The Plaintiff had relied on a negligent survey to purchase a substantial Elizabethan property and land. The report did not mention that the timbers of the house were badly affected by death watch beetle and worm so that the only course left to him was to replace the roof and to rebuild the timbers etc. … Continue reading Philips v Ward: CA 1956
If a notice of assignment of a debt describes the assignment by reference to a wrong date, the notice is invalid because it has described a non-existent document. Citations:  1 WLR 419 Statutes: Law of Property Act 1925 139 Cited by: Cited – Van Lynn Developments Ltd v Pelvis Construction Co Ltd 1969 A … Continue reading W F Harrison and Co v Burke: 1956
The lease provided for re-entry for breach of covenant. The landlord served a notice requiring repairs and payment of compensation on both the tenant and the mortgagee. The mortgagees served a counter-notice, and the landlord proceeded against the tenant alone. The tenant argued that the counter-notice operated to trigger the requirement for proceedings to begin … Continue reading Church Commissioners for England v Ve-Ri-Best Manfacturing Co Ltd: 1956
Objecting neighbours appealed against a decision allowing a variation of a restrictive covenant to allow the owner to convert a dwellinghouse into two self-contained apartments.
Held: The appeal failed. The power in the 1985 Act to vary a . .
1267 – 1278 – 1285 – 1297 – 1361 – 1449 – 1491 – 1533 – 1677 – 1688 – 1689 – 1700 – 1706 – 1710 – 1730 – 1737 – 1738 – 1751 – 1774 – 1792 – 1793 – 1804 – 1814 – 1819 – 1824 – 1828 – 1831 – 1832 … Continue reading Acts
The deceased had assigned his coal merchant business to the respondent against a promise to pay andpound;5.00 a week to his widow whilst she lived. The respondent appealed an order requiring him to make the payments, saying that as a consolidating Act, the 1925 Act should not be read to change the common law. Held: … Continue reading Beswick v Beswick: HL 29 Jun 1967
A non-party to a deed cannot take the benefit of a covenant even though he had been named as such in the deed. Citations: Times 13-Nov-1996 Statutes: Law of Property Act 1925 56 Land Updated: 17 May 2022; Ref: scu.77781
Two partners had covenanted with a retiring partner that on his death they would pay certain annuities to his daughters. The Revenue claimed estate duty. Held: The claim was rejected. The daughters were not parties to the agreement, and had no right to sue for their annuities. Whether they received them or not depended on … Continue reading In re Miller’s Agreement, Uniacke v Attorney-General: ChD 1947
The court heard an rejected an argument that s56 worked to allow a third party to sue under a covenant to which he had not been party: ‘before he can enforce it he must be a person who falls within the scope and benefit of the covenant according to the true construction of the document … Continue reading White v Bijou Mansions: CA 1938
The court discussed the doctrine of privity of contract. Lord Denning MR said: ‘It is often said to be a fundamental principle of our law that only a person who is a party to a contract can sue on it. I wish to assert, as distinctly as I can, that the common law in its … Continue reading Drive Yourself Hire Co (London) Ltd v Strutt: CA 1954
The court rejected an argument that section 56 had altered the law to allow actions by third parties under a contract. Citations:  2 QB 226 Statutes: Law of Property Act 1925 56 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited by: Cited – Beswick v Beswick HL 29-Jun-1967 The deceased had assigned his coal merchant business to … Continue reading Green v Russell: CA 1959
RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – restriction to one dwelling house per plot – application to amend this limitation to permit erection on one plot of detached and two semi-detached houses, possibly as part of a larger development – not all proposed development site owned by applicant – whether proposed use reasonable – whether restriction obsolete – whether … Continue reading Hamden Homes Ltd, Re: LT 12 Dec 2001
LT RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – restriction to single storey dwelling – application to remove this limitation – proposed house – applicant the original covenantor – effect of possible refusal of planning permission for bungalow – changes in neighbourhood and property – benefits secured to objector – public interest – whether agreement to modify – injury to … Continue reading In re Farrow: LT 10 May 2001
In the course of a long dispute, the defendant’s solicitors had indicated that they would accept service of proceedings. Just before the limitation period expired, the papers were served directly in the client. The defendants solicitors said that this was invalid service, and that later service out of time could not revive the claim. Held: … Continue reading Firstdale Ltd v Quinton: ComC 5 Aug 2004
RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – discharge or modification – leasehold flat in block of 31 flats – covenants against subletting and restricting user to lessee and his family – application refused – Law of Property Act 1925 s 84(1)(aa) Citations:  UKUT 125 (LC) Links: Bailii Jurisdiction: England and Wales Land Updated: 28 May 2022; Ref: scu.462567
RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – discharge – modification – covenants restricting residential redevelopment of dwellings and outbuildings forming part of grounds of listed house – benefit personal to covenantee and his family – sale of majority of benefited land to third party – whether covenants obsolete in respect of retained land under ground (a) – grounds (aa) … Continue reading Coombes, Re: Brainshaugh House: UTLC 12 Jun 2012
A deed granting access to a common in accordance with the section included access by horseback as well as by foot. The court upheld the Inspector’s decision that the 20-year user of the land relied upon by the applicant for the modification was not ‘as of right’ because a revocable deed by the landowner’s predecessor … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for Environment ex parte Billson: Admn 16 Feb 1998
RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – leasehold interest – holiday chalet park – restriction in leases of chalets – use restricted to 10 months of year – chalet lessees seeking modification to permit 12-month use – lessors objecting – application refused – Law of Property Act 1925 s 84(1)(a), (aa) and (c) Citations:  UKUT 346 … Continue reading Phillips and Others, Re: Holiday Chalets At Point Curlew: UTLC 5 Sep 2011
The parties were neighbours, with houses adjacent to a right of way. Slabs had been laid next to the houses forming a raised pavement. The respondents had sought to enclose their area of this raised pavement, building a porch. They now appealed an order requiring to remove what had already been built. Held: The pavement … Continue reading Minor v Groves: CA 20 Nov 1997
Two brothers had acquired land as joint tenants with the aid of a mortgage. Distinct orders were made against each of them charging their respective interests in the land. The mortgagee assigned the mortgage. The brothers held under a trust for sale. The judgment creditor sought to redeem the mortgage which was opposed by the … Continue reading Irani Finance Ltd v Singh: CA 1970
The appellant’s land was to be taken under compulsory purchase by the Council who wished to use it to assist Tesco in the construction of a new supermarket. Tesco promised to help fund restoration of a local listed building. Sainsbury objected an now appealed against the Court of Appeal’s overturning of the orer in its … Continue reading Sainsbury’s Supermarkets Ltd, Regina (on The Application of) v Wolverhampton City Council and Another: SC 12 May 2010
A conveyance of part in 1944 gave a right of pre-emption over retained land. The vendor’s successors the let the retained land to the plaintiff with an option to buy the freehold reversion. The retained land was sold to the defendants in purported compliance with the right of pre-emption. A year later the plaintiff purported … Continue reading Pritchard v Briggs: CA 1980
The claimant advanced funds to the respondent for him to invest in a bank of which the claimant had insider knowledge. In fact the defendant did not invest the funds, the knowledge was incorrect. The defendant however did not return the sums advanced, saying he need not return it because the contract was for an … Continue reading Patel v Mirza: SC 20 Jul 2016
On an application to vary a restrictive covenant preventing further building, construction disturbance was treated as one of number of factors justifying refusal to modify. Judges: Mr Clarke Citations:  70 P and CR 569 Statutes: Law of Property Act 1925 84 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Citing: Applied – Re Tarhale Limited LT 1990 Two … Continue reading Re Bromor Properties Limited: LT 1995
The court was asked to answer a question on the assumed premise that a woman had been murdered by her son and had died intestate. The question for decision was whether the forfeiture rule prevented the son from benefiting under the intestacy provisions of the 1925 Act. Held: Clauson J said that the forfeiture rule … Continue reading Re Sigsworth: Bedford v Bedford: 1935
A covenant required the purchasers to erect and maintain a chain link fence. Held: The covenant was a positive personal covenant between the original vendor and the original purchaser and was not a restrictive covenant. The Lands Tribunal declined jurisdiction to vary it under the section. Citations: (1962) 14 PLCR 56 Statutes: Law of Property … Continue reading Blythe Corporation’s Application: 1962
The respondent appealed against a finding that the provision which made a loan agreement completely invalid for lack of compliance with the 1974 Act was itself invalid under the Human Rights Act since it deprived the respondent lender of its property rights. It was also argued that it was not possible to make a declaration … Continue reading Wilson v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry; Wilson v First County Trust Ltd (No 2): HL 10 Jul 2003
