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Acts

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Robbie the Pict, Regina (On the Application of) v Crown Prosecution Service: Admn 24 Apr 2009

The defendant appealed against a conviction that he had driven a vehicle through a red light contrary to the provisions of section 36(1) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 and related regulations. He said that the Gatsometer device was not an approved device as required, saying that the 1991 Act required any such approval to … Continue reading Robbie the Pict, Regina (On the Application of) v Crown Prosecution Service: Admn 24 Apr 2009

Larner v Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council: CA 20 Dec 2000

The duty on a local authority to promote road safety did not remove from them the discretion as to how that duty was to be implemented. A claim that the authority had failed to place certain signage, and that an accident had occurred which might not otherwise have done. The duty was a target duty, … Continue reading Larner v Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council: CA 20 Dec 2000

Director of Public Prosecutions v Harris: QBD 16 Mar 1994

The defence of necessity will be available only in exceptional circumstances even for police drivers driving in pursuit of a suspect. The care due from the driver of an emergency vehicle crossing a junction against red lights is specifically provided for by that regulation, and in these circumstances the common law defence of necessity does … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Harris: QBD 16 Mar 1994

Director of Public Prosecutions v John Kay: QBD 4 Mar 1998

The court considered a decision by Justices to exclude evidence under section 8 of the 1984 Act where a police officer had allegedly failed to follow the guidance in relation to a roadside breath test. Held: The procedure was not required by the Act and sent the case back to the Justices with a direction … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v John Kay: QBD 4 Mar 1998

Hereford and Worcester County Council v Pick: 1 Apr 1995

The issue was whether a presumed dedication of a road as a public highway could result from twenty years or more of uninterrupted public use in breach of section 34(1) of the 1988 Act. The court was considering whether a footpath, alleged to have become a public highway for vehicles by presumed dedication, had been … Continue reading Hereford and Worcester County Council v Pick: 1 Apr 1995

May v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 15 Apr 2005

Whether the car park where the driving took place was a ‘public place’ within the meaning of section 3. Held: The appeal failed.Laws LJ set out the following propositions as accurately summarising the relevant legal principles: a. The burden of proving that a particular location is a ‘public place’ rests on the Crown to prove … Continue reading May v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 15 Apr 2005

Robbie the Pict v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 26 Apr 2009

The defendant, a road traffic camera campaigner appealed against his conviction for contravening a red light traffic signal, saying that the camera was not approved. Held: The appeal failed. A ‘prescribed device’ was a ‘device of a description specified in an order made by the secretary of state’. The camera had been so specified in … Continue reading Robbie the Pict v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 26 Apr 2009

Director of Public Prosecutions v Alexander: Admn 27 Jul 2010

The defendant had crashed his car after driving off with a girl, and while being chased by another car driven by her boyfriend. The police first cautioned him for false imprisonment, but then prosecuted him for careless driving. The prosecutor appealed against a successful plea of autrefois convict. The defendant said that the offence for … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Alexander: Admn 27 Jul 2010

Hereford and Worcester County Council v Pick; 1 Apr 1995

References: (1995) 71 P & CR 231 Coram: Stuart-Smith LJ The issue was whether a presumed dedication of a road as a public highway could result from twenty years or more of uninterrupted public use in breach of section 34(1) of the 1988 Act. The court was considering whether a footpath, alleged to have become … Continue reading Hereford and Worcester County Council v Pick; 1 Apr 1995

Gabriel Mckeon v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 19 Dec 2007

The defendant appealed his conviction for failing to give a specimen of breath saying that he had had no more breath to give. The machine had required the mouthpiece to be retained for inspection, but the officer had disposed of it. In formulating their case, the justices stated that the defendant had failed to prove … Continue reading Gabriel Mckeon v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 19 Dec 2007

A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department (No 2): HL 8 Dec 2005

