The claimant sought judicial review of the decision made by TfL not to allow an advertisement on behalf of the Trust to appear on the outside of its buses. It was to read: ‘NOT GAY! EX-GAY, POST-GAY AND PROUD. GET OVER IT!’. The decision was said to be based on the resondent’s policies. The respondent … Continue reading Core Issues Trust v Transport for London: Admn 22 Mar 2013
Disability – definition – ‘substantial’ – ‘long-term’ Until she resigned on 31 August 2016, the Claimant was employed by the Respondent as a Science Teacher. In her subsequent ET claim, she contended she had suffered disability discrimination; it was the Claimant’s case that, since December 2015, she had suffered from a physical impairment, ultimately diagnosed … Continue reading Nissa v Waverly Education Foundation Ltd and Another: EAT 19 Nov 2018
Judges: Irwin, Hickinbottom LJJ, Sir Jack Beatson Citations:  EWCA Civ 1925,  WLR(D) 556 Links: Bailii, WLRD Statutes: National Health Service Act 2006 1 1C, Equality Act 2010 149(1) Jurisdiction: England and Wales Health Professions, Discrimination Updated: 26 April 2022; Ref: scu.621537
EAT SEX DISCRIMINATION – Pregnancy and discrimination SEX DISCRIMINATION – Burden of proof Pregnancy discrimination – section 18 Equality Act 2010 Burden of proof – section 136 Equality Act 2010 The Claimant had notified the Respondent of her pregnancy shortly before a management restructure was announced that put her position at risk of redundancy. The … Continue reading Serco Leisure Operating Ltd v Lau: EAT 3 Apr 2018
Equal Pay Act – Sex Discrimination – Indirect The Claimant claimed indirect sex discrimination under provisions in the Respondent Police Force in that the only option for men taking leave after the birth of their child is shared parental leave (‘SPL’) at the statutory rate of pay whereas women have the option of taking maternity … Continue reading Hextall v Leicestershire Police: EAT 1 May 2018
DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Direct disability discrimination -Reasonable adjustments – Justification – direct discrimination (section 13 Equality Act 2010) – indirect discrimination (section 19) – failure to make reasonable adjustments (sections 20 and 21) – justification The Claimant who was disabled by reason of having undergone double below-knee amputations and suffering from type 2 diabetes and … Continue reading Owen v Amec Foster Wheeler Energy Ltd and Others: EAT 23 Feb 2018
(Grand Chamber) The court ruled admissible claims against the United Kingdom by 13 persons entitled to British State pensions for violation of article 14 of the Convention in combination with article 1 of the First Protocol. All the claimants had earned pensions by working in Britain, but had emigrated to South Africa, Australia or Canada … Continue reading Carson and Others v The United Kingdom: ECHR 16 Mar 2010
Jurisdictional Points – Claim In Time and Effect Date of Termination – – Application/claim – Preliminary issues The statutory provisions in the Employment Rights Act 1996, the Employment Tribunals Extension of Jurisdiction (England and Wales) Order 1994 and the Equality Act 2010, which operate to extend time limits to facilitate conciliation before the institution of … Continue reading Luton Borough Council v Haque: EAT 12 Apr 2018
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Amendment The Appellant had issued an ET1 including a claim under section 15 Equality Act 2010. He applied out of time to add a claim under section 13 Equality Act 2010, contending that it raised no new facts or matters and thus was a mere relabelling exercise (Selkent). The Employment Judge … Continue reading Reuters Ltd v Cole: EAT 16 Feb 2018
Sex Discrimination – SEX DISCRIMINATION – Indirect VICTIMISATION DISCRIMINATION – Detriment A father who wished to take shared parental leave so that his wife could go back to work claimed direct sex discrimination in not being entitled to pay at the higher maternity pay rate for 12 weeks after the 2 weeks compulsory maternity leave … Continue reading Capita Customer Management Ltd v Ali: EAT 11 Apr 2018
Case about common law standards of legally adequate consultation, and statutory duties in the Equality Act 2010 (‘EA 2010’), sought to be applied to a consultation and engagement process undertaken to inform decision-making as to the design of a Bill of primary legislation to be introduced into Parliament. Judges: Mr Justice Fordham Citations:  EWHC … Continue reading A and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department: Admn 18 Feb 2022
EAT Disability Discrimination – Reasonable Adjustments – The Claimant was training to be a Consultant Anaesthetist until she developed a latex allergy in October 2013; that condition was a disability for the purposes of Equality Act 2010. After meetings and enquiries, the First Appellant (the NHS body responsible for training) informed her in November 2014 … Continue reading County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust v Jackson and Another: EAT 2 Mar 2018
