerly a garnishee order). A judgment in France was registered here for enforcement. That jurisdiction was now challenged.
Held: A third party debt order is a proprietary remedy operating . .
OverruledPower Curber International Ltd v The National Bank of Kuwait CA 1981
The advising bank on a letter of credit was situated in Florida. The place where the credit was payable was North Carolina, and the place where the issuing bank had its place of business was Kuwait.
Held: (Waterhouse J dissenting) The contract . .
CitedHL Boulton Co v Banque Royale du Canada 1994
(Superior Court of Quebec) The defendant asked the court to decline jurisdiction under article 3135 of the Civil Code, which provides that even though a Quebec authority has jurisdiction to hear a dispute, it may exceptionally decline jurisdiction . .
CitedAlessandra Yarns llc v Tongxiang Baoding Textile Co Ltd 6-Feb-2015
(Superior Court of Quebec) The Court was asked whether the fraud exception to a letter of credit had been met such that the court should issue an interlocutory injunction to prevent the beneficiary claiming under the letter of credit. There were . .
CitedRe General Horticultural Company, Ex parte Whitehouse ChD 1886
Wills, to whom a sum had been allowed in a winding up for work done for the liquidator, charged the amount due to him as security for the payment of three debts, the total amount of which exceeded the sum due to him from the company. Notice of the . .
CitedRogers v Whitely QBD 1889
Money in a bank account included money of which the judgment debtor was trustee.
Held: That money could not be ordered to be paid to the judgment creditor who obtained the charging order: ‘he can only obtain payment out of the debtor’s own . .
CitedWilliams v Everett And Others 25-Nov-1811
. .
CitedGibson v Minet And Another 28-Feb-1824
. .
CitedWebb v Stanton CA 1883
A garnishee order was obtained against a trustee purporting to attach the beneficiary’s share of the trust income. No income was however in the trustee’s hands which he was at that time due to pay to the beneficiary.
Held: The garnishee order . .
CitedRekstin v Severo Sibirsko Gosudarstvennoe Aksionernoe Obschestvo Koseverputj and the Bank for Russian Trade Ltd CA 1932
The plaintiff sought to enforce payment of a judgment in his favour against the defendant (the Severo Sibirsko Bureau) by service of a garnishee order nisi on the Bureau’s bank, the Bank for Russian Trade. The order was served less than an hour . .
CitedDunlop and Ranken Ltd v Hendall Steel Structures Ltd CA 1957
There was no debt arising under a building contract which could be the subject of a garnishee order where there was no ’cause of action’ and no debt until an architect’s certificate had been issued.
Lord Goddard CJ said: ‘. . until the . .
CitedMerchant International Company Ltd v Natsionalna Aktsionerna Kompaniia Naftogaz Ukrainy and Another CA 10-Dec-2014
he debt sought to be attached was said to be owed by a bank to the judgment debtor Naftogaz. But the bank had received the money from Naftogaz as the agent bank under a loan agreement for distribution to the loanholders. It was not therefore, in the . .
CitedFerrera v Hardy CA 7-Oct-2015
H appealed from a decision to set aside a third party debt order which he had obtained over a debt he said was due to F from Liverpool City Council in respect of housing benefit owed to F as rent for one of F’s tenants.
Held: A judgment . .
CitedWood v Capita Insurance Services Ltd SC 29-Mar-2017
Construction of term of contract for the sale and purchase of the entire issued share capital of a company.
Held: The appeal was dismissed: ‘the SPA may have become a poor bargain, as it appears that it did not notify the sellers of a warranty . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 20 March 2021; Ref: scu.597671

Taurus Petroleum Ltd v State Oil Company of The Ministry of Oil, Republic of Iraq: CA 28 Jul 2015