Evidence from 3rd Party Torture Inadmissible The applicants had been detained following the issue of certificates issued by the respondent that they posed a terrorist threat. They challenged the decisions of the Special Immigration Appeals Commission saying that evidence underlying the decisions had probably been obtained by torture committed by foreign powers, and should not … Continue reading A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department (No 2): HL 8 Dec 2005

Gidden v Chief Constable of Humberside: Admn 29 Oct 2009

The driver appealed against his conviction for speeding, saying that he had not been given the requisite notice within the 14 days required: ‘The notice of intended prosecution had been sent to him by first class ordinary post in circumstances where he would ordinarily have been expected to receive it in 14 days, but in … Continue reading Gidden v Chief Constable of Humberside: Admn 29 Oct 2009

Cameron v Liverpool Victoria Insurance Co Ltd: SC 20 Feb 2019

The Court was asked in what circumstances is it permissible to sue an unnamed defendant? The respondent was injured when her car collided with another. The care was insured but by a driver giving a false name. The car owner refused to identify him. The insurers now appealed against Held: The appeal succeeded. It is … Continue reading Cameron v Liverpool Victoria Insurance Co Ltd: SC 20 Feb 2019

Morris v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 14 Nov 2008

Appeal from conviction for driving with excess alcohol. The driver complained that the police had destroyed CCTV evidence of the administration of the statutory warning on his being tested. The appeal failed. The defendant had given no indication that he might wish to challenge the warning. Citations: [2008] EWHC 2788 (Admin), (2009) 173 JP 41 … Continue reading Morris v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 14 Nov 2008

Logan and Another v Procurator Fiscal: HCJ 2 Jul 2008

The appellant challenged sentences for driving whilst disqualified. The defendant questioned the extent of the legislative competence of the Scottish Parliament under judicial scrutiny on grounds other than compliance with Convention rights. Judges: Lord Nimmo Smith Citations: [2008] ScotHC HCJAC – 61, 2009 SCL 83, 2008 SCCR 815, 2008 GWD 35-535, [2008] HCJAC 61, 2008 … Continue reading Logan and Another v Procurator Fiscal: HCJ 2 Jul 2008

Malcolm v Director of Public Prosecutions: QBD 27 Feb 2007

Appeal by way of case stated from a decision convicting the Appellant of the offence of driving a motor vehicle on a road when the proportion of alcohol in her breath exceeded the prescribed limit, contrary to section 5(1)(a) of the Road Traffic Act 1988 – whether the magistrates, who had retired to consider their … Continue reading Malcolm v Director of Public Prosecutions: QBD 27 Feb 2007

Breckon v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 22 Aug 2007

The defendant appealed against his conviction for driving with excess alcohol. Held: There was no requirement that the prosecutor should produce the results of the roadside breath test in evidence, and the breathalyser was of the approved type. The appeal failed. Reliance had been placed on the fact that the guide to type approval relating … Continue reading Breckon v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 22 Aug 2007

Currie, Regina v: CACD 26 Apr 2007

The defendant appealed his conviction for dangerous driving. The failure of the police to serve him with a notice of intended prosecution invalidated the conviction. The police replied that there was no need for such a notice because there had been an accident. The driver had been stopped but had then driven off. A police … Continue reading Currie, Regina v: CACD 26 Apr 2007

Paul and others v Deputy Coroner of the Queen’s Household and Another: Admn 2 Mar 2007

The applicants sought judicial review of preliminary directions given for the intended inquest on the deaths of Diana Princess of Wales and of Dodi Al Fayed. It was submitted that the jurisdiction had been wrongly transferred to the Queen’s Coroner under section 14. Held: under the 1988 Act, the Coroner for the Queen’s household was … Continue reading Paul and others v Deputy Coroner of the Queen’s Household and Another: Admn 2 Mar 2007

Regina v Inner London Justices ex parte Cukic: Admn 1 Sep 1995

The applicant sought judicial review of the refusal of the magistrates to state a case for him to appeal to the High Court. He had been convicted of failing to provide a specimen of breath for analysis. The magistrates considered the request frivolous within the 1980 Act. He held, as a finding of fact, that … Continue reading Regina v Inner London Justices ex parte Cukic: Admn 1 Sep 1995

