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High Quality Lifestyles Ltd v Watts: EAT 10 Apr 2006

EAT The Employment Tribunal had erred in its construction of direct discrimination under s3A(5) of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 as amended when it failed to construct a correct hypothetical comparator for the Claimant who was an HIV+ care worker dismissed because of the risk of transmission to users of the Respondent’s health care facilities. … Continue reading High Quality Lifestyles Ltd v Watts: EAT 10 Apr 2006

Commission v Luxembourg: ECJ 20 Oct 2005

ECJ Failure of-state – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Failure to transpose within the prescribed period’ Citations: C-70/05, [2005] EUECJ C-70/05 Links: Bailii Statutes: Directive 2000/78/EC European Updated: 04 July 2022; Ref: scu.231247

The United States of America v Nolan: SC 21 Oct 2015

Mrs Nolan had been employed at a US airbase. When it closed, and she was made redundant, she complained that the appellant had not consulted properly on the redundancies. The US denied that it had responsibility to consult, and now appealed. Held: The appeal failed (Lord Carnworth dissenting). That the exact situation might not have … Continue reading The United States of America v Nolan: SC 21 Oct 2015

MacDonald v Advocate General for Scotland (Scotland); Pearce v Governing Body of Mayfield School: HL 19 Jun 2003

Three appeals raised issues about the way in which sex discrimination laws were to be applied for cases involving sexual orientation. Held: The court should start by asking what gave rise to the act complained of. In this case it was the sexual orientation of the first claimant. Discrimination for sexual orientation does not come … Continue reading MacDonald v Advocate General for Scotland (Scotland); Pearce v Governing Body of Mayfield School: HL 19 Jun 2003

Regina (Amicus etc) v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry: Admn 26 Apr 2004

The claimants sought a declaration that part of the Regulations were invalid, and an infringement of their human rights. The Regulations sought to exempt church schools from an obligation not to discriminate against homosexual teachers. Held: The Regulation was within the scope of the Directive. Though a member state had some freedom in implementing a … Continue reading Regina (Amicus etc) v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry: Admn 26 Apr 2004

Esders v Commission (Staff Regulations): ECJ 15 Sep 2011

ECJ Civil service – Officials – Assignment – Exercise turning 2010 – Article 1d, paragraphs 1 and 4, the status-Decision C (2008) 3983 – Application for relief from the rotation for health reasons – Duty of care – Decision C (2004) 1318 – Reasonable Accommodation – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment – Handicap Citations: 62/10, … Continue reading Esders v Commission (Staff Regulations): ECJ 15 Sep 2011

HK Danmark acting Lone Skoubo Werge v Ring: ECJ 4 Aug 2011

ECJ (Social Policy) Preliminary rulings concerning the interpretation of Articles 1, 2 and 5 of Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (OJ L 303, p. 16) and the decision of the Court of 11 July 2006 in Case C-13/05, Chacon Navas (Reports 2006, p. … Continue reading HK Danmark acting Lone Skoubo Werge v Ring: ECJ 4 Aug 2011

Walker v Innospec Ltd and Others: SC 12 Jul 2017

The claimant appealed against refusal of his employer’s pension scheme trustees to include as a recipient of any death benefit his male civil partner. Held: The appeal succeeded. The salary paid to Mr Walker throughout his working life was precisely the same as that which would have been paid to a heterosexual man. There was … Continue reading Walker v Innospec Ltd and Others: SC 12 Jul 2017

ADT Fire and Security Plc v Speyer: EAT 15 Sep 2006

EAT Unfair dismissal and Race Relations Act 1976 Unfair dismissal – Exclusions including worker/jurisdiction Three cases were stayed pending the judgment of the House of Lords in Lawson v Serco [2006] ICR 250. The appeal in the British Council case was dismissed on withdrawal after the hearing and before the judgment. In ADT, the Employment … Continue reading ADT Fire and Security Plc v Speyer: EAT 15 Sep 2006