The parties had contractual disputes as to letters of credit governed by Iraqi law. The arbitration was in London applying Iraqi law. They now disputed whether the Enforcement of arbitration award was as an award made in London. Each appealed against elements of the orders made at first instance.
Held: The appeals and cross appeals failed.
Although a bank must carefully assess the creditworthiness of its own customer before agreeing to open a letter of credit, the process of doing so is essentially mechanical. The terms of the credit are likely to be determined largely, if not entirely, by the seller and will be communicated by the buyer to its bank. The bank in its turn will then issue the credit in the terms required, undertaking a liability to the beneficiary against which it will seek an indemnity from its customer. Moore-Bick LJ added that one should therefore be very cautious before construing letters of credit by reference to extraneous circumstances and there was no evidence before the court of the extent to which those engaged in financing the trade in Iraqi oil were or were not generally aware of the arrangements.
The parties disputed the terms of their contract and had undertaken an arbitration in London, but under Iraqi law. There was no reason in principle why a letter of credit should not be issued in favour of joint beneficiaries, as for example if goods or property were being sold by joint owners.
Moore-Bick VP CA, Sullivan, Briggs LJJ
[2015] EWCA Civ 835, [2016] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 42, [2015] CP Rep 48
Bailii
State Immunity Act 1978 13(2) 14(4)
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromTaurus Petroleum Ltd v State Oilmarketing Company ComC 18-Nov-2013
The parties referred their contract disputes to an arbitration in London which was to apply Iraqi law. As to enforcement of the award, the defendant denied that they were situated in London.
Held: The debts were situated in London rather than . .
At ComC (2)Taurus Petroleum Led v State Oil Marketing Company of The Ministry of Oil, Republic of Iraq ComC 18-Nov-2013
. .
BindingPower Curber International Ltd v The National Bank of Kuwait CA 1981
The advising bank on a letter of credit was situated in Florida. The place where the credit was payable was North Carolina, and the place where the issuing bank had its place of business was Kuwait.
Held: (Waterhouse J dissenting) The contract . .
CitedRogers v Whitely QBD 1889
Money in a bank account included money of which the judgment debtor was trustee.
Held: That money could not be ordered to be paid to the judgment creditor who obtained the charging order: ‘he can only obtain payment out of the debtor’s own . .

Cited by:
Appeal fromTaurus Petroleum Limited v State Oil Marketing Company of The Ministry of Oil, Republic of Iraq SC 25-Oct-2017
The parties disputed their contract arrangements. It was referred to an arbitration in London, but applying Iraqi law. The respondent failed to meet the award made against it, and the claimant sought to enforce the award here by means of third party . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 20 March 2021; Ref: scu.550645

Bilta (UK) Ltd (In Liquidation) v Nazir and Others: ChD 17 May 2010

The sixth defendant resisted a claim against it saying that matters between them were governed by a framework agreement which provided for matters to be resolved by arbitration. The claimant resisted, denying the arbitration agreement and saying that the defendant was out of time to make such a claim.
Held: Two arguments were directed to be tried as preliminary issues. There was an arguable case that Bilta had traded with Jetivia with notice that the Framework Agreement contained Jetivia’s standard terms and conditions applied, and that the Framework Agreement (including clause 8.7) became part of the contractual terms binding on Bilta.
Sales J
[2010] Bus LR 1634, [2010] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 29, [2010] EWHC 1086 (Ch)
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 9(3)
England and Wales
Cited by:
See AlsoBilta (Uk) Ltd v Nazir and Others ChD 24-Nov-2010
The company had been wound up by the Revenue on the basis that it had been used for a substantial VAT fraud. The liquidators now sued those said to have participated. A defendant denied the jurisdiction because of a disputed arbitration agreement. . .
See AlsoBilta (UK) Ltd and Others v Nazir and Others ChD 30-Jul-2012
The company was said to have engaged in a fraud based on false European Trading Scheme Allowances, and had been wound up by the Revenue. The liquidators, in the company name, now sought recovery from former directors and associates.
Held: The . .
At first instance (1)Jetivia Sa and Another v Bilta (UK) Ltd and Others CA 31-Jul-2013
Defendants appealed against refusal of their request for a summary striking out for lack of jurisdiction, of the claims against them arising from their management of the insolvency of the first defendant. . .
At first Instance (1)Jetivia Sa and Another v Bilta (UK) Ltd and Others SC 22-Apr-2015
The liquidators of Bilta had brought proceedings against former directors and the appellant alleging that they were party to an unlawful means conspiracy which had damaged the company by engaging in a carousel fraud with carbon credits. On the . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 18 March 2021; Ref: scu.415085