EAT MATERNITY RIGHTS AND PARENTAL LEAVE – Unfair dismissal SEX DISCRIMINATION – Pregnancy and discrimination SEX DISCRIMINATION – Burden of proof Automatic unfair dismissal by reason of pregnancy – section 99 Employment Rights Act 1996 and regulation 20 Maternity and Parental Leave etc Regulations 1999 Pregnancy discrimination – section 18 Equality Act 2010 Burden of … Continue reading Really Easy Car Credit Ltd v Thompson: EAT 3 Jan 2018
The claimants, adult men of the Muslim faith detained at an immigration removal centre claimed that the conditions and regime interfered with their required religious observance as, they say, devout Muslims, and that the conditions and regime had a differential and discriminatory impact upon them as Muslims, not experienced by those of other faiths or … Continue reading Hussein v Secretary of State for The Home Department and Another: Admn 1 Feb 2018
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Bias, misconduct and procedural irregularity < PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Appellate jurisdiction/reasons/Burns-Barke In the first appeal (UKEAT/0167/15/LA), the Appellant, the NHS Trust Development Authority (‘TDA’), complained that the Employment Tribunal (‘ET’) had reached conclusions which were not supported by the evidence or were arrived at by inferential conclusions, which could not … Continue reading NHS Trust Development Authority (NHS TDA) v Saiger and Others (Practice and Procedure): EAT 17 Jul 2017
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Bias, misconduct and procedural irregularity PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Appellate jurisdiction/reasons/Burns-Barke In the first appeal (UKEAT/0167/15/LA), the Appellant, the NHS Trust Development Authority (‘TDA’), complained that the Employment Tribunal (‘ET’) had reached conclusions which were not supported by the evidence or were arrived at by inferential conclusions, which could not be … Continue reading North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust v Saiger and Others (Practice and Procedure): EAT 17 Jul 2017
The claimants sought a fuller inquest into deaths at the hands of the British Army in 1990 in Northern Ireland. On opening the inquest, the coroner had declined to undertake to hold a hearing compliant with article 2, and it had not made progress. The applicants believed this would require a further investigation of the … Continue reading McCaughey and Another, Re Application forJudicial Review: SC 18 May 2011
EAT Unfair Dismissal : Reasonableness of Dismissal DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Direct disability discrimination 1. The Respondent is a publicly funded independent school with approximately 1,200 pupils aged eight to 18 and is successor to a school administered by the local authority. The academy is what might be regarded as an ‘urban’ school. Its catchment area … Continue reading Bolton St Catherine’s Academy v O’Brien: EAT 18 Sep 2015
The appellant complained of disability discrimination. He retired early suffering Tourette’s syndrome. He had worked part time, and the parties now disputed his pension entitlements. Held: The appeal failed. Lord Kerr, Lord Carnwath, Lord Hodge, Lady Black, Lord Kitchin  UKSC 65 Bailii, Bailii Summary Equality Act 2010 15(1) England and Wales Citing: Cited – … Continue reading Williams v The Trustees of Swansea University Pension and Assurance Scheme and Another: SC 17 Dec 2018
The claimants, in the US awaiting execution for murders, challenged the permitting by the defendant for export of the chemical Sodium Thipental which would be used for their execution. The respondent said that its use in general anaesthesia practice meant that it was not subject to control. The claimants said that the export was a … Continue reading Zagorski and Baze, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills and Others: Admn 29 Nov 2010
The bank challenged measures taken by HM Treasury to restrict access to the United Kingdom’s financial markets by a major Iranian commercial bank, Bank Mellat, on the account of its alleged connection with Iran’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programmes. The bank sought to have the direction given under section 7 of the 2008 Act. … Continue reading Bank Mellat v Her Majesty’s Treasury (No 2): SC 19 Jun 2013
EAT Maternity Rights and Parental Leave – Sex discrimination Unfair dismissal Return to work Maternity and Parental Leave Regulations 1999 (MAPL Regs) – regulation 10 – redundancy during maternity leave and entitlement to be offered suitable available vacancy. Equality Act 2010 (EqA) – section 18 – direct discrimination because of pregnancy and maternity Appeal against … Continue reading Sefton Borough Council v Wainwright: EAT 13 Oct 2014
The Society challenged the refusal of the coroner to expedite of deaths for religious reasons, alleging discrimination against Jewish and Muslim families in breach of Convention or statutory rights. Held: Allowed in part. Singh LJ, Whipple J  EWHC 969 (Admin),  QB 251,  WLR(D) 273, (2018) 162 BMLR 217,  HRLR 15,  … Continue reading Adath Yisroel Burial Society and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v HM Senior Coroner for Inner North London: Admn 27 Apr 2018