O’Brien v Ministry of Justice: SC 6 Feb 2013

The appellant, a part time recorder challenged his exclusion from pension arrangements. Held: The appeal was allowed. No objective justification has been shown for departing from the basic principle of remunerating part-timers pro rata temporis. ‘The reality is that recorders are expected to observe the terms and conditions of their appointment, and that they may … Continue reading O’Brien v Ministry of Justice: SC 6 Feb 2013

Pohl (Judgment of The Court): ECJ 16 Jan 2014

ECJ Request for a preliminary ruling – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Article 21 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union – Article 45 TFEU – Directive 2000/78/EC – Difference in treatment on grounds of age – Determination of the reference date for the purposes of advancement on the salary … Continue reading Pohl (Judgment of The Court): ECJ 16 Jan 2014

Mirga v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, Samin v Westminster City Council: SC 27 Jan 2016

The claimants, a Polish national and an Austrian national, appealed against decisions of the Court of Appeal upholding decisions that they were not entitled to certain benefits, namely income support and housing assistance respectively, pursuant to the provisions of United Kingdom domestic law. Held: The claimants’ appeals failed. When she applied, Ms Mirga was not … Continue reading Mirga v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, Samin v Westminster City Council: SC 27 Jan 2016

OBB Personenverkehr AG v Starjakob: ECJ 28 Jan 2015

Judgment – Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Article 2(1) and (2)(a) – Article 6(1) – Discrimination based on age – National legislation under which inclusion of periods of service completed before the age of 18 for the purpose of determining remuneration … Continue reading OBB Personenverkehr AG v Starjakob: ECJ 28 Jan 2015

Abercrombie and Fitch Italia: ECJ 19 Jul 2017

ECJ (Social Policy – Equal Treatment In Employment and Occupation – Agea : Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Article 2(1) – Article 2(2)(a) – Article 6(1) – Age discrimination – On-call employment contract which may be concluded with persons under … Continue reading Abercrombie and Fitch Italia: ECJ 19 Jul 2017

Z v A Government Department And The Board of Management of A Community School: ECJ 18 Mar 2014

ECJ Grand Chamber – Judgment – Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2006/54/EC – Equal treatment of male and female workers – Commissioning mother who has had a baby through a surrogacy arrangement – Refusal to grant her paid leave equivalent to maternity leave or adoptive leave – United Nations Convention … Continue reading Z v A Government Department And The Board of Management of A Community School: ECJ 18 Mar 2014

De Lange v Staatssecretaris van Finacien: ECJ 10 Nov 2016

ECJ (Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Principles of equal treatment and of non-discrimination on grounds of age – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Articles 2, 3 and 6 – Scope – Difference in treatment on grounds of age – National legislation capping deductions of training … Continue reading De Lange v Staatssecretaris van Finacien: ECJ 10 Nov 2016

C: ECJ 2 Jun 2016

ECJ (Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Principles of equal treatment and non-discrimination on grounds of age – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Articles 2, 3 and 6 – Difference in treatment on grounds of age – National legislation providing, in certain situations, for higher taxation … Continue reading C: ECJ 2 Jun 2016

Samira Achbita and Another v G4S Secure Solutions Nv: ECJ 31 May 2016

ECJ Fundamental rights – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Concept of discrimination based on religion or belief – Distinction between direct and indirect discrimination – Justification – Company ban on the wearing of visible religious, political or philosophical symbols – Religious and ideological neutrality – Dismissal of a female employee … Continue reading Samira Achbita and Another v G4S Secure Solutions Nv: ECJ 31 May 2016

Dansk Industri v Estate of Karsten Eigil Rasmussen: ECJ 19 Apr 2016

ECJ (Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union – Directive 2000/78/EC – Principle prohibiting discrimination on grounds of age – National legislation incompatible with the directive – Possibility for a private person to bring proceedings to establish the liability of the State for breach … Continue reading Dansk Industri v Estate of Karsten Eigil Rasmussen: ECJ 19 Apr 2016