Claxton Engineering Services Ltd v TXM Olaj-ES Gazkutato Ktf: ComC 1 Feb 2011

The claimant applied for an injunction restraining the defendant from pursuing an arbitration commenced in Hungary under the rules of the Court of Arbitration of the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce (‘HCCI’) in reliance upon an alleged arbitration agreement between the parties.
Hamblen J
[2011] EWHC 345 (Comm), [2011] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 510, [2011] 2 All ER (Comm) 128
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 15 March 2021; Ref: scu.443313

Michael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott: ComC 8 Jun 2011

The claimant challenged an arbitration award made concerning the agreement under which the defendant had been admitted to partnership. MWP contended that the Tribunal were guilty of a large number of serious irregularities in their conduct of the reference and of making numerous errors of law, in respect of each of which they were obviously wrong.
Held: Despite the irregularities, the complaints did not undermine the decision. It stood.
Andrew Smith J
[2011] EWHC 1441 (Comm), [2011] ArbLR 55
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoEmmott v Michael Wilson and Partners Ltd CA 12-Mar-2008
The court considered the implication of the obligation of confidentiality in banking contracts or in arbitration agreements. It is ‘really a rule of substantive law masquerading as an implied term’. . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott ComC 6-Nov-2008
Challenge to jurisdiction of arbitration proceedings. . .
See AlsoEmmott v Michael Wilson and Partners Ltd ComC 12-Jan-2009
The claimant, a party to an arbitration, sought first an order requiring the defendant to comply with an order made by the arbitrator for the transfer of certain shares, and second an asset freezing order.
Held: The conditions for a peremptory . .
CitedAlghussein Establishment v Eton College HL 1985
A literal construction of the relevant provision of a lease would have led to an absurd result that a contractor who failed to complete a development without fault could not call for a lease, whereas a contractor who wilfully defaulted could do so. . .
CitedZermalt Holdings SA v NuLife Upholstery Repairs Ltd 1985
The court considered its general approach to appeals against awards in arbitrations. Bingham J said: ‘as a matter of general approach the courts strive to uphold arbitration awards. They do not approach them with a meticulous legal eye endeavouring . .
CitedNational Westminster Bank Plc and Another v Inland Revenue Commissioners HL 24-Jun-1994
Shares are allotted to a person when that person acquires an unconditional right to be entered on a company’s register of members. The issue of shares only becomes complete after they are registered in the company’s books for the purposes of the BES . .
CitedCheckpoint Ltd v Strathclyde Pension Fund CA 6-Feb-2003
The tenants sought to challenge the arbitrator’s award setting the rent payable under the lease. They claimed that he had improperly refered to his own experience of the market, to support his decision, and this committed a serious irregularity . .
CitedTesco Stores Limited v Pook, Pook, Universal Projects (UK) Limited ChD 14-Apr-2003
A trustee in breach of his duty has a duty to disclose that breach. It was alleged that the defendants, including a director of the claimant, had submitted false invoices to the claimants, and purchased property with the resulting profits.
CitedWarborough Investments Ltd v S Robinson and Sons (Holdings) Ltd CA 10-Jun-2003
The applicant sought remission of the decision of the arbitrator on a rent review. The arbitrator had taken a different approach from that suggested by either party’s expert.
Held: Arbitrators should be give a wide margin of appreciation. Even . .
CitedCameroon Airlines v Transnet Ltd ComC 29-Jul-2004
Where it is claimed that the arbitral tribunal adopted improper procedures to determine an issue, the court should decline to try the issue in order to establish whether substantial injustice has in fact been caused . .
CitedVee Networks Limited v Econet Wireless International Limited QBD 14-Dec-2004
The court considered a complaint that the arbitration award was faulty or lack of jurisdiction under the agreement founding it. . .
CitedLondon Underground Ltd v Citylink Telecommunications Ltd TCC 20-Jul-2007
Each party challenged elements of an arbitration award. . .
CitedIndustrial Development Consultants Ltd v Cooley 1972
Mr Cooley was the managing director of the claimant. His duties included procuring business in the field of developing gas depots. The company had unsuccessful negotiations with the Eastern Gas Board for the development of four depots. However, the . .
CitedConlon and Another v Simms ChD 9-Mar-2006
Partners in a solicitors practice fell out after one was struck off by the Law Society. The remaining partners claimed damages alleging that they had been drawn into the partnership after misrepresentations by the defendant about it, and sought to . .
CitedABB Ag v Hochtief Airport Gmbh and Another ComC 8-Mar-2006
The court considered the authorities on when an applications to set aside an arbitration award might succeed under section 68.
Held: Any such application faced a high hurdle. It can constitute a serious irregularity that a tribunal determines . .
CitedMurad and Another v Al Saraj and Another CA 29-Jul-2005
An account of profits is available without proof of loss, and the onus is upon the defaulting party to show that profits are not ones for which he should account . .
CitedHunter Kane Ltd v Watkins 2003
. .
CitedCanson Enterprises Ltd v Boughton and Co 21-Nov-1991
Canlii Supreme Court of Canada – Canada – Damages — Breach of fiduciary duty — Solicitor preparing conveyance not advising purchasers of secret profit made on a flip — On agreed facts, purchasers fully . .