Prince v The Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 1996

The appellant had convicted of an offence under s5 on the basis of evidence provided by a laboratory test of a blood sample provided under section 8(2). In each case it was contended that the prosecution were required to prove that the intoximeter was working properly before evidence of the test of the blood specimen … Continue reading Prince v The Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 1996

McManus, Regina v: CANI 19 Oct 2006

A-G’s appeal against sentence of 15 months Custody Probation following the defendant’s conviction for causing death by careless driving having consumed excess alcohol. Judges: Nicholson LJ. Campbell LJ and Coghlin J Citations: [2006] NICA 39 Links: Bailii Statutes: Criminal Justice Act 1988, Road Traffic (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 14(1)(b) Northern Ireland, Criminal Sentencing Updated: 08 … Continue reading McManus, Regina v: CANI 19 Oct 2006

Director of Public Prosecutions, Regina (on the Application of) v Chorley Justices and Forrest: Admn 8 Jun 2006

The prosecutor applied for an order to require the magistrates to state a case. He faced a charge of driving with excess alcohol. He pleaded not guilty. There were several adjournments, and a considerable delay. At the trial, and with no forewarning, the defence requested the prosecution to prove service of the certificate of analysis. … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions, Regina (on the Application of) v Chorley Justices and Forrest: Admn 8 Jun 2006

Murphy v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 20 Jun 2006

The court rejected the defendant’s argument that the prosecutor should have put in evidence the results of the roadside breath test. Mitting J referred to the case of Badkin: ‘But nothing in the judgment of Glidewell LJ leads to the conclusion that in every case the prosecution must obtain from the manufacturers an analysis of … Continue reading Murphy v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 20 Jun 2006

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, Mahmoud Abu Rideh Jamal Ajouaou v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 11 Aug 2004

The claimants had each been detained without trial for more than two years, being held as suspected terrorists. They were free leave to return to their own countries, but they feared for their lives if returned. They complained that the evidence used to justify their detention was derived from practices involving torture by the US … Continue reading A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, Mahmoud Abu Rideh Jamal Ajouaou v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 11 Aug 2004

Director of Public Prosecutions v Meakin: Admn 4 May 2006

Appeal against stay of prosecution as abuse of process. Held: The appeal failed. Openshaw J said: ‘The concept of a fair trial involves fairness to the prosecution and to the public as well as to the defendant.’ Judges: Scott Baker LJ, Openshaw J Citations: [2006] EWHC 1067 (Admin) Links: Bailii Statutes: Road Traffic Act 1988 … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Meakin: Admn 4 May 2006

Sneyd v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 24 Feb 2006

The defendant appealed against his conviction for driving with excess alcohol. He complained that though the officers suspected him of having consumed alcohol, they asked him whether he had been drinking without cautioning him, and that no print out from the Intoximeter having been produced, there was no evidence on which he could be convicted. … Continue reading Sneyd v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 24 Feb 2006

Flegg v Justices of the Peace for the New Forest Local Justice Area Sitting at Lyndhurst: Admn 21 Feb 2006

The defendant sought judicial review of the refusal by the magistrates to state a case. He was convicted for failing to identify the driver of a motor cycle of which he was a registered keeper which had been caught by a speed camera. Either of two riders might have been using it. Held: Having failed … Continue reading Flegg v Justices of the Peace for the New Forest Local Justice Area Sitting at Lyndhurst: Admn 21 Feb 2006

Director of Public Prosecutions v Wood; Director of Public Prosecutions v McGillicuddy: Admn 19 Jan 2006

Each defendant sought disclosure of materials concerning the intoximeter instruments, having been charged with driving with excess alcohol. The defendants said that the meters were inaccurate and that the manufacturers were in effect part of the prosecution, and subject to disclosure requirements accordingly. The prosecution replied that the meter manufacturer specifications were protected as confidential. … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Wood; Director of Public Prosecutions v McGillicuddy: Admn 19 Jan 2006

