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Flowers, Re 30 Burges Road: UTLC 2 Feb 2010

UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – no objections – restriction prohibiting alterations etc without vendor’s approval of plans – whether obsolete – modification sought prohibiting alterations etc not in keeping with neighbourhood – held inappropriate to impose restriction that would present problems with implementation – application refused – Law of Property Act 1925 s 84(1) … Continue reading Flowers, Re 30 Burges Road: UTLC 2 Feb 2010

Hertfordshire Police v Van Colle; Smith v Chief Constable of Sussex Police: HL 30 Jul 2008

Police Obligations to Witnesses is Limited A prosecution witness was murdered by the accused shortly before his trial. The parents of the deceased alleged that the failure of the police to protect their son was a breach of article 2. Held: The House was asked ‘If the police are alerted to a threat that D … Continue reading Hertfordshire Police v Van Colle; Smith v Chief Constable of Sussex Police: HL 30 Jul 2008

Surana, Re Land Adjoining 21 Icklingham Road: UTLC 30 Aug 2016

UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – building scheme – land originally designated a close to which all residents would have access – prohibition on building and uses other than garden or recreation ground for residents – land sold in 1952 and since used as private garden with no access for residents – history of objections … Continue reading Surana, Re Land Adjoining 21 Icklingham Road: UTLC 30 Aug 2016

Goodman v Gallant: CA 30 Oct 1985

The court reviewed the conflicting authorities with regard to the creation of trusts and held that the overwhelming preponderance of authority was that, in the absence of any claim for rectification or rescission, provisions in a conveyance declaring that the plaintiff and the defendant were to hold the proceeds of sale of the property ‘upon … Continue reading Goodman v Gallant: CA 30 Oct 1985

McCausland and Another v Duncan Lawrie Ltd and Another: CA 18 Jun 1996

The parties entered into a written contract for the sale of land which, in error, provided for completion on a Sunday. The parties varied the date to the Friday but did not execute a new contract which would comply with section 2(1) of the 1989 Act. Time was not initially of the essence of the … Continue reading McCausland and Another v Duncan Lawrie Ltd and Another: CA 18 Jun 1996

Miller v Subhani: UTLC 30 Mar 2020

Restrictive Covenants – Discharge – Proposed Use of Field As A Farm Strip for Private Aircraft in close proximity to Sandown Airport – planning permission for construction of agricultural barn – whether to be used to hangar applicant’s aircraft – . .

Dobbin: LT 30 Aug 2006

LT RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – building scheme – proposed bungalow – reasonable user – public interest – whether practical benefits secured – substantiality – effect of scheme – application refused – . .

Acts

1267 – 1278 – 1285 – 1297 – 1361 – 1449 – 1491 – 1533 – 1677 – 1688 – 1689 – 1700 – 1706 – 1710 – 1730 – 1737 – 1738 – 1751 – 1774 – 1792 – 1793 – 1804 – 1814 – 1819 – 1824 – 1828 – 1831 – 1832 … Continue reading Acts

Mortgage Corporation Ltd v Shaire and Another: ChD 25 Feb 2000

The claimant had an equitable charge over the property, and sought a possession order after failures to keep up repayments. The order was sought under the Act, and the claimants asserted that the conditions for the grant of possession were unchanged. Held: Parliament had clearly intended a change. The interests of a chargee ranked alongside … Continue reading Mortgage Corporation Ltd v Shaire and Another: ChD 25 Feb 2000

Barclays Bank Plc v Hendricks and Another: ChD 3 Nov 1995

The wife was co-owner of the family home. Her husband owed money to the bank. He separated from his wife and left the matrimonial home moving to another house owned by the wife. The bank obtained a charging order absolute against the husband’s interest in the matrimonial home and then sought an order under section … Continue reading Barclays Bank Plc v Hendricks and Another: ChD 3 Nov 1995

Re Citro, Lloyds Bank plc v Byrne and Byrne, Abbey National plc v Moss and others and Barclays Bank plc v Hendricks: CA 1991

Trustees in bankruptcy of bankrupt husbands successfully appealed for the removal of provisos delaying the operation of orders for sale made under s30 in respect of each husband’s matrimonial home for the benefit of that husband’s wife who had been declared by the judge at first instance to be an equal owner with the husband … Continue reading Re Citro, Lloyds Bank plc v Byrne and Byrne, Abbey National plc v Moss and others and Barclays Bank plc v Hendricks: CA 1991

