The claimant sought judgment in the USA, and obtained an ex parte world-wide asset freezing order in the UK. When he applied for the order to be extended, the application was withdrawn. Held: Those advising foreign litigants to apply for such orders here, should remember, and respect, the particular difficulties involved. In particular the legal … Continue reading Lewis v Eliades and Others: QBD 1 Feb 2002
The defendant’s company in South Africa had become insolvent and the claimant had recovered judgment for arrears of rent. They obtained a freezing order against the defendant. The defendant appealed saying the court did not have jurisdiction, and should have taken account of cross claims. The defendant argued that the order was sought on a … Continue reading John Louis Carter Fourie v Allan Le Roux and others: CA 7 Mar 2005
Grant of domestic freezing injunction to support US proceedings. Citations:  EWHC 980 (Comm) Links: Bailii Statutes: Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 25 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited by: Appeal from – Motorola Solutions Inc and Another v Hytera Communications Corporation Ltd and Another CA 11-Jan-2021 . . Lists of cited by and citing … Continue reading Motorola Solutions, Inc and Others v Hytera Communications Corporation Ltd and Others: ComC 24 Apr 2020
The plaintiff had been injured in an accident and had sued and recovered damages for his injuries in France. Later, his condition deteriorated. In France he would have been able to revive his action to claim further damages, but he sought a similar right from an English Court, claiming a right to do so under … Continue reading Henderson v Jaouen and Another: CA 1 Feb 2002
In an request for pre-action discovery it was plainly wrong for the court to seek to decide in advance any element of the virtues of the case. Held: The appeal should be allowed. The case was arguable and should be allowed to proceed.Peter Gibson LJ said: ‘We have reservations about the approach adopted by the … Continue reading Rose v Lynx Express Ltd. and Bridgepoint Capital (Nominees) Ltd: CA 7 Apr 2004
A Mareva order made ex parte freezing assets world-wide on an interim basis was nevertheless a judgment allowing jurisdiction for recognition and enforcement in foreign jurisdictions once it had been certified as such on an inter partes application. Citations: Gazette 10-Feb-1999, Times 06-Jan-1999 Statutes: Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 50 Jurisdiction: England and Wales … Continue reading Normaco and Another v Lundman and Others: ChD 10 Feb 1999
Permission was sought to use alternative service to serve proceedings on a company. There was no exceptional difficulty in ordinary service, but the claimant wanted to ensure that a claim was heard within the UK jurisdiction, and expected that he would have to serve the proceedings by surprise in order to prevent them first issuing … Continue reading Knauf UK GmbH v British Gypsum Ltd and Another: CA 24 Oct 2001
An English court did have power to order the sale of property in Portugal owned by the bankrupt and his wife in their joint names. The estate of the bankrupt vested in the trustee automatically and withoutmore on the bankruptcy. This could not change land registers in Portugal. For such registers the country involved had … Continue reading Pollard and Another v Ashurst: CA 21 Nov 2000
The appellants were all Danish companies put into liquidation for asset stripping in contravention of Danish law. The respondent was resident in the UK and had owned them. The Danish tax authorities issued tax demands and the liquidators now sought a similar sum in damages against the respondent. Held: An English court will not enforce … Continue reading QRS 1 APS and others v Frandsen: CA 21 May 1999
A court may apply forum non conveniens doctrine as between UK jurisdictions. Citations: Ind Summary 10-Jul-1995, Times 08-Jun-1995 Statutes: Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Litigation Practice, Defamation Updated: 19 May 2022; Ref: scu.79707
The doctrine of ‘forum non conveniens’ could be used to prevent the prosecution in the UK in respect of a matter agreed to be conducted in Texas, even though the proper applicable law was that England. The Act did not restrict the application of the doctrine in this way even for a non-contracting state, where … Continue reading Ace Insurance Sa-Nv v Zurich Insurance Company and Another: QBD 6 Sep 2000
An English injunction is to be enforced in Scotland despite the different law. Citations: Times 16-Feb-1994 Statutes: Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 27(1)(c) Litigation Practice Updated: 15 May 2022; Ref: scu.81803