Cited by:
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Sinclair and Others ComC 21-Sep-2012
The claimant company alleged that the defendants had variously received assests (shares and cash) acquired by a former partner in the claimant company and held on his behalf, in breach of his obligations to the caimant partnership. The defendants . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Sinclair and Others CA 16-Jan-2013
Application to stay order for costs. . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Sinclair and Others CA 23-Jul-2015
. .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott CA 14-Oct-2015
Appeal against a finding that payments made by the appellant were made in the ordinary course of business and not in breach of a freezing injunction. . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott CA 11-Dec-2015
The court considered a residual jurisdiction to set aside an arbitrator’s award after a first appeal. . .
See AlsoEmmott v Michael Wilson and Partners ComC 24-Nov-2016
Application for an anti-suit injunction against the defendant to restrain it from taking any further steps in ongoing proceedings in New South Wales and from commencing or pursuing any other substantive claims against the claimant on the ground that . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Sinclair and Another CA 13-Jan-2017
The appellant company sought to recover assets which, it said, had been acquired by a former partner in breach of his obligations under the partnership agreement, but which had been taken in the names of some of the respondents. There had been an . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 12 March 2021; Ref: scu.440446

CMA-CGM Marseille v Petro Broker International: CA 19 Apr 2011

Petro sought to enforce an arbitration award in its favour under a bunker contract. CMA obtained a stay on enforcement. It then offered to release the stay but on terms unacceptable to Petro.
Laws, Jackson, Tomlinson LJJ
[2011] EWCA Civ 461
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 44
England and Wales
Citing:
CitedTotsa Total Oil Trading Sa v Bharat Petroleum Corp Ltd ComC 14-Jan-2005
. .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 07 March 2021; Ref: scu.432835

Peterson Farms Inc v C and M Farming Ltd: ComC 4 Feb 2004

The claimant sought a declaration that an award made in an ICC arbitration was made without jurisdiction and void.
Langley J
[2004] EWHC 121 (Comm), [2004] 1 LLR 603, [2004] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 603, [2004] NPC 13
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 67
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoPeterson Farms v C and M Farming Ltd and Another ComC 5-Sep-2003
. .