First National Securities v Hegerty: CA 1984

The husband had forged his wife’s signature on the loan application and on the charge of the house held by himself and his wife as joint tenants. He had left the country, and the plaintiff sought to enforce the charge, and ex parte obtained an order nisi charging the husband’s interest in the house. The … Continue reading First National Securities v Hegerty: CA 1984

King, Re 64 Buxton Road: UTLC 6 Feb 2012

RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – discharge – modification – proposed development of 10 flats to replace single house – whether covenants obsolete – changes to the character of the neighbourhood – whether similar covenants elsewhere on estate no longer enforceable – thin end of the wedge argument – reasonable user – whether public interest in the development … Continue reading King, Re 64 Buxton Road: UTLC 6 Feb 2012

Cain, Re Waverley Lodge: UTLC 24 Nov 2009

UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS – modification – covenant restricting development to one dwelling per plot – building scheme – proposal to erect two additional dwellinghouses within grounds of existing property – whether restrictions obsolete – whether practical benefits of substantial value or advantage secured by the restrictions – whether proposal would cause injury – application granted … Continue reading Cain, Re Waverley Lodge: UTLC 24 Nov 2009

United Bank of Kuwait Plc v Sahib and Others: CA 2 Feb 1996

The bank appealed against a decision that the simple deposit of deeds with a bank did not take effect as an equitable charge. Held: Depositing deeds with a bank is not sufficient to create a charge over them. The old law as to the creation of an equitable mortgage by deposit of deeds had been … Continue reading United Bank of Kuwait Plc v Sahib and Others: CA 2 Feb 1996

Bettison and others v Langton and others: HL 17 May 2001

A right to pasture animals on a common had been levant and couchant, and as such was inalienable as a separate asset from the land where the animals were kept. The right was registered under the Act, and was thereby transformed into a right to graze a certain number of animals on the common. That … Continue reading Bettison and others v Langton and others: HL 17 May 2001

Ashworth Frazer Limited v Gloucester City Council: HL 8 Nov 2001

A lease contained a covenant against assignment without the Landlord’s consent, such consent not to be unreasonably withheld. The tenant asserted, pace Killick, that the landlord could not refuse consent on the grounds that the proposed tenant might not comply with the terms of the lease, and that the building obligation operated as a use … Continue reading Ashworth Frazer Limited v Gloucester City Council: HL 8 Nov 2001

Schiffahrtsgesellschaft Detlev von Appen GmbH v Voest Alpine Intertrading GmbH (‘The Jay Bola’): CA 1997

The insurance company claimant had insured a cargo under a voyage charter made by the defendant as charterer with the claimant as time charterer and disponent owner of the vessel. The charter had an arbitration clause. The cargo was damaged in a fire and steps taken to extinguish it. The insurers began proceedings in Brazil … Continue reading Schiffahrtsgesellschaft Detlev von Appen GmbH v Voest Alpine Intertrading GmbH (‘The Jay Bola’): CA 1997

Spiro v Glencrown Properties Ltd and Another: ChD 1991

The court considered the nature of an option to buy land. Hoffman J said: ‘The granting of the option imposes no obligation upon the purchaser and an obligation upon the vendor which is contingent upon the exercise of the option. When the option is exercised, the vendor and purchaser come under obligations to perform as … Continue reading Spiro v Glencrown Properties Ltd and Another: ChD 1991

Les Laboratoires Servier and Another v Apotex Inc and Others: SC 29 Oct 2014

Ex turpi causa explained The parties had disputed the validity a patent and the production of infringing preparations. The english patent had failed and damages were to be awarded, but a Canadian patent remained the defendant now challenged the calculation of damages for what it said would have been an infringing trade, and pleaded ex … Continue reading Les Laboratoires Servier and Another v Apotex Inc and Others: SC 29 Oct 2014

Chatsworth Estates Company v Fewell: 1931

The plaintiff sought to enforce a restrictive covenant against using a property ‘otherwise than as a private dwelling-house’. 30 years later the Defendant purchased the property and immediately started taking paying guests. The defendant had suggested that the covenants may be modified by the Lands Tribunal, but he made no application. Held: The area was … Continue reading Chatsworth Estates Company v Fewell: 1931

