Goodwin v The United Kingdom: ECHR 11 Jul 2002

The claimant was a post operative male to female trans-sexual. She claimed that her human rights were infringed when she was still treated as a man for National Insurance contributions purposes, where she continued to make payments after the age at which a woman would have ceased payments thus causing harassment. A second claimant again a post operative male to female trans sexual had been unable to obtain work in her chosen profession as a dental nurse without providing her birth certificate, again revealing her gender history.
Held: There was no material before the court to show any prejudice which would flow from allowing alterations to the register of births. Article 8 guaranteed the right to personal autonomy. This could no longer fall within a government’s margin of appreciation. A test of congruent biological factors could no longer be decisive in denying legal recognition to the change of gender of a post-operative transsexual. The right to marry under article 12 had also been infringed.

Wildhaber, Costa, Bratza, Palm, Caflisch, Turmen, Tulkens, Jungwiert, Fischbach, Butkevych, Vajic, Hedigan, Greve, Baka, Traja, Ugrekhelidze and Mularoni
Times 12-Jul-2002, 28957/95, (2002) 35 EHRR 18, (2002) 35 EHRR 447, [2002] ECHR 588, 13 BHRC 120, (2002) 67 BMLR 199, [2002] 2 FCR 577, [2002] 2 FLR 487, [2002] Fam Law 738, [2002] IRLR 664, [2011] ECHR 1666
Worldlii, Bailii
European Convention on Human Rights 8 12, Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 11(3), Sexual Discrimination (Gender Re-assignment) Regulations 1999
Human Rights
CitedRegina v Tan CA 1983
The defendant appealed against a conviction for living from the earnings of prostitutes. He was a male to female trans-sexual, and said that the offence was only capable of applying to a man.
Held: A person born male was correctly convicted . .
CitedCorbett v Corbett (otherwise Ashley) FD 1-Feb-1970
There had been a purported marriage in 1963 between a man and a male to female trans-sexual.
Held: Because marriage is essentially a union between a man and a woman, the relationship depended on sex, and not on gender. The law should adopt the . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for Social Services ex parte Hooker CA 1983
The plaintiff sought to challenge the policy of the respondent which prevented the issue of a new National Insurance (NI) number on completion of gender re-assignment surgery. She now appealed against denial of her claim.
Held: The policy was . .
CitedR(P) 2/80 1980
A male-to-female trans-sexual claimed entitlement to a pension at the age of 60.
Held: The Commissioner dismissed the claimant’s appeal: ‘(a) In my view, the word ‘woman’ in section 27 of the Act means a person who is biologically a woman. . .
CitedP v S and Cornwall County Council ECJ 30-Apr-1996
An employee at an educational establishment told management that he intended to undergo gender reassignment. He was given notice of dismissal.
Held: The scope of the Directive was not confined to discrimination based on the fact that a person . .
CitedChessington World of Adventures Ltd v Reed EAT 27-Jun-1997
News Group Newspapers Ltd had been joined as a party, in order that it could argue the obvious public interest relating to the importance, which has long been accepted in the courts, of the interest, not just of the press but of the public . .
CitedDudgeon v The United Kingdom ECHR 22-Oct-1981
ECHR (Plenary Court) Legislation in Northern Ireland that criminalised homosexual behaviour which was lawful in the rest of the UK.
Held: There was a violation of article 8, but it was not necessary to . .
CitedRees v The United Kingdom ECHR 17-Oct-1986
The applicant had been born and registered as a female, but later came to receive treatment and to live as a male. He complained that the respondent had failed to amend his birth certificate.
Held: The court accepted that, by failing to confer . .
CitedRegina v Secretary of State for Social Security, ex parte the Equal Opportunities Commission ECJ 7-Jul-1992
Europa Article 7(1)(a) of Directive 79/7 on the progressive implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women in matters of social security must be interpreted as authorizing the determination . .
CitedX, Y and Z v The United Kingdom ECHR 22-Apr-1997
The court refused to find that the failure of United Kingdom law to recognise a female to male trans-sexual as the father of a donor insemination child, born to his partner and brought up as their child, was a breach of their rights to respect for . .
CitedStafford v The United Kingdom ECHR 28-May-2002
Grand Chamber – The appellant claimed damages for being held in prison beyond the term of his sentence. Having been released on licence from a life sentence for murder, he was re-sentenced for a cheque fraud. He was not released after the end of the . .
CitedPretty v The United Kingdom ECHR 29-Apr-2002
Right to Life Did Not include Right to Death
The applicant was paralysed and suffered a degenerative condition. She wanted her husband to be allowed to assist her suicide by accompanying her to Switzerland. English law would not excuse such behaviour. She argued that the right to die is not . .
CitedChapman v United Kingdom; similar ECHR 18-Jan-2001
The question arose as to the refusal of planning permission and the service of an enforcement notice against Mrs Chapman who wished to place her caravan on a plot of land in the Green Belt. The refusal of planning permission and the enforcement . .
CitedMikulic v Croatia ECHR 7-Feb-2002
Hudoc Judgment (Merits and just satisfaction) Violation of Art. 6-1; Violation of Art. 8; Violation of Art. 13 with regard to the complaint under Article 6-1; Not necessary to examine Art. 13 with regard to the . .