O v Bio Philippe Auguste SARL: ECJ 1 Oct 2015

ECJ Judgment – Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Principles of equal treatment and non-discrimination on grounds of age – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Article 2(1) and 2(2)(a) – Difference in treatment on grounds of age – Whether situations comparable – Grant of a payment, on … Continue reading O v Bio Philippe Auguste SARL: ECJ 1 Oct 2015

Daniel Unland v Land Berlin: ECJ 9 Sep 2015

ECJ Judgment – Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Articles 2, 3(1)(c) and 6(1) – Direct discrimination on grounds of age – Basic salary of judges – Transitional arrangements – Reclassification and subsequent career advancement – Different treatment perpetuated – Justifications R. … Continue reading Daniel Unland v Land Berlin: ECJ 9 Sep 2015

Child Soldiers International v The Secretary of State for Defence: Admn 24 Jul 2015

The claimant challenged the lawfulness of the 2007 Regulations insofar as they restricted the rights of young recruits to leave the Armed Forces, saying that they were incompatible with the Directive. Held: The UK had implemented a derogation to which it was entitled. The claim failed. Kenneth Parker J [2015] EWHC 2183 (Admin), [2015] WLR(D) … Continue reading Child Soldiers International v The Secretary of State for Defence: Admn 24 Jul 2015

Chester, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice: SC 16 Oct 2013

The two applicants were serving life sentences for murder. Each sought damages for the unlawful withdrawal of their rights to vote in elections, and the failure of the British parliament to take steps to comply with the judgment. Held: The appeals failed.Lord Mance summarised the reasons for his conclusions: ‘(A) Human Rights Act In respect … Continue reading Chester, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice: SC 16 Oct 2013

CLFIS (UK) Ltd v Reynolds: CA 30 Apr 2015

The company appealed against a finding that it was guilty of age discrimination in ending a consultany arrangement with the respondent who ws 73 years old. Longmore, Jackson, Underhill LJJ [2015] EWCA Civ 439, [2015] WLR(D) 197, [2015] IRLR 562, [2015] ICR 1010 Bailii, WLRD Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006, EU Council Directive 2000/78/EC England … Continue reading CLFIS (UK) Ltd v Reynolds: CA 30 Apr 2015

Ingeniorforeningen I Danmark v Tekniq: ECJ 26 Feb 2015

ECJ Judgment – Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Article 2(1) and (2)(a) – Article 6(1) – Difference of treatment on grounds of age – National legislation providing for severance allowance to be paid to workers entitled on the date of termination … Continue reading Ingeniorforeningen I Danmark v Tekniq: ECJ 26 Feb 2015

Felber v Bundesministerin fur Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur: ECJ 21 Jan 2015

ECJ (Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Article 2(1) and (2)(a) and Article 6(1) and (2) – Difference of treatment on grounds of age – Civil service – Pension scheme – National legislation precluding the taking into account of periods of school education completed before the age of … Continue reading Felber v Bundesministerin fur Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur: ECJ 21 Jan 2015

Maruko v Versorgungsanstalt der deutschen Buhnen: ECJ 1 Apr 2008

ECJ Grand Chamber – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Directive 2000/78/EC – Survivors’ benefits under a compulsory occupational pensions scheme Concept of ‘pay’ – Refusal because the persons concerned were not married Same-sex partners – Discrimination based on sexual orientationIt was for the national court to decide whether a surviving same sex ‘life … Continue reading Maruko v Versorgungsanstalt der deutschen Buhnen: ECJ 1 Apr 2008

Schmitzer v Bundesministerin fur Inneres: ECJ 11 Nov 2014

ECJ Judgment – Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Article 2(1) and (2)(a) – Article 6(1) – Discrimination based on age – National legislation under which inclusion of periods of study and service completed before the age of 18 for the purpose … Continue reading Schmitzer v Bundesministerin fur Inneres: ECJ 11 Nov 2014