Re Snaith and Dolding’s Application: LT 1995

The applicants sought modification of a covenant, to enable them to build a second house on a single plot within a building scheme. Held: ‘The position of the Tribunal is clear. Any application under section 84(1) must be determined upon the facts and merits of the particular case, and the Tribunal is unable to bind … Continue reading Re Snaith and Dolding’s Application: LT 1995

Twentieth Century Banking Corporation Ltd v Wilkinson: ChD 1977

Property was charged in 1973. The principal was be repayable in 1988 with interest. There was no provision by which a default made the power of sale exercisable or the advance repayable. When the borrower defaulted, the mortgagee had to apply to court for an order for sale in lieu of foreclosure under section 91(2) … Continue reading Twentieth Century Banking Corporation Ltd v Wilkinson: ChD 1977

Re Sigsworth: Bedford v Bedford: 1935

The court was asked to answer a question on the assumed premise that a woman had been murdered by her son and had died intestate. The question for decision was whether the forfeiture rule prevented the son from benefiting under the intestacy provisions of the 1925 Act. Held: Clauson J said that the forfeiture rule … Continue reading Re Sigsworth: Bedford v Bedford: 1935

Dimsdale Developments (South East) Ltd v De Haan: 1983

The court considered the interpretation of clauses allowing a notice to complete a contract for the sale of land. Godfrey QC said: ‘In my judgment this notice, served as it was under cover of the letter of November 10, 1981, referring to the National Conditions of Sale, and referring as it did to the contract … Continue reading Dimsdale Developments (South East) Ltd v De Haan: 1983

Blythe Corporation’s Application: 1962

A covenant required the purchasers to erect and maintain a chain link fence. Held: The covenant was a positive personal covenant between the original vendor and the original purchaser and was not a restrictive covenant. The Lands Tribunal declined jurisdiction to vary it under the section. Citations: (1962) 14 PLCR 56 Statutes: Law of Property … Continue reading Blythe Corporation’s Application: 1962

Pretoria Warehousing Co Ltd v Shelton: 1993

In a shopping centre, a tenant and its customers had acquired the right under s62 of the 1925 Act to use the concourse. The tenant was therefore entitled to an injunction to prevent the landlord further developing the concourse in such a way as to infringe those rights. Citations: [1993] EGCS 120 Statutes: Landlord and … Continue reading Pretoria Warehousing Co Ltd v Shelton: 1993

Regent Oil Co Ltd v JA Gregory (Hatch End) Ltd: CA 1966

No general distinction is to be drawn between the two types of mortgage and sub-mortgage. The court considered the practice for a mortgagor to attorn tenant to his mortgagee. The tenancy contained no covenants and was merely a device to give the mortgagee a right to obtain summary judgment for possession under the Small Tenements … Continue reading Regent Oil Co Ltd v JA Gregory (Hatch End) Ltd: CA 1966

Bakewell Management Limited v Brandwood and others: HL 1 Apr 2004

Houses were built next to a common. Over many years the owners had driven over the common. The landowners appealed a decision that they could not acquire a right of way by prescription over the common because such use had been unlawful as a criminal offence under section 193 of the Law of Property Act … Continue reading Bakewell Management Limited v Brandwood and others: HL 1 Apr 2004

Wilson v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry; Wilson v First County Trust Ltd (No 2): HL 10 Jul 2003

The respondent appealed against a finding that the provision which made a loan agreement completely invalid for lack of compliance with the 1974 Act was itself invalid under the Human Rights Act since it deprived the respondent lender of its property rights. It was also argued that it was not possible to make a declaration … Continue reading Wilson v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry; Wilson v First County Trust Ltd (No 2): HL 10 Jul 2003

Pendennis Shipyard (Holdings) Ltd and Another v A and P Falmouth Ltd and Others Re: Falmouth Dockyard: UTLC 24 Nov 2017

UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS – Modification – Falmouth Dockyard – Application to modify restrictions so as to align covenants with those on adjoining land owned by the applicants and to allow work on commercial and military craft – potential for effect on objectors’ businesses – whether objectors enjoy practical benefits of substantial value or advantage – … Continue reading Pendennis Shipyard (Holdings) Ltd and Another v A and P Falmouth Ltd and Others Re: Falmouth Dockyard: UTLC 24 Nov 2017

The Alexander Devine Children’s Cancer Trust v Millgate Developments Ltd and Others: CA 28 Nov 2018

Appeal from grant of permission for modification of restrictive covenants on land. Judges: Underhill, Sales, Moylan LJJ Citations: [2018] EWCA Civ 2679, [2019] JPL 471, [2019] 2 P and CR 2, [2019] 1 WLR 2729, [2018] WLR(D) 733 Links: Bailii, WLRD Statutes: Law of Property Act 1925 84 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited by: Appeal … Continue reading The Alexander Devine Children’s Cancer Trust v Millgate Developments Ltd and Others: CA 28 Nov 2018

Turner and Another v Pryce and others: ChD 9 Jan 2008

The claimants asserted that they had the benefit of restrictive covenants under a building scheme to prevent the defendants erecting more houses in their neighbouring garden. The defendants pointed to alleged breaches of the same scheme by the claimants. Held: There was not only an intention to create a building scheme but also a clearly … Continue reading Turner and Another v Pryce and others: ChD 9 Jan 2008

Siskina (owners of Cargo lately on Board) v Distos Compania Naviera SA: HL 1979

An injunction was sought against a Panamanian ship-owning company to restrain it from disposing of a fund, consisting of insurance proceeds, in England. The claimant for the injunction was suing the company in a Cyprus court for damages and believed the company to have no other assets from which to meet the hoped-for damages award … Continue reading Siskina (owners of Cargo lately on Board) v Distos Compania Naviera SA: HL 1979

Robinson v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police: SC 8 Feb 2018

Limits to Police Exemption from Liability The claimant, an elderly lady was bowled over and injured when police were chasing a suspect through the streets. As they arrested him they fell over on top of her. She appealed against refusal of her claim in negligence. Held: Her appeal succeeded. It is normally only in a … Continue reading Robinson v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police: SC 8 Feb 2018

Meretz Investments Nv and Another v ACP Ltd and others: ChD 14 Nov 2007

The parties disputed the success of a sale by a mortgagee in possession of various properties. The parties disputed the apportionment of costs. Held: The appeal failed. Where there is no express agreement concerning the division of costs, a general rule of thumb is to divide them equally between the relevant parties. But that is … Continue reading Meretz Investments Nv and Another v ACP Ltd and others: ChD 14 Nov 2007

Medical Justice, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department: Admn 26 Jul 2010

The claimant, a charity assisting immigrants and asylum seekers, challenged a policy document regulating the access to the court of failed applicants facing removal. They said that the new policy, reducing the opportunity to appeal to 72 hours or less, made ineffective any right for judicial review. Held: The request was granted, and the 2010 … Continue reading Medical Justice, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department: Admn 26 Jul 2010

Paragon Finance Plc (Formerly the National Home Loans Corporation Plc) v Pender and Pender: ChD 25 Nov 2003

Section 114 of the 1925 Act has no application to Registered Land. It provides for a transfer ‘unless a contrary intention is expressed’ in the mortgage. Thus if section 114 applies, all depends upon the true construction of the mortgage. The power under the Civil Procedure Rules to revoke an earlier order included a power … Continue reading Paragon Finance Plc (Formerly the National Home Loans Corporation Plc) v Pender and Pender: ChD 25 Nov 2003

Trustee Solutions Ltd and others v Dubery and Another: ChD 21 Jun 2006

The rules of a pensions scheme were altered. It was required that any such alteration be in writing, but the trustees had not signed the document creating the amendment. Held: The words ‘writing under hand’ clearly required a signature, and the amendment was ineffective. No estoppel arose as against the members: ‘An avoidance of pedantry, … Continue reading Trustee Solutions Ltd and others v Dubery and Another: ChD 21 Jun 2006

Roberts and Others v Keegan (Rentcharges : Nature and Extent): LRA 1 Oct 2014

LRA A lease created by the owner of a rentcharge pursuant to section 121 of the Law of Property Act 1925 is not registrable as a lease at HM Land Registry but is a mortgage which can only be protected on the register by a notice at least where the rentcharge is to end in … Continue reading Roberts and Others v Keegan (Rentcharges : Nature and Extent): LRA 1 Oct 2014