Director of Public Prosecutions v Coulter: Admn 29 Jun 2005

The magistrates stated a case where the police officer requiring a breath speciment, had not allowed a wait of 20 minutes where the defendant had recently eaten a ‘tic-tac’, contrary to the procedure. Judges: Kennedy LJ, Crane J Citations: [2005] EWHC 1533 (Admin) Links: Bailii Statutes: Road Traffic Act 1988 7(6), Road Traffic Offenders Act … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Coulter: Admn 29 Jun 2005

Wright v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 25 May 2005

The defendant appealed his conviction for driving with excess alcohol. He complained that the device used to measure his breath at the police station, the EC/IR intoximeter, was not an approved device. The court had refused to accept evidence to support such an assertion. Held: The magistrates had found that the appellant had been lawfully … Continue reading Wright v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 25 May 2005

Gidden v Director of Public Prosecutions: QBD 29 Oct 2009

The defendant appealed against his conviction for speeding on an appeal to the crown court. He said that he had not received the notice of intended prosecution as required within fourteen days. Held: The Act shifted the burden of proof of late delivery onto the defendant. The letter by had been sent ordinary first-class post … Continue reading Gidden v Director of Public Prosecutions: QBD 29 Oct 2009

Clarke, Regina v; Regina v McDaid: HL 6 Feb 2008

An indictment had not been signed despite a clear statutory provision that it should be. The defects were claimed to have been cured by amendment before sentence. Held: The convictions failed. Sections 1(1) and 2(1) of the 1933 Act which provided for a bill of indictment (which had of itself no legal standing save as … Continue reading Clarke, Regina v; Regina v McDaid: HL 6 Feb 2008

Steadman v Director of Public Prosecutions: QBD 15 Apr 2002

The motorist was to be asked to take a breath test at the police station. The defendant was asked if he was on medication, and he produced a pill. The officer went ahead wit the test. At court the defendant said that he should first have sought medical advice to see whether he was fit … Continue reading Steadman v Director of Public Prosecutions: QBD 15 Apr 2002

Director of Public Prosecutions v Robertson: QBD 4 Mar 2002

The motorist had been stopped. He had not failed the roadside breathalyzer test, but the officer continued and arrested him. He was acquitted. The prosecutor appealed. Held: The use of the section 6 breathalyzer procedure did not exclude the officer relying on the powers contained in section 4 of the Act. Where the officer believed … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Robertson: QBD 4 Mar 2002

Zafar v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 1 Nov 2004

The defendant appealed his conviction for failing a breath test. He said that since the meter could be affected by mouth alcohol, the prosecutor had a duty to show that the reading arose from a breath taken deep from the lung by a deep breath. Held: Though the intoximeter made a distinction between deep lung … Continue reading Zafar v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 1 Nov 2004

Lewis, Regina (on the Application Of) v the Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 10 Dec 2004

Appeal by way of case stated from a decision convicting the appellant, of driving a motor car when he had consumed alcohol in excess of the prescribed limit, contrary to the provisions of section 5 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 and Schedule 2 Road Traffic Offenders’ Act 1988. The issue was whether the car … Continue reading Lewis, Regina (on the Application Of) v the Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 10 Dec 2004

EUI Ltd v Bristol Alliance Ltd Partnership: CA 11 Oct 2011

A driver had deliberately driven at a building owned by the respondent company causing substantial damage. The driver’s insurer now appealed against a decision that it was liable to the respondent despite a clause excluding liability for deliberate acts of a driver. Held: The appeal succeeded, and nor did a claim lie against the Motor … Continue reading EUI Ltd v Bristol Alliance Ltd Partnership: CA 11 Oct 2011

Director of Public Prosecutions v Janman: Admn 22 Jan 2004

The Director appealed dismissal of a charge. The defendant had accompanied a learner driver. He had too much alcohol in his blood. He denied that he was driving. Held: There was no need to prove that the defendant was statutorily supervising. The precise skills of the learner driver were not relevant. The supervisor was clearly … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Janman: Admn 22 Jan 2004