A tenant of a lease for 14 months, having agreed to exclude his security, granted a sub-tenancy to a business from month to month. The sub-tenant claimed security, but was held only to have taken an assignment of the tenant’s rights and so was not secure. Citations: Times 09-Apr-1999, Gazette 19-May-1999, Gazette 31-Mar-1999 Statutes: Law … Continue reading Parc (Battersea) Ltd (In Administrative Receivership) and An v Hutchinson: ChD 9 Apr 1999
The tenant had a five year flexible tenancy. The landlord sought to terminate the tenancy for antisocial behaviour. She responded that the agreement included no express provision for re-entry or forfeiture. The Council landlord now appealed a finding that it did not have the right of re-entry. Held: The Council’s appeal succeeded in part. Citations: … Continue reading Croydon London Borough Council v Kalonga: SC 9 Mar 2022
Registered land was bought with an advance from the plaintiff. The transfer and charge were registered one month later, but in the meantime, the buyer’s parents moved in. When the buyer defaulted, his mother resisted possession proceedings, saying that she had an overriding interest through her occupation at the time when the charge was registered. … Continue reading Abbey National Building Society v Cann: HL 29 Mar 1990
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – building scheme – land originally designated a close to which all residents would have access – prohibition on building and uses other than garden or recreation ground for residents – land sold in 1952 and since used as private garden with no access for residents – history of objections … Continue reading Surana, Re Land Adjoining 21 Icklingham Road: UTLC 30 Aug 2016
Renewed oral application for permission to appeal against the refusal of the Upper Tribunal (Lands Chamber) (Mr P R Francis FRICS) to vary or discharge a restrictive covenant under section 84(1) of the Law of Property Act 1925 as amended. David Richards LJ  EWCA Civ 674 Bailii Law of Property Act 1925 84(1) England … Continue reading Roland Stafford Flowers v Linstone Chine Management Company Ltd: CA 4 May 2016
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS – modification – proposed extension to house by addition of a third storey – building scheme – whether substantial effect on amenity of contiguous landowners on the estate – residents association – whether application if granted represents thin end of the wedge – character and ethos of the estate – whether temporary … Continue reading Hussain, Re 23 Bartlett Close: UTLC 4 Jul 2016
The plaintiff, an elderly widow, transferred her house into the name of her lodger, but remained in occupation of the house, on exactly the same basis as before, until the lodger sold the house and the purchaser had mortgaged it to a building society. Held: The court dismissed the plaintiff’s claim to be registered as … Continue reading Hodgson v Marks: ChD 1970
The claimant sub-tenant had been injured entering the block of apartments. He said that the freeholder was responsible despite no report of the disrepair having been made. The lease excused the landlord from unnotified liability. The parties acknowledged that section 11 of the 1985 Act could not be set aside by the contract. Held: The … Continue reading Edwards v Kumarasamy: SC 13 Jul 2016
The parties disputed whether a contract had been made. The proposed contract was contained in a letter and a plan but only the plan was signed by both parties. Held: The requirements of Section 2 had not been satisfied because it was the letter which contained the contract which referred to the plan and incorporated … Continue reading Firstpost Homes Ltd v Johnson and Others: CA 14 Aug 1995
ICO The complainant has made a number of requests to the London Borough of Southwark (the Council) for information broadly relating to the serving of section 146 notices in accordance with the Law of Property Act 1925. The present notice concerns six of the requests. With regard to five of the requests (requests 1, 5 … Continue reading Southwark Council (Local Government (District Council)) FS50604878: ICO 9 May 2016
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – JURISDICTION – leasehold covenants – registered lease – whether deed of variation caused a surrender and re-grant – less than 25 years since variation – s.84(12), Law of Property Act 1925 – s.58, Land Registration Act 2002 – covenant ‘to use and occupy . . solely and exclusively as a self-contained … Continue reading Stevens v Ismail: UTLC 4 Feb 2016
Appeal by the Defendant from a judgment on an application for summary judgment under RSC Order 14 by the Plaintiffs, Camdex International Ltd judgment was entered for the Plaintiffs in the sum of Kuwaiti Dinars 20,595,557.429. The Plaintiffs pleaded that the Central Bank of Kuwait deposited with the Defendant the sum of Kuwaiti Dinars 15,000,000 … Continue reading Camdex International Ltd v Bank of Zambia and Another: CA 3 Apr 1996
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS – discharge – modification – restriction to one single storey bungalow – proposed development as a house – loss of view – overlooking – outlook – grounds (a) and (aa) of s84 of Law of Property Act 1925 – application refused  UKUT 564 (LC) Bailii Law of Property Act 1925 84 … Continue reading Hawkins Re: Walnut Acre: UTLC 3 Nov 2015