Cited by:
CitedDetective Inspector Todd Clements v Ed Moloney CANI 2-Sep-1999
The appellant was northern editor of the Sunday Tribune. He had been ordered to produce notes of an interview with regard to the death of a Belfast Solicitor.
Held: The original order was made ex parte, and there was no obligation on the . .
CitedA v Chief Constable of the West Yorkshire Police and Another CA 5-Nov-2002
The appellant had undergone a male to female sex change, but was refused employment by the respondent before the Human Rights Act came into effect.
Held: Although the Human Rights Act could not apply, the act was in breach of the Equal . .
CitedBellinger v Bellinger HL 10-Apr-2003
Transgendered Male/Female not to marry as Female
The parties had gone through a form of marriage, but Mrs B had previously undergone gender re-assignment surgery. Section 11(c) of the 1973 Act required a marriage to be between a male and a female. It was argued that the section was incompatible . .
CitedCroft v Royal Mail Group Plc (formerly Consignia Group plc) CA 18-Jul-2003
The employee was a transsexual, awaiting completion of surgical transformation to a woman. The employer said she could not use the female toilet facilities, but was offered use of the unisex disabled facilities.
Held: The 1975 Act provides for . .
CitedKB v National Health Service Pensions Agency and Secretary of State for Health ECJ 7-Jan-2004
The claimant had for a number of years had a relationship with a trans-sexual. They had been unable to marry because English law would not recognise a marriage. She compained that on her death her partner would be unable to claim the pension awarded . .
CitedA v West Yorkshire Police HL 6-May-2004
The claimant was a male to female trans-sexual who had been refused employment as a police officer by the respondent, who had said that the staturory requirement for males to search males and for females to search females would be impossible to . .
CitedNational Westminster Bank plc v Spectrum Plus Limited and others HL 30-Jun-2005
Former HL decision in Siebe Gorman overruled
The company had become insolvent. The bank had a debenture and claimed that its charge over the book debts had become a fixed charge. The preferential creditors said that the charge was a floating charge and that they took priority.
Held: The . .
CitedSecretary of State for Work and Pensions v M HL 8-Mar-2006
The respondent’s child lived with the estranged father for most of each week. She was obliged to contribute child support. She now lived with a woman, and complained that because her relationship was homosexual, she had been asked to pay more than . .
CitedWilkinson v Kitzinger and Another FD 12-Apr-2006
The petitioner intended to seek a declaration as to her marital status. She and the respondent had married in a civil ceremony in British Columbia in 2003. She sought a declaration of incompatibility with regard to section 11(3) of the 1973 Act so . .
CitedWilkinson v Kitzinger and others FD 31-Jul-2006
The parties had gone through a ceremony of marriage in Columbia, being both women. After the relationship failed, the claimant sought a declaration that the witholding of the recognition of same-sex marriages recoginised in a foreign jurisdiction . .
CitedAB, Regina (On the Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice and Another Admn 4-Sep-2009
The claimant was serving a sentence of imprisonment. She was a pre-operative transgender woman, but held in a male prison. She sought review of a decision to refuse transfer to a women’s prison. The Gender Recognition Panel was satisfied that the . .
CitedAC v Berkshire West Primary Care Trust, Equality and Human Rights Commissions intervening Admn 25-May-2010
The claimant, a male to female transsexual, challenged a decision by the respondent to refuse breast augmentation treatment. The Trust had a policy ‘GRS is a Low Priority treatment due to the limited evidence of clinical effectiveness and is not . .
CitedTimbrell v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions CA 22-Jun-2010
The claimant had undertaken male to female treatment including surgery and lived as a woman, though continuing to live with her wife. She sought payment of a pension at 60, but was refused. The regulations required a gender recognition certificate . .
CitedCarpenter v The Secretary of State for Justice Admn 27-Feb-2015
The claimant, a post-operative male-to-female transsexual person, said that section 3(3) of the 2004 Act was incompatible with her Human rights after refusal of a gender recognition certificate.
Held: The application failed. The provision of . .
CitedGaughran v Chief Constable of The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland) SC 13-May-2015
The court was asked as to to the right of the Police Service of Northern Ireland to retain personal information and data lawfully obtained from the appellant following his arrest for the offence of driving with excess alcohol.
Held: The appeal . .
CitedMB v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions SC 5-Jul-2016
The court was asked about the age at which entitlement to a pension began for someone of transgender.
Held: The court was divided, and the issue was referred to the European Court of Justice. . .
CitedC, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions SC 1-Nov-2017
This case is about how the Department for Work and Pensions (the DWP), in administering our complex welfare benefits system, treats people with a reassigned gender, and specifically whether certain policies conflict (1) with the Gender Recognition . .
CitedElan-Cane, Regina (on The Application of) v The Secretary of State for The Home Department and Another CA 10-Mar-2020
No right to non-gendered passport
The claimant sought judicial review of the police of the respondent’s policy requiring a passport applicant to identify themselves as either male or female. The claimant began life as a female, but, with surgery, asserted a non-gendered identity. . .

Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Family, Human Rights

Leading Case

Updated: 02 November 2021; Ref: scu.174278