The doctrine of forum non conveniens could be used to prevent the prosecution in the UK in respect of a matter agreed to be conducted in Texas, even though the proper applicable law was that England. The Act did not operate to restrict the application of the doctrine in this way even in respect of … Continue reading Ace Insurance Sa/Nv v Zurich Insurance Co and Another: CA 2 Feb 2001
Interim asset freezing injunctions had been obtained on the application of a liquidator in South Africa. The defendant applied for their discharge. Held: They should be discharged. No foreign proceedings had been specified for which they were proposed as support. An insolvency process was insufficient for this purpose. The court had forewarned the plaintiff of … Continue reading Fourie v Le Roux and Others: ChD 30 Sep 2004
Acquisition of Habitual Residence Habitual residence can in principle be lost and another habitual residence acquired on the same day. Held: The provisions giving the courts of a member state jurisdiction also apply where there is an alternative jurisdiction in a non-member state such as the United States. The Regulation also deals with how child … Continue reading A v A and another (Children) (Children: Habitual Residence) (Reunite International Child Abduction Centre intervening): SC 9 Sep 2013
English proceedings were issued to claim against a partnership. Simultaneously proceedings were issued in Greece, but the Greek proceedings were served on the London parties first. The plaintiffs in Greece asked the English court to issue a stay of the English proceedings, they having issued first in Greece. The stay was granted. There had been … Continue reading Phillips and Another v Robin James Symes and Robin Symes Ltd: ChD 9 Jul 2001
An express contractual term will be required to displace the Convention rules on domicile. The standard wording in charterparty contracts is insufficient to do this. The word ‘adjusted’ by itself would normally be taken to refer to the process of assessment of general average contributions; more explicit wording would be needed to create a binding … Continue reading Sameon Co Sa v Nv Petrofina SA and Another (The World Hitachi Zosen): QBD 8 Apr 1996
The defendants, young boys, had set fire to paper and thrown the lit papers into a wheelie bin, expecting the fire to go out. In fact substantial damage was caused. The House was asked whether a conviction was proper under the section where the defendant had given no thought to a risk of damage, but … Continue reading Regina v G and R: HL 16 Oct 2003
The time when a co-defendant’s domicile fell to be considered under the convention was the time when process was originated not when a co-defendant was added, whether by re-issue or by service of amended writ. Citations: Times 08-Dec-1998 Statutes: Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982, Brussels Convention Art 6 International Updated: 09 April 2022; Ref: … Continue reading Petrograde Inc and Another v Smith and Others: QBD 8 Dec 1998
The appellant, liquidator of two South African companies, had made a successful without notice application for an asset freezing order. He believed that the defendants had stripped the companies of substantial assets. The order was set aside for want of jurisdiction, because it had not been ancillary to any proceedings which had even been formulated … Continue reading Fourie v Le Roux and others: HL 24 Jan 2007
The appeal concerned a final third party debt order (formerly a garnishee order). A judgment in France was registered here for enforcement. That jurisdiction was now challenged. Held: A third party debt order is a proprietary remedy operating by attachment against the property of the judgment debtor. The property so attached is the chose in … Continue reading Societe Eram Shipping Company Limited and others v Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp Ltd, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation: HL 12 Jun 2003
French consignees of a shipment of peaches sued in France the Australian issuers of the bill of laiding under which the goods were carried (a contract claim) and the Dutch carriers and master of the ship in which they were carried (tort claims). Held: There was no jurisdiction under Article 6(1) because none of the … Continue reading Reunion Europeenne Sa and Others v Spliethoff’s Bevrachtingskantoor Bv and Another: ECJ 27 Oct 1998
AMT entered into many financial services agreements providing for exclusive EW jurisdiction. It now sought to restrain the defendant German lawyers from encouraging litigation in Germany saying that induced breaches of the contracts. It also sought as damages the costs incurred in the German litigation. The defendant asserted lack of jurisdiction saying that the alleged … Continue reading AMT Futures Ltd v Marzillier and Others: SC 1 Mar 2017