Cited by:
CitedDallah Estates and Tourism Holding Company v Ministry of Religious Affairs, Government Of Pakistan CA 20-Jul-2009
dallah_pakistanCA2009
The claimant sought to enforce an international arbitration award against the defendant in respect of the provision of accommodation for Hajj pilgrims. A without notice order had been made to allow its enforcement, but that had been set aside.
Updated: 18 February 2021; Ref: scu.374029

A and B v D and C: CA 1989

The phrase ‘may arise in connection with this agreement’ covered a dispute as to inspection and repair work carried out under a contract with no arbitration clause which related to the supply of a liquified gas plant pursuant to a different contract which had an arbitration clause containing that phrase.
Mustill J
[1989] 1 QB 488, [1989] QB 488, [1988] 2 All ER 577, [1988] 3 WLR 868
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedDavies Middleton and Davies Ltd v Toyo Engineering Corporation CA 29-Aug-1997
Parties to a dispute agreed a way of resolving issues before arbitration. One party then sought to say that the agreement was void for uncertainty, being an agreement to agree.
Held: The agreement merely set a mechansim for resolving the . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 15 February 2021; Ref: scu.188393

City of London v Sancheti: CA 21 Nov 2008

The defendant sought leave to appeal against a refusal of a stay of arbitration. He was an Indian national operating as a solicitor in London. When pursued for rent arrears on his busines premises, he requested a stay, seeking to take the protection of a bilateral investment treaty protecting nationals of one state who invested another.
Held: He could not claim the benefit of the treaty. He sought to impose the burden of the treaty on a private company. That was not its intention.
Lord Justice Laws, Lord Justice Richards and Lord Justice Lawrence Collins
[2008] EWCA Civ 1283, Times 01-Dec-2008
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 9
England and Wales

Updated: 11 February 2021; Ref: scu.278208

IPCO (Nigeria) Ltd v Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation: SC 1 Mar 2017

The court was asked whether the appellant NNPC, should have to put up a further USD 100m security (in addition to USD 80m already provided) in respect of a Nigerian arbitration award which the respondent, had been seeking since November 2004 to enforce here. It was alleged that the award had involved a fraudulent inflation of the amount claimed. NNPC appealed from an order for security, in essence on the ground that the order was made without jurisdiction or wrong in principle and/or was illegitimate in circumstances where NNPC has a good prima facie case of fraud entitling it to resist enforcement of the whole award.
Held: The Court of Appeal erred: ‘It required security, not as the price of a further adjournment falling within section 103(5), but as the price of the decision of an issue under section 103(3). The Court was lifting the adjournments previously ordered pending the outcome of the Nigerian proceedings, not ordering an adjournment. It had no power under section 103 to make a decision of the properly arguable case raised by NNPC under section 103(3) conditional on NNPC providing further security.’
Lord Mance, Lord Clarke, Lord Sumption, Lord Hodge, Lord Toulson
[2017] UKSC 16, [2018] 1 All ER 738, [2018] 1 All ER (Comm) 191, [2017] 1 WLR 970, [2017] 1 CLC 195, [2017] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 508, UKSC 2015/0247
Bailii, SC, SCSUmmary, SC Summary Video, SC 020217am Video, SC 020217 pm Video
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoIPCO (Nigeria) Ltd v Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation ComC 27-Apr-2005
A Nigerian arbitration award between two Nigerian companies was first subject to proceedings in Nigeria to set aside the award and subsequently to enforcement proceedings in England.
Held: Gross J refused to consider immediate enforcement. He . .
See AlsoIPCO (Nigeria) Ltd v Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation ComC 17-Apr-2008
The court considered its power to enforce a New York Convention award in circumstances where a challenge to the validity of the award is pending before the supervisory court. . .
See AlsoNigerian National Petroleum Corporation v IPCO (Nigeria) Ltd CA 21-Oct-2008
The court was asked ‘Can part of a New York Convention arbitration award be enforced? How should sequential applications for enforcement of such an award be approached? ‘
Held: A foreign arbitration award could be enforced within the UK only . .
At First InstanceIPCO (Nigeria) Ltd v Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation ComC 14-Mar-2014
IPCO applied to have enforced here a substantial arbitration award. NNPC replied that the award had been inflated by fraud.
Held: The fraud challenge was made bona fide. NNPC had a good prima facie case that IPCO practised a fraud on the . .
At CAIPCO (Nigeria) Ltd v Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (Costs) CA 10-Nov-2015
Challenge to order for payment of security for costs.
Christopher Clarke LJ said: ‘In the present case it seems to us that in reality it is NNPC, the Award debtor, which sought the continuance of the adjournment in the face of IPCO’s attempt to . .
At CAIPCO (Nigeria) Ltd v Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation CA 10-Nov-2015
The court was asked whether the court below had been right to decline to enforce an arbitration award made in Nigeria in October 2004 and, instead, to continue an adjournment of the enforcement proceedings begun subsequently in this jurisdiction. . .
CitedSoleh Boneh International Ltd v Government of the Republic of Uganda CA 1993
When asked to order provision of security on an application not to enforce an arbitration award, the right approach is that of a sliding scale. The court referred to assessing the strength of the argument that the award is invalid ‘on a brief . .
CitedYukos Oil Company v Dardana Ltd CA 18-Apr-2002
The claimant sought to enforce an arbitration award made in Sweden, even though it had yet to give its final adjudication on the defence under the New York Convention argued by the defendant.
Held: The Act cannot have been intended to give the . .
CitedGater Assets Ltd v Nak Naftogaz Ukrainiy CA 17-Oct-2007
The defendant resisted enforcement of a Moscow arbitration award saying it had been obtained by fraud, and sought security for costs.
The Court addressed the issue of security for the future costs of a challenge under section 103(3), which . .
CitedA v B (Arbitration: Security) ComC 16-Dec-2010
. .
CitedHuscroft v P and O Ferries Ltd CA 21-Dec-2010
Second appeal against order requiring sum for security for costs to be paid into court and in default for the claim to be struck out.
Held: The Court considered its jurisdiction to make an order for security for costs under rule 3.1 and, . .
CitedDeutsche Bank Ag and Others v Unitech Global Ltd and Others CA 3-Mar-2016
Second interlocutory appeal in the battle between Deutsche Bank and other creditors who have brought two actions in the Commercial Court to recover amounts due under loan or swap agreements which used LIBOR as a reference rate in the calculation of . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 11 February 2021; Ref: scu.577936