OBB Personenverkehr AG v Starjakob: ECJ 3 Jul 2014

ECJ Opinion – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Difference in treatment on grounds of age – Reference date for advancement-discriminatory regulations of a Member State excluding consideration of periods of employment before have reached the age of 18 years for the determination of compensation – Adoption of a new regulation retroactively and without financial … Continue reading OBB Personenverkehr AG v Starjakob: ECJ 3 Jul 2014

Hainsworth v Ministry of Defence: CA 13 May 2014

The appellant was employed by the respondents working in Germany. Her daughter suffered chronic illness and she wished to care for her in England. She said that the refusal to allow her to return to work in the UK was discriminatory as associative discrimination. Held: The suggestion that a carer for a disable person was … Continue reading Hainsworth v Ministry of Defence: CA 13 May 2014

Frederic Hay v Credit Agricole Mutuel De Charente-Maritime Et Des Deux-Sevres: ECJ 12 Dec 2013

ECJ Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment – Collective agreement which restricts a benefit in respect of pay and working conditions to employees who marry – Exclusion of partners entering into a civil solidarity pact – Discrimination based on sexual orientation C-267/12, [2013] EUECJ C-267/12 Bailii Directive 2000/78/EC European, Discrimination, Employment Updated: 27 November 2021; Ref: … Continue reading Frederic Hay v Credit Agricole Mutuel De Charente-Maritime Et Des Deux-Sevres: ECJ 12 Dec 2013

Dansk Jurist-Og Okonomforbund v Indenrigs-Og Sundhedsministeriet: ECJ 26 Sep 2013

ECJ Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of age – Directive 2000/78/EC – Article 6(1) and (2) – Refusal to grant availability pay to civil servants who have reached the age of 65 and are entitled to a pension C-546/11, [2013] EUECJ C-546/11, [2014] 1 CMLR 41, [2013] WLR(D) … Continue reading Dansk Jurist-Og Okonomforbund v Indenrigs-Og Sundhedsministeriet: ECJ 26 Sep 2013

HK Danmark v Experian A/S: ECJ 26 Sep 2013

ECJ Principle of non-discrimination on grounds of age – Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union – Article 21(1) – Directive 2000/78/EC – Article 6(1) and (2) – Occupational pension scheme – Increases in the amount of contributions on the basis of age R. Silva de Lapuerta, P C-476/11, [2013] EUECJ C-476/11, [2014] EUECJ … Continue reading HK Danmark v Experian A/S: ECJ 26 Sep 2013

Innospec Ltd and Others v Walker: EAT 18 Feb 2014

EAT Sex Discrimination : Sexual Orientation discrimination / transexualism : The recipient of an occupational pension since 2003, under the terms of a pension scheme which provided survivor’s benefits to spouses but not to those in a civil partnership, insofar as those benefits derived from service prior to the day the Civil Partnership Act 2004 … Continue reading Innospec Ltd and Others v Walker: EAT 18 Feb 2014

Seldon v Clarkson Wright and Jakes (A Partnership): CA 28 Jul 2010

The claimant solicitor said that the compulsory retirement from his partnership on age grounds was discriminatory, and that the UK Regulations had not implemented the Directive fully. Held: The appeal failed. The purpose of the provision as to allow the progression of younger members of the practice. This aim was recognised by the legislation, and … Continue reading Seldon v Clarkson Wright and Jakes (A Partnership): CA 28 Jul 2010

Homer v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police: SC 25 Apr 2012

The appellant had failed in his claim for indirect age discrimination. Approaching retirement, he complained that new conditions allowing advancement to graduates only, discriminated against him since he could not complete a degree before retiring. Held: The appeal succeeded, but the case was remitted to investigate whether the discrimination could be properly justified: ‘Part of … Continue reading Homer v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police: SC 25 Apr 2012

Bartsch v Bosch und Siemens Hausgerate (BSH) Altersfursorge GmbH: ECJ 23 Sep 2008