The landlord appealed against refusal of an anti-social behaviour order as regards the respondent, saing that the court’s finding of disability discrimination had been made without foundation. Richards, Lewison LJJ, Coleridge J  EWCA Civ 1566 Bailii Equality Act 2010 England and Wales Discrimination Updated: 26 November 2021; Ref: scu.518786
EAT Disability Discrimination : Reasonable Adjustments Langstaff J P  UKEAT 0227 – 13 – 1607 Bailii Equality Act 2010 England and Wales Cited by: Appeal from – Hainsworth v Ministry of Defence CA 13-May-2014 The appellant was employed by the respondents working in Germany. Her daughter suffered chronic illness and she wished to care … Continue reading Hainsworth v Ministry of Defence: EAT 16 Jul 2013
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Striking-out/dismissal DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Discrimination by other bodies Local Authority member and chair of a committee, removal as chair – section 58(1) and (4) of the Equality Act 2010. Supperstone J  UKEAT 0049 – 13 – 1107 Bailii Equality Act 2010 58(1) 58(4) England and Wales Employment Updated: 26 … Continue reading Allan v Wandsworth Borough Council and Others: EAT 11 Jul 2013
EAT Contract of Employment : Whether Established – The Claimant worked in a World Duty Free outlet at an airport, selling Shiseido cosmetic products airside. Her security clearance to do so was withdrawn by R1, and she claimed that she had thereby been unfairly dismissed and discriminated against. To claim this she had to show … Continue reading Halawi v WDFG UK Ltd (T/A World Duty Free) and Another: EAT 4 Oct 2013
EAT UNFAIR DISMISSAL – Reasonableness of dismissal DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Reasonable adjustment The Employment Tribunal concluded that the Respondents had been guilty of disability discrimination in three respects, in failing to allocate to her a parking space in the car park where she worked, in harassing her by an e-mail and by dismissing her ostensibly … Continue reading The Environment Agency v Donnelly: EAT 18 Oct 2013
Appeal against an order dismissing the challenge by the appellant, to the lawfulness of the decision of the respondent, the Council to cut its Youth Services budget for the year 2012/2013. The claimant suffered ADHD and relied on services supported by the Council. Judicial review had been refused. Held: The court upheld the appellant’s argument … Continue reading Hunt, Regina (on The Application of) v North Somerset Council: CA 6 Nov 2013
EAT AGE DISCRIMINATION UNFAIR DISMISSAL Automatically unfair reasons Reason for dismissal including substantial other reason The reason for the Claimant’s dismissal was retirement. The Employment Tribunal erred in holding that the Claimant’s claim of age discrimination failed by application of Regulation 30 of the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 when the 2006 regulations had been … Continue reading Copeland v E Coomes (Holdings) Ltd (Age Discrimination): EAT 13 Jun 2013
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDUREApplication/claimWithdrawalThere was an argument before the Employment Tribunal on the question whether any claim under section 18(4) of the Equality Act 2010 had been withdrawn by the terms of a response put in by the Claimant in answer to an order of the Employment Tribunal. On analysis, two questions had to be … Continue reading Northumberland County Council v Trebillcock (Practice and Procedure : Application or Claim): EAT 25 Apr 2013
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDUREApplication/claimWithdrawalThere was an argument before the Employment Tribunal on the question whether any claim under section 18(4) of the Equality Act 2010 had been withdrawn by the terms of a response put in by the Claimant in answer to an order of the Employment Tribunal. On analysis, two questions had to be … Continue reading Northumberland County Council v Trebillcock (Practice and Procedure : Application/Claim): EAT 25 Jun 2013
The applicant children had been detained in immigration camps in Australia. They escaped and sought refuge in the British High Commission in Melbourne and claimed diplomatic asylum. They claimed in damages after being returned to the authorities in Australia. Held: Any threat to their safety was not sufficient to justify not returning them to the … Continue reading Regina on the Application of B and others v Secretary of State for the Foreign and Commonwealth Office: CA 18 Oct 2004
EAT Sex Discrimination : Sexual Orientation discrimination / transexualism : The recipient of an occupational pension since 2003, under the terms of a pension scheme which provided survivor’s benefits to spouses but not to those in a civil partnership, insofar as those benefits derived from service prior to the day the Civil Partnership Act 2004 … Continue reading Innospec Ltd and Others v Walker: EAT 18 Feb 2014
Proving Discrimination – Two Stage Process Each appeal raised procedural issues in discrimination cases, asking where, under the new regulations, the burden of proof had shifted. Held: The new situation required a two stage process before a complaint could be upheld. First the claimant had to establish facts allowing the tribunal to conclude, in the … Continue reading Igen Ltd v Wong: CA 18 Feb 2005