Michael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott: ComC 6 Nov 2008

Challenge to jurisdiction of arbitration proceedings.
Teare J
[2008] EWHC 2684 (Comm)
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoEmmott v Michael Wilson and Partners Ltd CA 12-Mar-2008
The court considered the implication of the obligation of confidentiality in banking contracts or in arbitration agreements. It is ‘really a rule of substantive law masquerading as an implied term’. . .

Cited by:
See AlsoEmmott v Michael Wilson and Partners Ltd ComC 12-Jan-2009
The claimant, a party to an arbitration, sought first an order requiring the defendant to comply with an order made by the arbitrator for the transfer of certain shares, and second an asset freezing order.
Held: The conditions for a peremptory . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott ComC 8-Jun-2011
The claimant challenged an arbitration award made concerning the agreement under which the defendant had been admitted to partnership. MWP contended that the Tribunal were guilty of a large number of serious irregularities in their conduct of the . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Sinclair and Others ComC 21-Sep-2012
The claimant company alleged that the defendants had variously received assests (shares and cash) acquired by a former partner in the claimant company and held on his behalf, in breach of his obligations to the caimant partnership. The defendants . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Sinclair and Others CA 16-Jan-2013
Application to stay order for costs. . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Sinclair and Others CA 23-Jul-2015
. .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott CA 14-Oct-2015
Appeal against a finding that payments made by the appellant were made in the ordinary course of business and not in breach of a freezing injunction. . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott CA 11-Dec-2015
The court considered a residual jurisdiction to set aside an arbitrator’s award after a first appeal. . .
See AlsoEmmott v Michael Wilson and Partners ComC 24-Nov-2016
Application for an anti-suit injunction against the defendant to restrain it from taking any further steps in ongoing proceedings in New South Wales and from commencing or pursuing any other substantive claims against the claimant on the ground that . .
See AlsoMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Sinclair and Another CA 13-Jan-2017
The appellant company sought to recover assets which, it said, had been acquired by a former partner in breach of his obligations under the partnership agreement, but which had been taken in the names of some of the respondents. There had been an . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 11 February 2021; Ref: scu.277570