Seymour Road (Southampton) Ltd v Williams and Others: ChD 29 Jan 2010

The claimant sought a declaration that restrictive covenants imposed in 1896 affecting its land were no longer effective. Held: The declaration was granted. Under the 1881 Act (as opposed to the 1925 Act) covenants were not automatically attached to the land. Here there was no implied or explicit annexation of the covenants. The covenants were … Continue reading Seymour Road (Southampton) Ltd v Williams and Others: ChD 29 Jan 2010

Fairclough Homes Ltd, Re: LT 8 Jun 2004

Application was made to vary a restrictive covenant: ‘ . . how the character of the area and the amenities would be affected by the modification of the restriction is not in my view to be judged by envisaging the worst that could be done without breaching the restriction and comparing it with what the … Continue reading Fairclough Homes Ltd, Re: LT 8 Jun 2004

Harbour Estates Limited v HSBC Bank Plc: ChD 15 Jul 2004

The lease contained a break clause. The parties disputed whether the benefit of the clause was personal to the orginal lessee, or whether it touched and concerned the land, and therefore the benefit of it passed with the land. Held: The defendant was entitled to exercise and did validly exercise the break clause. The purpose … Continue reading Harbour Estates Limited v HSBC Bank Plc: ChD 15 Jul 2004

Bakewell Management Ltd v Brandwood and Others: ChD 21 Mar 2002

The claimant sought a declaration that he had acquired an easement over land by driving over it, over several years. The land owner denied the easement, saying that section 193 made the claimant’s activity a crime, and that, following Hanning, criminal activity could not be used to found a claim of adverse possession. The claimant … Continue reading Bakewell Management Ltd v Brandwood and Others: ChD 21 Mar 2002

Santander UK Plc v RA Legal Solicitors: CA 24 Feb 2014

Briggs LJ [2014] EWCA Civ 183, [2014] PNLR 420 Bailii Trustee Act 1925 61 England and Wales Citing: Appeal from – Santander UK Plc v RA Legal Solicitors (A Firm) QBD 23-May-2013 The claimant bank said that it had been the subject of a mortgage fraud, and that the defendant solicitors had acted for the … Continue reading Santander UK Plc v RA Legal Solicitors: CA 24 Feb 2014

Morningside (Leicester) Ltd Re 169 Narborough Road: UTLC 17 Feb 2014

UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – 1864 and 1881 restrictive covenants – use as private dwellinghouse only and imposition of building lines – uncontested breach as a doctor’s surgery – no breach of building lines – application to discharge 1864 covenant under ground (a) allowed in part – application to discharge remainder of 1864 covenant under ground … Continue reading Morningside (Leicester) Ltd Re 169 Narborough Road: UTLC 17 Feb 2014

Fitzpatrick v Sterling Housing Association Ltd: HL 28 Oct 1999

Same Sex Paartner to Inherit as Family Member The claimant had lived with the original tenant in a stable and long standing homosexual relationship at the deceased’s flat. After the tenant’s death he sought a statutory tenancy as a spouse of the deceased. The Act had been extended to include as a spouse someone living … Continue reading Fitzpatrick v Sterling Housing Association Ltd: HL 28 Oct 1999

Simmons v British Steel plc: HL 29 Apr 2004

The claimant was injured at work as a consequence of the defender’s negligence. His injuries became more severe, and he came to suffer a disabling depression. Held: the Inner House had been wrong to characterise the Outer House decision as incorrect. Since the pursuer suffered physical injuries the starting point is that he was a … Continue reading Simmons v British Steel plc: HL 29 Apr 2004

White, Frost and others v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire and others: HL 3 Dec 1998

No damages for Psychiatric Harm Alone The House considered claims by police officers who had suffered psychiatric injury after tending the victims of the Hillsborough tragedy. Held: The general rules restricting the recovery of damages for pure psychiatric harm applied to the plaintiffs’ claims as employees. An employer has a duty to protect his employees … Continue reading White, Frost and others v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire and others: HL 3 Dec 1998