Eweida_ukECHR2013 The named claimant had been employed by British Airways. She was a committed Christian and wished to wear a small crucifix on a chain around her neck. This breached the then dress code and she was dismissed. Her appeals had failed. Other claimants had variously relied upon their Christian faith to justify refusal to … Continue reading Eweida And Others v The United Kingdom: ECHR 15 Jan 2013
Complaints were made as to the deaths of six Iraqi civilians which were the result of actions by a member or members of the British armed forces in Basra. One of them, Mr Baha Mousa, had died as a result of severe maltreatment in a prison occupied and run by British military personnel. It was … Continue reading Secretary of State for Defence v Al-Skeini and others (The Redress Trust Intervening): HL 13 Jun 2007
Having ‘due regard’ is not Obligation to do The claimant sought to challenge the decision to close her local post office on the basis that being retired and disabled and without a car in a rural area, the office was essential and the decision unsupportable. In particular she challenged the removal of post offices from … Continue reading Brown, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: Admn 18 Dec 2008
The deceased soldier died of heat exhaustion whilst on active service in Iraq. It was said that he was owed a duty under human rights laws, and that any coroner’s inquest should be a fuller one to satisfy the state’s duty under Article 2. Held: The SSD’s appeal succeeded. ‘jurisdiction’ within the meaning of Article … Continue reading Smith, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Defence and Oxfordshire Assistant Deputy Coroner (Equality and Human Rights Commission intervening): SC 30 Jun 2010
The soldier had died of heatstroke after exercises in Iraq. The Minister appealed against a finding that the circumstances of his death required an investigation compliant with Article 2 human rights, saying that he was not subject to such jurisdiction whilst not on a British base in Iraq. The deceased’s family argued that the jurisdiction … Continue reading Secretary of State for Defence v Smith, Regina (on the Application of): CA 18 May 2009
The claimant pursued a civil claim for damages, alleging complicity of the respondent in his torture whilst in the custody of foreign powers. The respondent sought that certain materials be available to the court alone and not to the claimant or the public under a closed material procedure. It argued that whilst the need for … Continue reading Al Rawi and Others v The Security Service and Others: SC 13 Jul 2011
Art 50 Notice withrawable unilaterally Reference for a preliminary ruling – Article 50 TEU – Notification by a Member State of its intention to withdraw from the European Union – Consequences of the notification – Right of unilateral revocation of the notification – ConditionsThe Court Ruled: ‘Article 50 TEU must be interpreted as meaning that, … Continue reading Wightman and Others v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union: ECJ 10 Dec 2018
Single Sex Schooling failed to prepare for life The Chief Inspector appealed from a decision that it was discriminatory under the 2010 Act to educate girls and boys in the same school but under a system providing effective complete separation of the sexes. Held: The action was discriminatory. However, the scheme operated against individuals, both … Continue reading Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills v The Interim Executive Board of Al-Hijrah School: CA 13 Oct 2017
EAT Disability Discrimination: Detriment – DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Reasonable adjustments DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Section 15 Disability discrimination – ‘detriment’ – failure to make reasonable adjustments (sections 20 and 21 Equality Act 2010) – discrimination arising from the consequences of disability (section 15 Equality Act). The ET had found for the Claimant on her claims of … Continue reading Greenslade v Next Distribution Ltd: EAT 18 Jan 2016
ECJ Principle of equal pay for men and women – Direct effect – Meaning of worker – Self-employed female lecturer undertaking work presumed to be of equal value to that which is undertaken in the same college by male lecturers who are employees, but under contract with a third company – Self-employed lecturers not eligible … Continue reading Allonby v Accrington and Rossendale College for Education and Employment: ECJ 13 Jan 2004
The charity appealed against refusal of permission to amend its charitable objects as set out in the memorandum of association. The charity was successful as an adoption agency particularly in placing children who would otherwise have had difficulty finding a home, following the principles of the Roman Catholic Church, and it wanted to restrict its … Continue reading Catholic Care (Diocese of Leeds) v Charity Commission for England and Wales and Another: ChD 17 Mar 2010
The claimants were PRs of men who had died or were severely injured on active duty in Iraq being variously fired at by mistake by other coalition forces, or dying in vehicles attacked by roadside bombs. Appeals were heard against a finding that the . .