Benefit of Covenant Ran with Land In 1938, landowners and the Catchment Board agreed that the Board would make good and maintain the banks of a stream, with the landowners contributing to the cost. The agreement was not said to be for the benefit of the landowner’s successors in title. In 1940, the first plaintiff … Continue reading Smith and Snipes Hall Farm Ltd v River Douglas Catchment Board: CA 1949
Briggs LJ  EWCA Civ 183,  PNLR 420 Bailii Trustee Act 1925 61 England and Wales Citing: Appeal from – Santander UK Plc v RA Legal Solicitors (A Firm) QBD 23-May-2013 The claimant bank said that it had been the subject of a mortgage fraud, and that the defendant solicitors had acted for the … Continue reading Santander UK Plc v RA Legal Solicitors: CA 24 Feb 2014
The claimant was injured at work as a consequence of the defender’s negligence. His injuries became more severe, and he came to suffer a disabling depression. Held: the Inner House had been wrong to characterise the Outer House decision as incorrect. Since the pursuer suffered physical injuries the starting point is that he was a … Continue reading Simmons v British Steel plc: HL 29 Apr 2004
The defendants sought to set aside orders allowing the claimants to serve proceedings alleging repudiation of a charterparty in turn allowing a claim against the defendants under a guarantee. The defendant said the guarantee was unenforceable under the 1677 Act not being in writing and signed. Held: There was no limit to the number of … Continue reading Golden Ocean Group Ltd v Salgaocar Mining Industries Pvt Ltd and Another: ComC 21 Jan 2011
Quasi-Easements granted on sale of part of Estate S owned a workshop and an adjoining plot of land. The workshop had three windows looking out over the plot. The property was sold in separate lots at auction. The land was sold with no express reservation of any easements, and then similarly the workshop. The plaintiff … Continue reading Wheeldon v Burrows: CA 17 Jun 1879
The House was asked whether an action for unlawful means conspiracy was available against a participant in a missing trader intra-community, or carousel, fraud. The company appealed a finding of liability saying that the VAT Act and Regulations contained the entire regime. Held: Criminal conduct at common law or by statute can constitute unlawful means … Continue reading Total Network Sl v Revenue and Customs: HL 12 Mar 2008
The court was asked whether the 1977 Act required a local authorty to obtain a court order before taking possession of interim accommodation it provided to an apparently homeless person while it investigated whether it owed him or her a duty under Part VII of the 1996 Act, and (ii) whether a public authority, which … Continue reading ZH and CN, Regina (on The Applications of) v London Boroughs of Newham and Lewisham: SC 12 Nov 2014
Nature of Joint and Mutual Wills The court was asked as to the validity and effect of a single joint will. Held: Lord Camden considered the nature of joint or mutual wills. Lord Camden LC said: ‘The parties by mutual will do each of them devise, upon the engagement of the other, that he will … Continue reading Dufour v Pereira: 1769
The plaintiff had applied for disclosure of assets under the Rules of the Supreme Court in support of a Mareva freezing order. The rules were held not to provide any such power: disclosure of assets could not be obtained as part of discovery as the documents concerned did not relate ‘to matters in question in … Continue reading A J Bekhor and Co Ltd v Bilton: CA 6 Feb 1981
Adopted grandchildren entitled to succession The court was asked whether the adopted children whose adopting father, the son of the testator, were grandchildren of the testator for the purposes of his will. Held: The claim succeeded. The defendants, the other beneficiaries were not entitled to inherit the part of their father’s estate that derived from … Continue reading Hand and Another v George: ChD 17 Mar 2017
Only Limited Ownership of pond fish BDS owned land with closed fishing ponds. They sold the land to the respondents, but then claimed that the fish, of substantial value, were not included in the contract. The court as asked whether the captive fish were animals ferae naturae or animals domitae naturae. Held: The appeal was … Continue reading Borwick Development Solutions Ltd v Clear Water Fisheries Ltd: CA 1 May 2020
The claimant, in a representative action complained that the works involved in the erection of the Canary Wharf tower constituted a nuisance in that the works created substantial clouds of dust and the building blocked her TV signals, so as to limit her enjoyment of her land. Held: The interference with TV reception by an … Continue reading Hunter and Others v Canary Wharf Ltd: HL 25 Apr 1997
Land was bought for development, but the purchaser later discovered a sewage pipe which very substantially limited its development potential. The existence of the pipe had not been disclosed on the sale, being unknown to the seller. Held: Under the National Conditions of Sale, it is the purchaser who takes the risk of there being … Continue reading William Sindall Plc v Cambridgeshire County Council: CA 21 May 1993