Youell and others v La Reunion Aerienne and others: ComC 22 Oct 2008

[2008] EWHC 2493 (Comm)
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
Appeal fromYouell and others v La Reunion Aerienne and others CA 11-Mar-2009
The parties disputed whether the court had jurisdiction. The defendant insurer argued that parallel issues had been referred to arbitration in France.
Held: the claim was outside the range of the arbitration agreement, and a stay, which would . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 11 February 2021; Ref: scu.277340

Gater Assets Ltd v Nak Naftogaz Ukrainiy: CA 17 Oct 2007

The defendant resisted enforcement of a Moscow arbitration award saying it had been obtained by fraud, and sought security for costs.
The Court addressed the issue of security for the future costs of a challenge under section 103(3), which raises very different considerations to an issue of security for the past award itself. Rix LJ noted that the Convention might be regarded as a ‘complete code’, precluding the making of a decision under section 103(2) or (3) conditional upon the provision of security for costs. In relation to the provision of security for the award itself, he said: ‘Field J, however, was prepared to refuse enforcement, on the ground of failure to provide the security for costs ordered. That was the order that Field J made, setting aside the enforcement order if the security was not provided, and doing so on a ground not expressly within the Convention. There is no express basis in the New York Convention for that condition. Enforcement may be refused ‘only if’ one of the exceptions within article V is made good. Security is discussed in the Convention, but only security for the award itself and only in the context of an adjournment of enforcement proceedings pending an application to set aside or suspend the award to the competent authority of the country in which, or under the law of which, that award was made: article VI, reproduced in section 103(5) of the 1996 Act. That is not just an example of a circumstance in which such security might be ordered, but is the only circumstance in which it might be: see the decision of this court in Dardana Ltd v Yukos Oil Co [2002] All ER (Comm) 819, para 27.’
Buxton LJ, Rix LJ, Moses LJ
[2007] EWCA Civ 988, [2007] ArbLR 28, [2008] Bus LR 388, [2007] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 588
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
Appeal fromGater Assets Ltd v Nak Naftogaz Ukrainiy ComC 22-Mar-2007
Application for security for costs. . .

Cited by:
See AlsoGater Assets Ltd v Nak Naftogaz Ukrainiy ComC 15-Feb-2008
Appeal against enforcement of interational arbitration award. . .
See AlsoGater Assets Ltd v Nak Naftogaz Ukrainiy ComC 21-May-2008
Whether interest recoverable under 1838 Act . .
CitedIPCO (Nigeria) Ltd v Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation SC 1-Mar-2017
The court was asked whether the appellant NNPC, should have to put up a further USD 100m security (in addition to USD 80m already provided) in respect of a Nigerian arbitration award which the respondent, had been seeking since November 2004 to . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 11 February 2021; Ref: scu.259900

West Tankers Inc v Ras Riunione Adriatica Sicurta Spa and Another: ComC 2 Oct 2007

Andrew Smith J
[2007] EWHC 2184 (Comm)
Bailii
England and Wales
Citing:
See AlsoWest Tankers Inc v Ras Riunione Adriatica Di Sicurta Spa and others (The Front Comor) HL 21-Feb-2007
A ship had foundered, and the owners disputed their insurance claim. The policy provided for arbitration in London, and one party sought an order to prevent the other commencing proceedings in another EU state in breach of the arbitration agreement. . .
See AlsoWest Tankers Inc v Ras Riunione Adriatica Di Sicurta Spa and Another (‘The Front Comor’) ComC 21-Mar-2005
Appeal against anti-suit order. The court ordered that since the question of whether an anti-suit injunction could be made to restrain proceedings abroad had been decided in Through Transport, that issue could go straight to the House of Lords. . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 10 February 2021; Ref: scu.272534