Khatibi v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 28 Jan 2004

Judges: May LJ, Nelson J Citations: [2004] EWHC 83 (Admin) Links: Bailii Statutes: Road Traffic Act 1988 5(1) Jurisdiction: England and Wales Citing: Cited – Paterson v Director of Public Prosecutions 1990 . . Cited – Regina v Jackson CACD 21-May-1996 Time should be saved by explicit admissions of all elements of expert case. . … Continue reading Khatibi v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 28 Jan 2004

Brown v Procurator Fiscal, Falkirk: HCJ 24 Sep 2002

The defendant appealed against his conviction for driving with excess alcohol. He said that the machine used to measure the alcohol in his breath did not have type approval. The schedule to Approval 1998 for the purposes of section 7(1)(a) of the Road Traffic Act referred to ‘the device known as the Intoximeter EC/IR manufactured … Continue reading Brown v Procurator Fiscal, Falkirk: HCJ 24 Sep 2002

Regina (Pearson) v Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency and Another: QBD 6 Nov 2002

The appellant challenged the fact that the details of his conviction for driving with excess alcohol had not been removed from his driving licence despite it being a spent conviction under the 1974 Act. The result was that he had been unable to find work as a driver. Held: The retention of the records was … Continue reading Regina (Pearson) v Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency and Another: QBD 6 Nov 2002

Director of Public Prosecutions v Swan: Admn 21 Oct 2004

Judges: Collins J Citations: [2004] EWHC 2432 (Admin) Links: Bailii Statutes: Road Traffic Act 1988 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Citing: Cited – Regina v Ferguson CACD 1970 The defendant was accused of failing to give a sample of breath for testing for alcohol. The defence was that there had been no failure because the appellant … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Swan: Admn 21 Oct 2004

Brown v Procurator Fiscal, Falkirk: HCJ 8 Mar 2002

The defendant appealed against his conviction for driving with excess alcohol. He complained that the machine used to take his sample of breath did not conform to the necessary type. It had been manufactured by an independent company. Though not approved it was identical to the approved machine. He was convicted on the basis that … Continue reading Brown v Procurator Fiscal, Falkirk: HCJ 8 Mar 2002

Roerig v Valiant Trawlers Ltd: CA 28 Jan 2002

The claimant who was Dutch, was a widow of a fisherman who had died at sea. The question on appeal was ‘in assessing damages for loss of dependency should benefits resulting from the loss be deducted from the damages?’ The claimant’s position under Dutch law was different, with all benefits deducted from any compensation awarded. … Continue reading Roerig v Valiant Trawlers Ltd: CA 28 Jan 2002

Huntley, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 2 Apr 2004

The appellant appealed by case stated against his conviction by the Haringey Justices or an offence of driving a motor vehicle, having consumed excess alcohol contrary to section 5(1)(a) of the 1988 Act. He said that no direct evidence had been given that he had been driving. Held: The appeal succeeded: ‘The question is, therefore, … Continue reading Huntley, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 2 Apr 2004

Director of Public Prosecutions v Jackson, Stanley v Director of Public Prosecutions: HL 29 Jul 1998

When requesting a drink driver suspect to give a specimen of blood, an officer’s failure to say that the specimen will be taken by a doctor was not fatal to the prosecution. The issue of whether the blood sample was to be taken had properly been described by the officer as a decision for the … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Jackson, Stanley v Director of Public Prosecutions: HL 29 Jul 1998

Director of Public Prosecutions v McKeown and Jones: HL 20 Feb 1997

A driver was arrested for driving with excess alcohol. At the police station, he was to be tested with the Lion Intoximeter. The officer tested the machine and it calibrated correctly. This was at about a quarter after midnight; the sergeant’s watch said 00.13 am, but the time display on the machine read 23:00. Part … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v McKeown and Jones: HL 20 Feb 1997