The court was asked ‘Is it lawful for a Christian hotel keeper, who sincerely believes that sexual relations outside marriage are sinful, to refuse a double-bedded room to a same sex couple?’ The defendants (Mr and Mrs Bull) appealed against a . .
The court was asked as to the duty of local housing authorities towards homeless people who claim to be ‘vulnerable’, and therefore to have ‘a priority need’ for the provision of housing accommodation under Part VII of the Housing Act 1996. Those . .
The Secretary of State appealed against a ruling made against him as to the processes used for deciding whether a claimant was entitled to employment and support allowance.
Held: It was not within the power of the Upper Tribunal to order the . .
The claimant wheelchair user alleged discrimination by the bus company. The space reserved for wheelchair users on a bus had been wrongly occupied by a passenger who refused to vacate the space. The claimant said that the bus driver should have . .
The Respondent provides support services to adults with disabilities who require assistance on a 24 hour a day, 7 days a week basis. The Claimant was employed by the Respondent as a Support Worker, under a contract that guaranteed her a minimum . .
An ET held that the dismissal of an employee who had been on long-term sickness absence was not unfair. However, it also held that the dismissal constituted unfavourable treatment because of something arising in consequence of disability pursuant to . .
This appeal is primarily concerned with the scope of the rights conferred on agency workers by and the Agency Workers’ Regulations 2010 (‘the AWR’), which implements the Agency Workers Directive (‘the Directive’) into domestic law. The EAT found . .
The claimant who required support from the Council for his ADHD disorder challenged the respondent’s budget insofar as it limited support for children’s services in the Revenue Budget. Ge said that in making its decision to cut the budget, the . .
The defendant had published a set of guidelines for intelligence officers called upon to detain and interrogate suspects. The defendant said that the guidelines could only be tested against individual real life cases, and that the court should not . .
Two claimants had each been sexually assaulted by a later notorious, multiple rapist. Each had made complaints to police about their assaults but said that no effective steps had been taken to investigate the serious complaints.
Held: The . .
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EAT Sex Discrimination : Direct – Pregnancy and discrimination The Claimant appealed against the Employment Tribunal’s dismissal of her complaints of direct sex discrimination and/or pregnancy and maternity discrimination under ss. 13 and 18 of the Equality Act 2010. She was dismissed for periods of absence due to post-natal depression arising after her period of … Continue reading Lyons v DWP Jobcentre Plus: EAT 14 Jan 2014
The appellants claimed housing benefit. They appealed against rejection of their claims that the imposition of limits to the maximum sums payable, ‘the bedroom tax’, was unlawful on equality grounds. The claimants either had disabilities, or lived with dependent family with disabilities, or live in what are known as ‘sanctuary scheme’ homes (accommodation specially adapted … Continue reading MA and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: SC 9 Nov 2016
The claimants said that they had been tortured by Saudi police when arrested on false charges. They sought damages, and appealed against an order denying jurisdiction over the defendants. They said that the allegation of torture allowed an exception to state immunity. Held: The Kingdom’s appeal succeeded. The protection of state immunity was essentially a … Continue reading Jones v Ministry of Interior for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and others: HL 14 Jun 2006
The pursuer sought damages after injury arising from the use of a tool for a purpose other than that for which it was intended to be used. Lord Denning quoted Sir Frederick Pollock to say: ‘Judicial authority belongs not to the exact words used in this or that judgment, nor even to all the reasons … Continue reading Close v Steel Company of Wales Ltd: 1962
Challenge to resettlement arrangements for population removed from Chagos Islands. Judges: Singh LJ, Carr J Citations:  EWHC 221 (Admin),  WLR(D) 85 Links: Bailii, WLRD Statutes: Equality Act 2010 149 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Human Rights, Constitutional Updated: 27 April 2022; Ref: scu.633412
The claimant’s son had been stabbed to death. She challenged the refusal of the coroner to continue with the inquest with a view to examining the responsibility of any of the police in having failed to protect him. Held: The question amounted to asking whether the coroner’s decision on the resumption should have been affected … Continue reading Hurst, Regina (on the Application of) v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis v London Northern District Coroner: HL 28 Mar 2007