AMEC Capital Projects Ltd v Whitefriars City Estate Ltd: TCC 19 Sep 2003

Application to enforce adjudicators award, and application to stay same.
[2003] EWHC 2443 (TCC)
Bailii
England and Wales
Cited by:
See AlsoAMEC Capital Projects Ltd v Whitefriars City Estates Ltd TCC 27-Feb-2004
. .
See AlsoAMEC Capital Projects Ltd v Whitefriars City Estates Ltd CA 28-Oct-2004
Alleged bias and procedural unfairness by an adjudicator appointed to determine a dispute in relation to a construction contract.
Held: The principles of the common law rules of natural justice and procedural fairness were two-fold. A . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 07 February 2021; Ref: scu.266717

Herschel Engineering Ltd v Breen Property Ltd: TCC 14 Apr 2000

‘This application raises a short but important issue as to the propriety of a reference to adjudication pursuant to section 108 of the Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 (‘the 1996 Act’) of a dispute which, at the time of the reference, is already the subject of pending court proceedings. It is contended on behalf of the defendant that in such circumstances it is not open to a party to refer a dispute to adjudication, and that any decision which an adjudicator purports to make should not be enforced by the court. The claimant seeks to obtain summary judgment under Part 24 of the CPR of the sums which the adjudicator decided were due to it. ‘
Dyson J
[2000] EWHC Technology 178, 70 Con LR 1, [2000] BLR 272
Bailii
England and Wales

Updated: 07 February 2021; Ref: scu.266721

London Underground Ltd v Citylink Telecommunications Ltd: TCC 20 Jul 2007

Each party challenged elements of an arbitration award.
Ramsey J
[2007] EWHC 1749 (TCC), [2007] 2 All ER (Comm) 694, [2006] 2 Lloyds 1, [2006] 1 All ER (Comm) 529, [2007] ArbLR 39, [2007] BLR 391, (2007) 114 Con LR 1
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 68 69
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedPenwith District Council v VP Developments Ltd TCC 2-Nov-2007
The council sought to appeal against an interim arbitration award.
Held: Leave to appeal was refused. The application was wholly unjustified. This was an appeal on the facts dressed up as an appeal on law. . .
CitedMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott ComC 8-Jun-2011
The claimant challenged an arbitration award made concerning the agreement under which the defendant had been admitted to partnership. MWP contended that the Tribunal were guilty of a large number of serious irregularities in their conduct of the . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 03 February 2021; Ref: scu.258384

ABB Ag v Hochtief Airport Gmbh and Another: ComC 8 Mar 2006

The court considered the authorities on when an applications to set aside an arbitration award might succeed under section 68.
Held: Any such application faced a high hurdle. It can constitute a serious irregularity that a tribunal determines an issue which is not ‘in play’ between the parties.
Tomlinson J
[2006] EWHC 388 (Comm), [2006] 2 LLoyds Rep 1, [2006] 1 All ER (Comm) 529, [2006] ArbLR 2
Bailii
Arbitration Act 1996 68
England and Wales
Cited by:
CitedBandwidth Shipping Corporation v Intaari (‘Magdalena Oldendorrf’) CA 17-Oct-2007
An arbitrator hearing a case, and who appreciated that counsel had failed to take a point, should draw counsel’s attention to the point. No duty could arise if the arbitrator did not himself see the point.
An applicant under section 68 faces a . .
CitedMichael Wilson and Partners Ltd v Emmott ComC 8-Jun-2011
The claimant challenged an arbitration award made concerning the agreement under which the defendant had been admitted to partnership. MWP contended that the Tribunal were guilty of a large number of serious irregularities in their conduct of the . .

These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 28 January 2021; Ref: scu.239122

Connex South Eastern Ltd v M J Building Services Group Plc: CA 1 Mar 2005

The defendant had repudiated the building contract in 2002. The claimant now resisted a request for arbitration, saying the request was an abuse of process after such delay.
Held: The defendant’s appeal succeeded. The Arbitration Act explicitly allowed a reference at any time, and there was nothing in the Act to indicate any restrictive interpretation of the phrase.
Lord Justice Ward Lord Justice Dyson Lord Justice Carnwath
[2005] EWCA Civ 193, Times 13-May-2005
Bailii
Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996, Arbitration Act 1996 108(1)
England and Wales

Updated: 22 January 2021; Ref: scu.223283