Wylie on Behalf of SMP Motor Policies at Lloyds v Wake: CA 21 Dec 2000

The claimant sought to recover damages following a road accident. The driver’s insurance was defective. The driver claimed under section 151, but proceedings were issued without formal notice of the issue of proceedings having been given to MIB. The claim proceeded for some time before objection was made. Held: There was a clear distinction between … Continue reading Wylie on Behalf of SMP Motor Policies at Lloyds v Wake: CA 21 Dec 2000

Director of Public Prosecutions v Lonsdale: QBD 16 Feb 2001

Where a motorist told an officer at the roadside that he suffered from bronchitis, and could not provide a specimen of breath, and he wanted to rely upon the same reason at the police station, he could not claim that the officer in the station should know of his objection, but should make it clear … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Lonsdale: QBD 16 Feb 2001

Sharp By her Next Friend Sharp v Pereira and Motor Insurers’ Bureau: CA 24 Jun 1998

The court considered the arrangement for interim payments of damages awards where the claim was to be made through the Bureau. The agreement between the Bureau and the insurer members predated and did not allow for such payments. Held: The MIB, seeking clarification, had made no interim payment. They could have made a substantial part … Continue reading Sharp By her Next Friend Sharp v Pereira and Motor Insurers’ Bureau: CA 24 Jun 1998

Regina v St Albans Crown Court ex parte O’Donovan: Admn 9 Jul 1999

Citations: [1999] EWHC Admin 664 Links: Bailii Statutes: Road Traffic Act 1988 5 Citing: Cited – Taylor v Rajan 2-Jan-1974 The defendant had consumed alcohol so that the alcohol level was 102 milligrammes of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. An appeal was heard as to whether there existed special reasons for not disqualifying him. … Continue reading Regina v St Albans Crown Court ex parte O’Donovan: Admn 9 Jul 1999

Director of Public Prosecutions v Elsender: Admn 9 Jun 1999

Citations: [1999] EWHC Admin 529 Links: Bailii Statutes: Road Traffic Act 1988 85 Citing: Cited – Taylor v Rajan 2-Jan-1974 The defendant had consumed alcohol so that the alcohol level was 102 milligrammes of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. An appeal was heard as to whether there existed special reasons for not disqualifying him. … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecutions v Elsender: Admn 9 Jun 1999

Crown Prosecution Service v Paul O’Shea: Admn 11 May 1998

Prosecutor’s appeal against dismissal of charge of driving with excess alcohol. Citations: [1998] EWHC Admin 517 Links: Bailii Statutes: Road Traffic Act 1988 5(1)(a) Citing: Cited – Regina v Absolam CACD 1990 A was arrested. He was already on bail for possession of cannabis, and in the hope finding further evidence he was asked to … Continue reading Crown Prosecution Service v Paul O’Shea: Admn 11 May 1998

David Hallinan v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 24 Apr 1998

Where a passenger is injured during a bus ride, the accident occurs when he is injured, and driver has a duty to stop immediately in order to report the accident even if no other vehicle was involved. Citations: Times 07-May-1998, [1998] EWHC Admin 437 Links: Bailii Statutes: Road Traffic Act 1988 170 Road Traffic Updated: … Continue reading David Hallinan v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 24 Apr 1998

Jones v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 26 Mar 1998

A van was stopped carrying a delivery of coal. The insurance was for social domestic and pleasure purposes only. The owner appealed a conviction for using it without insurance. Held: ‘using’ when the description of the offence in connection includes alternatives of causing and permitting is to have a restricted meaning. There was not evidence … Continue reading Jones v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 26 Mar 1998

Murray v The United Kingdom: ECHR 27 Mar 2008

The claimant complained that he had been obliged to provide evidence to allow his prosecution to go ahead. He had been caught by a speed camera driving over the speed limit and been required to confirm the identity of the driver or face a heavier penalty. Judges: Lech Garlicki, President Citations: 36344/05, [2008] ECHR 369 … Continue reading Murray v The United Kingdom: ECHR 27 Mar 2008