Golden Ocean Group Ltd v Salgaocar Mining Industries Pvt Ltd and Another: ComC 21 Jan 2011

The defendants sought to set aside orders allowing the claimants to serve proceedings alleging repudiation of a charterparty in turn allowing a claim against the defendants under a guarantee. The defendant said the guarantee was unenforceable under the 1677 Act not being in writing and signed. Held: There was no limit to the number of … Continue reading Golden Ocean Group Ltd v Salgaocar Mining Industries Pvt Ltd and Another: ComC 21 Jan 2011

Country and Metropolitan Homes Surrey Ltd v Topclaim Ltd: 1996

The issue was the proper construction and effect of condition 6.8 of the Standard Conditions of Sale, 2nd edition, in relation to the giving of a notice to complete a contract for the sale of land. Held: The condition provided exclusively for the circumstances in which a notice to complete could be given in respect … Continue reading Country and Metropolitan Homes Surrey Ltd v Topclaim Ltd: 1996

Lloyds Bank plc v Rosset: HL 29 Mar 1990

The house had been bought during the marriage but in the husband’s sole name. The plaintiff’s charge secured the husband’s overdraft. The bank issued possession proceedings. Mr Rosset had left, but Mrs Rosset claimed, as against the bank an interest in it as the matrimonial home. She said there had been a common understanding or … Continue reading Lloyds Bank plc v Rosset: HL 29 Mar 1990

London Borough of Harrow v Qazi: HL 31 Jul 2003

The applicant had held a joint tenancy of the respondent. His partner gave notice and left, and the property was taken into possession. The claimant claimed restoration of his tenancy saying the order did not respect his right to a private life and home. Held: Article 8 does not, in terms, give a right to … Continue reading London Borough of Harrow v Qazi: HL 31 Jul 2003

Tiverton Estates Ltd v Wearwell Ltd: CA 1975

“Subject to Contract” not to be diluted ‘subject to contract’ proposals remain in negotiation until a formal contract is executed. Lord Denning MR said: ‘for over a hundred years, the courts have held that the effect of the words ‘subject to contract’ is that the matter remains in negotiation until a formal contract is executed’ … Continue reading Tiverton Estates Ltd v Wearwell Ltd: CA 1975

Hand and Another v George: ChD 17 Mar 2017

Adopted grandchildren entitled to succession The court was asked whether the adopted children whose adopting father, the son of the testator, were grandchildren of the testator for the purposes of his will. Held: The claim succeeded. The defendants, the other beneficiaries were not entitled to inherit the part of their father’s estate that derived from … Continue reading Hand and Another v George: ChD 17 Mar 2017

Williams and Glyn’s Bank Ltd v Boland: HL 19 Jun 1980

Wife in Occupation had Overriding Interest The wife had made a substantial financial contribution to the purchase price of the house which was registered only in her husband’s name, and charged to the bank. The bank sought possession. The wife resisted saying that she had an overriding interest. Held: Her equitable interest was not only … Continue reading Williams and Glyn’s Bank Ltd v Boland: HL 19 Jun 1980

Barlow v Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council: CA 1 Jun 2020

Presumption of dedication dates back. The claimant tripped over a tree root raising a path in the park. The court was now asked whether the pathway through a public park, but which was not a public right of way, was maintainable at public expense as a highway governed by the 1980 Act. Held: As to … Continue reading Barlow v Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council: CA 1 Jun 2020

Sheikh and Another Re: Part of Former Fletcher Hospital: UTLC 14 Apr 2011

UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – discharge or modification – former hospital – covenant relating to small part of hospital building and other land prohibiting erection of any buildings within 20 feet of adjoining footpath – application to discharge or to modify to permit erection of two flats as part of proposed refurbishment of entire hospital to … Continue reading Sheikh and Another Re: Part of Former Fletcher Hospital: UTLC 14 Apr 2011

Campbell and Another v Banks and Others: CA 1 Feb 2011

The court considered the creation by section 62 of the 1925 Act automatically of easements when land was divided. The claimants owned land bounded on either side by properties beloinging to the respondents. The properties had once been in common ownership. They asserted the existence of a bridleway easement along a track to the public … Continue reading Campbell and Another v Banks and Others: CA 1 Feb 2011