ECJ Equal treatment in employment and occupation Article 13 EC Directive 2000/78/EC Occupational pension scheme excluding the right to a pension of a spouse more than 15 years younger than the deceased former employee Age discrimination Link with Community lawAdvocate-General Sharpston said of the test of proportionality as it applied to national measures falling within … Continue reading Bartsch v Bosch und Siemens Hausgerate (BSH) Altersfursorge GmbH: ECJ 23 Sep 2008

Bundesrepublik Deutschland v Dittrich: ECJ 6 Dec 2012

ECJ Equal treatment in employment and occupation – National rules – Assistance granted to public servants in the event of illness – Directive 2000/78/EC – Article 3 – Scope – Concept of ‘pay’ K. Lenaerts P C-124/11, [2012] EUECJ C-124/11, [2012] WLR(D) 370 Bailii, WLRD Directive 2000/78/EC European Discrimination Updated: 11 November 2021; Ref: scu.467082

Jivraj v Hashwani: SC 27 Jul 2011

The parties had a joint venture agreement which provided that any dispute was to be referred to an arbitrator from the Ismaili community. The claimant said that this method of appointment became void as a discriminatory provision under the 2003 Regulations. The High Court found the appointment to be outwith the provisions, but this was … Continue reading Jivraj v Hashwani: SC 27 Jul 2011

Age UK, Regina (On the Application of) v Attorney General: Admn 25 Sep 2009

Age UK challenged the implementation by the UK of the Directive insofar as it established a default retirement age (DRA) at 65. Held: The claim failed. The decision to adopt a DRA was not a disproportionate way of giving effect to the social aim of labour market confidence. The use of a designated retirement age … Continue reading Age UK, Regina (On the Application of) v Attorney General: Admn 25 Sep 2009

Azmi v Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Council: EAT 30 Mar 2007

The claimant alleged discrimination. As a teaching assistant, she had been refused permission to wear a veil when assisting a male teacher. Held: Direct discrimination had not been shown. The respondent had shown that any comparator would have also been required to remove a veil since it obscured her face and mouth and was a … Continue reading Azmi v Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Council: EAT 30 Mar 2007

Parris v Trinity College Dublin and Others: ECJ 24 Nov 2016

No retrospection for pensions of civil partnership ECJ (Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Directive 2000/78/EC – Article 2 – Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and age – National pension scheme – Payment of a survivor’s benefit to the civil partner – Condition – … Continue reading Parris v Trinity College Dublin and Others: ECJ 24 Nov 2016

Incorporated Trustees of The National Council For Ageing v Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform: ECJ 5 Mar 2009

(Third Chamber) The trustees complained that the respondent had failed to implement the Directive, in that there remained, for example, rules allowing employers to have fixed retirement ages. Held: The complaint failed. The Directive allowed states to provide for certain differences in treatment provided that it could be shown to have an objective and reasonable … Continue reading Incorporated Trustees of The National Council For Ageing v Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform: ECJ 5 Mar 2009

Bull and Bull v Hall and Preddy: CA 10 Feb 2012

The appellants owned a guesthouse. They appealed from being found in breach of the Regulations. They had declined to honour a booking by the respondents of a room upon learning that they were a homosexual couple. The appellants had said that they were practising Christians and viewed the guest house as their home, and that … Continue reading Bull and Bull v Hall and Preddy: CA 10 Feb 2012

HM Land Registry v Grant: EAT 15 Apr 2010

hmlr_grantEAT10 EAT SEXUAL ORIENTATION DISCRIMINATION/TRANSEXUALISMHARASSMENT – ConductPRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Appellate Jurisdiction /Reasons /Burns-BarkeAn Employment Tribunal accepted that 6 out of 12 complaints of discrimination, and 5 out of 12 of unlawful harassment, were made out. None of the acts complained of, save possibly one, was obviously and intrinsically discriminatory. Each finding relied on the … Continue reading HM Land Registry v Grant: EAT 15 Apr 2010

Bougnaoui and Association de defense des droits de l’homme (ADDH) v Micropole SA: ECJ 14 Mar 2017