The parties signed a memorandum of agreement to let a strip of land from 1930 until determined as provided, but the only provision was that the lease would continue until the land was needed for road widening and two months’ notice was given. The land was never used for road widening and notice to terminate … Continue reading Prudential Assurance Co Ltd v London Residuary Body and Others: HL 16 Jul 1992
The taxpayer made a gift of shares to a trust set up to fund a medical professorship. The shares were in a private company, and an option was given for their repurchase once a certain level of dividends had been attributed to them. He was assessed to substantial surcharges on them on the basis that … Continue reading Vandervell v Inland Revenue Commissioners: HL 24 Nov 1966
Land had been purchased under compulsory purchase powers. It had been subject to restrictive covenants in favour of neighbouring land which would have prevented the development now implemented. The question was how the compensation should be . .
The claimant had paid money for a property, but the seller was a fraudster and no money or title was recovered. The claimant sued both his conveyancers and the solicitors who had acted for the fraudster, in each case innocently. The defendants each . .
The plaintiffs had paid deposits for apartments which were to be built. After the developer became insolvent the plaintiffs sought recovery of the deposits, saying they had a lien which preceded the claims of chargees.
Held: The one appeal . .
A notice of an assignment of a debt need not state the date of the assignment. . .
The plaintiffs granted a business lease to the defendants for three years. The tenant covenanted not to assign the lease without the written consent of the landlord, such consent not to be unreasonably withheld in the case of a respectable tenant. . .
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – covenant restricting development to one dwelling per plot – proposal to erect additional house within grounds of existing property – objectors’ entitlement to benefit – . .
The tenant appealed against an order granting possession. The tenancy, being held of a mutual housing co-operative did not have security but was in a form restricting the landlord’s right to recover possession, and the tenant resisted saying that it . .
RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – preliminary issues – 2 previous unsuccessful applications – National Trust objecting – whether application should be struck out – held it should not be – compensation – whether ground (aa) should be struck out on basis that . .
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – covenant restricting development to one dwelling per plot – proposal to erect additional house within grounds of existing property – objectors’ entitlement to benefit – . .
The defendant had charged her home to the claimant and fallen into arrears. There was a sub-charge executed on the same day in favour of the Bank of Scotland (BOS) under which the claimant agreed to repay to BOS the amount it owed to them.
The parties, on divorcing had a greed, under court order that W should obtain the release of H from his covenants under the mortgage of the family home. She had been unable to do so, and sought that order to be varied to allow postponement of her . .
LRA Adverse Possession – Registration with possessory freehold title – Limitation of action – Alteration of the register – Meaning of alteration and rectification – Land Registration Act 2002 s 9(1)(c),(5), s . .
RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS – modification – 1980s office building let on long lease – covenants restricting use to offices only and controlling terms of underletting – modification sought to permit conversion to residential use and letting on assured . .
The claimant contracted to buy two apartments from the defendant. The contract purported to exclude section 49. . .
LT RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – proposed detached house at entrance to exclusive cul-de-sac – practical benefits of substantial value or advantage – outlook – effect upon amenities – precedent – . .
The claimants appealed against refusal by the lands tribunal to vary a restrictive covenant saying that the covenant against building no longer secured any substantial practical benefit to the neighbour.
Held: The appeal failed. . .
An equity arising from a proprietary estoppel is not an ‘equitable interest’ capable of being overreached pursuant to section 2 of the Law of Property Act 1925. . .
Two brothers were in partneship in unequal shares, but acquired a property for use by the business which they held in equal shares. They agreed a parol yearly tenancy between themselves as owners and as partners. After one died his son took over his . .
The landlord sought to forfeit the lease for breach of a repairing covenant. The mortgagee had gone into possession, and having received the s146 notice, had served a counter-notice under the 1938 Act. The mortgagee having assigned the lease to the . .