(Grand Chamber) The claimants said that differences between the sexes in the payment of reduced earning allowances and retirement allowances were sex discrimination. Held: The differences were not infringing sex discrimination. The differences arose from the differences in pensionable ages for men and women introduced in 1940 in order to help remedy severe social inequalities … Continue reading Stec and Others v United Kingdom: ECHR 12 Apr 2006
EAT RACE DISCRIMINATION – Direct RACE DISCRIMINATION – Burden of proof Direct race discrimination – burden of proof – section 136 Equality Act 2010 – whether the Employment Tribunal had wrongly imported the first stage test into its scrutiny of the Respondent’s explanation at the second stage – whether it had, in any event, subjected … Continue reading Kumar v DHL Services Ltd: EAT 8 Sep 2017
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Striking-out/dismissal Procedure – Rule 9 of the Tribunal Procedure Rules 2013 – Equal Pay Claims – Inclusion of Claims by Two or More Claimants On the Same Claim Form – Whether Irregular – Whether Discretion to Strike out – Whether Appropriate to Exercise Discretion to Strike Out Claims or Waive … Continue reading Farmah v Birmingham City Council (1): EAT 20 Jun 2017
EAT DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Disability Disability discrimination – definition of disability – section 6 Equality Act 2010 (‘EqA’) The Claimant, who was pursuing a complaint of disability discrimination, claimed that he met the definition of a disabled person for the purposes of section 6 EqA by reason of what he contended were the long-term substantial … Continue reading The Guinness Partnership v Szymoniak (Disability Discrimination): EAT 10 Jul 2017
EAT DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Section 15 DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Reasonable adjustments UNFAIR DISMISSAL -Reasonableness of dismissal Disability discrimination – discrimination by means of unfavourable treatment because of something arising in consequence of disability – section 15 Equality Act 2010 Disability discrimination – discrimination by means of a failure to comply with a duty to make … Continue reading Birmingham City Council v Lawrence (Disability Discrimination): EAT 2 Jun 2017
EAT Sex Discrimination: Direct – Pregnancy and discrimination In respect of a single finding of unfavourable treatment because of absence on maternity leave under section 18(4) Equality Act 2010, the Employment Tribunal did not apply the correct legal test, wrongly treating the case as a ‘criterion’ type case rather than a ‘reasons why’ type case: … Continue reading Interserve Fm Ltd v Tuleikyte: EAT 14 Mar 2017
Police Obligations to Witnesses is Limited A prosecution witness was murdered by the accused shortly before his trial. The parents of the deceased alleged that the failure of the police to protect their son was a breach of article 2. Held: The House was asked ‘If the police are alerted to a threat that D … Continue reading Hertfordshire Police v Van Colle; Smith v Chief Constable of Sussex Police: HL 30 Jul 2008
Several lone parents challenged the benefits cap, saying that it was discriminatory. Held: (Hale, Kerr LL dissenting) The parents’ appeals failed. The legislation had a clear impact on lone parents and their children. The intention was to encourage claimants back into work. It was said that thus contradicted the other policy of providing no free … Continue reading DA and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: SC 15 May 2019
South African asbestosis victims suing in England submitted that to stay their proceedings in favour of the South African forum would violate their article 6 rights. A stay was refused on the non-Convention ground that, because of the lack of funding and legal representation in South Africa, they would be denied a fair trial on … Continue reading Lubbe (Suing As Administrator Of The Estate Of Rachel Jacoba Lubbe) and 4 Others v Cape plc and Related Appeals: HL 22 Jun 2000
EAT Disability Discrimination – Section 15 DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Justification UNFAIR DISMISSAL – Reasonableness of dismissal Appeal Disability discrimination – unfavourable treatment because of something arising from the consequences of disability – justification – section 15 Equality Act 2010 (‘EqA’) The Claimant – Head of English at a secondary comprehensive school operated by the Respondent … Continue reading City of York Council v Grosset: EAT 1 Nov 2016
The court was asked whether nurses could properly involve themselves in a pregnancy termination procedure not known when the Act was passed, and in particular, whether a pregnancy was ‘terminated by a medical practitioner’, when it was carried out by nurses acting on the instructions of such a practitioner. Held: The phrase ‘treatment for the … Continue reading Royal College of Nursing of the United Kingdom v Department of Health and Social Security: HL 2 Jan 1981
The claimants had been brought here illegally to act as servants for the defendants. They were taken advantage of and abused. They made several claims, but now appealed against rejection of their claims for discrimination. The court was asked whether discrimination because of, or on grounds of, immigration status amounts to discrimination because of, or … Continue reading Taiwo and Another v Olaigbe and Others: SC 22 Jun 2016