Ban on Faith display OK if general ECJ (Principles, Objectives and Tasks of The Treaties Principles, Objectives and Tasks of The Treaties Social Policy – Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment – Discrimination based on religion or belief – Genuine and determining occupational requirement – Meaning … Continue reading Bougnaoui and Association de defense des droits de l’homme (ADDH) v Micropole SA: ECJ 14 Mar 2017

X v Mid Sussex Citizens Advice Bureau and Another: SC 12 Dec 2012

The appellant was disabled, had legal qualifications, and worked with the respondent as a volunteer. She had sought assistance under the Disability Discrimination Act, now the 2012 Act, saying that she counted as a worker. The tribunal and CA had found no contractual relationship. She said that under the 2000 Directive (the Framework Directive ‘FD’) … Continue reading X v Mid Sussex Citizens Advice Bureau and Another: SC 12 Dec 2012

McDonald v National Grid Electricity Transmission Plc: SC 22 Oct 2014

Contact visiting plants supported asbestos claim The deceased had worked as a lorry driver regularly collecting pulverized fuel ash from a power station. On his visits he was at areas with asbestos dust. He came to die from mesothelioma. His widow now pursued his claim that the respondent had failed to comply with the 1931 … Continue reading McDonald v National Grid Electricity Transmission Plc: SC 22 Oct 2014

Seldon v Clarkson Wright and Jakes: SC 25 Apr 2012

The appellant claimed that the requirement imposed on him to retire from his law firm partnership on attaining 65 was an unlawful discrimination on the grounds of age. Held: The matter was remitted to the Employment tribunal to see whether the fixing of the mandatory retirment age at 65 was a proportionate means of achieving … Continue reading Seldon v Clarkson Wright and Jakes: SC 25 Apr 2012

Sobhi v Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis (Disability Discrimination : Disability): EAT 2 May 2013

EAT DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – DisabilityA woman who suffered from dissociative amnesia, which had made her forget that she had a previous conviction, and who was reprimanded for failing to disclose it when she applied for a new post, was a ‘disabled person’ for the purpose of a claim of disability discrimination because her condition had … Continue reading Sobhi v Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis (Disability Discrimination : Disability): EAT 2 May 2013

Z v A Government Department And The Board of Management of A Community School: ECJ 26 Sep 2013

ECJ Opinion – Social policy – Surrogacy – Right to leave of absence equivalent to maternity leave or adoption leave – Directive 2006/54/EC – Equal treatment of men and women – Scope – United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Scope … Continue reading Z v A Government Department And The Board of Management of A Community School: ECJ 26 Sep 2013

Daouidi v Bootes Plus Sl: ECJ 1 Dec 2016

Discriminatory Temporary Suspension of Worker ECJ (Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Articles 1 to 3 – Prohibition of all discrimination based on a disability – Whether a ‘disability’ exists – Concept of ‘long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments’ – … Continue reading Daouidi v Bootes Plus Sl: ECJ 1 Dec 2016

Specht and others v Land Berlin and others: ECJ 19 Jun 2014

ECJ (Judgment Of The Court) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment ‘in employment and occupation’ – Articles 2, 3(1)(c) and 6(1) – Direct discrimination on grounds of age – Basic pay for civil servants dependent upon age – Transitional system – Perpetuation of the difference in treatment … Continue reading Specht and others v Land Berlin and others: ECJ 19 Jun 2014

NH v Associazione Avvocatura Per I Diritti LGBTI-Rete Lenford: ECJ 23 Apr 2020

Discriminatory Intent of Firm Founded Claim (Equal Treatment In Employment and Occupation – Prohibition of Discrimination – Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Directive 2000/78/EC – Article 3(1)(a), Article 8(1) and Article 9(2) – Prohibition of discrimination based on sexual orientation – Conditions for access to employment … Continue reading NH v Associazione Avvocatura Per I Diritti LGBTI-Rete Lenford: ECJ 23 Apr 2020