EAT HARASSMENT – Conduct HARASSMENT – Purpose Equality Act 2010 sections 13(1), 23 and 26 In circumstances in which the Claimant had been instructed not to speak Russian in the workplace, had the Employment Tribunal erred in dismissing her claims of direct race (national origins) discrimination and/or harassment related to her race (national origins)? Held: … Continue reading Kelly v Covance Laboratories Ltd (Race Discrimination: Direct): EAT 20 Oct 2015
The applicants had had their requests for asylum refused. They complained that if they were removed from the UK, their article 3 rights would be infringed. If they were returned to Pakistan or Vietnam they would be persecuted for their religious faiths. Held: A distinction was to be made between domestic cases involving actions within … Continue reading Regina v Special Adjudicator ex parte Ullah; Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 17 Jun 2004
The claimants had acted as foster carers for several years, but challenged a potential decision to discontinue that when, as committed Christians, they refused to sign to agree to treat without differentiation any child brought to them who might be homosexual. A declaration was sought as to the legality of the proposed decision. Held: A … Continue reading Johns and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Derby City Council and Another: Admn 28 Feb 2011
The appellant had sought judicial review of a decision of the respondent to approve a Revenue Budget for 2012/13 as to the provision of youth services. He applied for declarations that the respondent had failed to comply with section 149 of the Equality Act 2010 and section 507B of the Education Act 1996 and for … Continue reading Hunt v North Somerset Council: SC 22 Jul 2015
EAT Jurisdictional Points: Worker, Employee or Neither – Whether a GP, whose services were provided to the Trust through a Cooperative, was a worker under section 230(3)(b) Employment Rights Act 1996. The Employment Tribunal was entitled to find that he was not. Whether the Claimant had abandoned an argument that he was a worker under … Continue reading Suhail v Barking Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals and Another: EAT 11 Jun 2015
In each case the local authority sought to recover possession of its own land. In the Lambeth case, they asserted this right as against an overstaying former tenant, and in the Leeds case as against gypsies. In each case the occupiers said that the recovery of possession interfered with their right respect for their family … Continue reading Kay and Another v London Borough of Lambeth and others; Leeds City Council v Price and others and others: HL 8 Mar 2006
Unrelated Detriment was no Discrimination The tenant had left his flat and sublet it so as to allow the landlord authority an apparently unanswerable claim for possession. The authority appealed a finding that they had to take into account the fact that the tenant was disabled and make reasonable adjustments. Held: The authority’s appeal succeeded. … Continue reading London Borough of Lewisham v Malcolm: HL 25 Jun 2008
Evidence from 3rd Party Torture Inadmissible The applicants had been detained following the issue of certificates issued by the respondent that they posed a terrorist threat. They challenged the decisions of the Special Immigration Appeals Commission saying that evidence underlying the decisions had probably been obtained by torture committed by foreign powers, and should not … Continue reading A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department (No 2): HL 8 Dec 2005
The appellant, a male to female transsexual, had remained married to her wife despite having the right to have the marriage annulled following the 2004 Act. She now appealed against rejection of her claim to a state pension on attaining the age of 60. She had not applied for a Gender Recognition Certificate because she … Continue reading MB v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: CA 31 Jul 2014
Mr Kanu, aged 48, had physical problems, including back pain, hepatitis B, hypertension and haemorrhoids, as well as psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation. His wife assisted him in taking the necessary drugs, but stress would raise his hypertension to ‘quite dangerous levels’, requiring an increase in the dose of the relevant drugs. An order for … Continue reading Kanu v The London Borough of Southwark: CA 29 Jul 2014
EAT Disability Discrimination : Disability – Decision of the Employment Judge that the Claimant had failed to establish recurring or fluctuation effects of his impairment for the requisite period or extent upheld. There was no error of law or perversity in the decision that the Claimant was not a disabled person within the meaning of … Continue reading Williams v Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research: EAT 6 Feb 2014
Evidence Needed to Share Benefical Inerests The family home had been purchased during the marriage in the name of the husband only. The wife asserted that she had a beneficial interest in it. Held: The principles apply to any case where a beneficial interest in land is claimed by a person, whether spouse or stranger, … Continue reading Gissing v Gissing: HL 7 Jul 1970
The appellant was employed as a registrar. She refused to preside at same sex partnership ceremonies, saying that they conflicted with her Christian beliefs. Held: The council’s decision had clearly disadvantaged the claimant, and the question was whether its policies were a proportionate way of achieving a legitimate aim. They were. The overarching policy was … Continue reading Ladele v London Borough of Islington: CA 15 Dec 2009
The claimant challenged the placing of a prayer on the agenda of the respondent’s meetings. Held: The claim succeeded. The placing of such elements on the Agenda was outside the powers given to the Council, and the action was ultra vires: ‘S111 is the statutory expression of the powers implied by common law for corporations. … Continue reading National Secular Society and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Bideford Town Council: Admn 10 Feb 2012
The applicants complained of the unfairness of their trial in Andorra (which the Court held it had no jurisdiction to investigate) and of their detention in France, which was not found to violate article 5. Held: Member states are obliged to refuse their co-operation with another state if it emerges that a conviction ‘is the … Continue reading Drozd and Janousek v France and Spain: ECHR 26 Jun 1992
The claimant a wheelchair user had been unable to travel on a bus when a mother had left her sleeping child in a pushchair. The mother said she was unable to fold down the pushchair, and would not move the child. The claimant said that the driver should have had instructions to insist on this, … Continue reading Firstgroup Plc v Paulley: CA 8 Dec 2014
The parties disputed whether the inclusion of length of service within a selection matrix for redundancy purposes would amount to unlawful age discrimination. The court was asked whether it was correct to make a declaratory judgment when the case had otherwise been effectively settled. Held: With considerable misgivings, the court agreed to hear the appeal. … Continue reading Rolls-Royce plc v Unite the Union: CA 14 May 2009
Same Sex Partner Entitled to tenancy Succession The protected tenant had died. His same-sex partner sought a statutory inheritance of the tenancy. Held: His appeal succeeded. The Fitzpatrick case referred to the position before the 1998 Act: ‘Discriminatory law undermines the rule of law because it is the antithesis of fairness. It brings the law … Continue reading Ghaidan v Godin-Mendoza: HL 21 Jun 2004
The court was asked whether a claim as to acts of victimisation could be sustained in connection with actions alleged after termination of employment. Held: The appeal succeeded. The Act operated to proscribe such actions. However, this is one of those exceptional cases where the court could confidently say that the draftsman had erred and … Continue reading Jessemey v Rowstock Ltd and Another: CA 26 Feb 2014
Appeal about the proper approach of the courts where the defendant to a claim for possession of his home raises a defence of unlawful discrimination, contrary to the Equality Act 2010, by the claimant landlord. In particular, the issue is whether the courts are entitled to take the same summary approach to such a defence, … Continue reading Akerman-Livingstone v Aster Communities Ltd: SC 11 Mar 2015
The parties had a joint venture agreement which provided that any dispute was to be referred to an arbitrator from the Ismaili community. The claimant said that this method of appointment became void as a discriminatory provision under the 2003 Regulations. The High Court found the appointment to be outwith the provisions, but this was … Continue reading Jivraj v Hashwani: SC 27 Jul 2011
The claimant said that she had been discriminated against on the grounds of her religion. She worked as a beauty consultant at the airport, but through a limited company. Her airside pass had been withdrawn. She now appealed against rejection of her claim that she was a worker by both the Employment Tribunal and by … Continue reading Halawi v WDFG UK Ltd (T/A World Duty Free): CA 28 Oct 2014
Age UK challenged the implementation by the UK of the Directive insofar as it established a default retirement age (DRA) at 65. Held: The claim failed. The decision to adopt a DRA was not a disproportionate way of giving effect to the social aim of labour market confidence. The use of a designated retirement age … Continue reading Age UK, Regina (On the Application of) v Attorney General: Admn 25 Sep 2009
The applicant complained that she was dismissed when her employers learned that she was pregnant. Held: 1(1) (a) and 5(3) of the 1975 Act were to be interpreted as meaning that where a woman had been engaged for an indefinite period, the fact that pregnancy was the reason for her temporary unavailability at a time … Continue reading Webb v EMO Air Cargo (UK) Ltd (No 2): HL 20 Oct 1995