A libel case against a French paper was rightly brought in UK despite the small (250 copies nationally and 5 in the plaintiff’s local area (Yorkshire)) circulation here. The Brussels Convention allows a claim for defamation in UK though the main public was abroad. Lord Jauncey of Tullichettle said: ‘Where English law presumes the publication … Continue reading Shevill and Others v Presse Alliance SA: HL 26 Jul 1996
The applicant was a solicitor employed by a company in Belgium. He later resigned claiming unfair dismissal, saying he had been pressed to become involved in unlawful activities. The defendants sought to challenge the jurisdiction of the English Tribunal system. The defendants had begun procedures in Spain for conciliation. The claimant had obtained an injunction … Continue reading Turner v Grovit and others: HL 13 Dec 2001
In an application notice pursuant to Section 25 of the 1982 Act, the Claimants, which are all, in one form or another, entities of the government of the Emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, one of the Emirates forming the United Arab Emirates (UAE) sand which I am going to call RAK appled for wide ranging … Continue reading Ras Al Khaimah Investment Authority and Others v Bestfort Development Llp and Others: ChD 16 Oct 2015
Shareholder May Sue for Additional Personal Losses A company brought a claim of negligence against its solicitors, and, after that claim was settled, the company’s owner brought a separate claim in respect of the same subject-matter. Held: It need not be an abuse of the court for a shareholder to seek damages against advisers to … Continue reading Johnson v Gore Wood and Co: HL 14 Dec 2000
Applications for freezing orders to support litigation in United Arab Emirates. Rose J  EWHC 3383 (Ch) Bailii Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 England and Wales Jurisdiction, Litigation Practice Updated: 06 January 2022; Ref: scu.555018
Richard Spearman QC  EWHC 1955 (Ch) Bailii Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 25 England and Wales Litigation Practice Updated: 02 January 2022; Ref: scu.550042
Mr Qabazard conspired with others to defraud the Kuwait Oil Tanker Company SAK and Sitka Shipping Inc of large sums of money. On 16 November 1998 Moore-Bick J gave judgment against him for over US$130m. Historically sums had been placed with the defendant, and garnishee orders were sought. Held: It is not correct to characterise … Continue reading Kuwait Oil Tanker Company SAK and others v UBS AG, Qabazard: HL 12 Jun 2003
Application to continue a Freezing Injunction granted under s.25 of the 1982 Act. Field J  EWHC 993 (Comm) Bailii Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 England and Wales Litigation Practice Updated: 02 December 2021; Ref: scu.523600
A claim was issued in London in December 2004, and then served in part in Switzerland in January 2005. One copy was removed from the bundle by a Swiss official, seeing that it had been marked ‘Nor for service out of the jurisdiction.’ That marking had been in error. After proceedings were then issued in … Continue reading Nussberger and Another v Phillips and Another (No 4): CA 19 May 2006
The plaintiffs alleged the involvement of the defendant in a conspiracy to defraud. He had been domiciled in England, but had moved to Germany. He denied that the UK court had jurisdiction. The court of appeal said that jurisdiction was determined at the issue of the writ. The defendant appealed. Held: Where one defendant was … Continue reading Canada Trust Co and Others v Stolzenberg and Others (No 2): HL 12 Oct 2000
The claimant appealed a finding that the court did not have jurisdiction over income payable to a trust governed by English law under which the claimant was beneficiary. Held: The appeal failed in part. Because Article 5 is in derogation from the basic principle of domicile in Article 2, the provisions of Article 5 are … Continue reading Gomez and others v Vives: CA 3 Oct 2008
The court looked at questions relating to domicile and jurisdiction; standard of proof, date to be determined and duties before service. Held: The court is endeavouring to find an imprecise concept which reflects that the plaintiff must properly satisfy the court that it is right to take jurisdiction. That may involve considering matters which go … Continue reading Canada Trust Company and others v Stolzenberg and others (2): CA 29 Oct 1997
The claimant conservatory installers claimed wrongful repudiation of the contract by the defendant householders. The defendants, living in Ayrshire, said that the English courts had no jurisdiction over the contract. Held: The court gave its reasons for accepting the defendants’ submission. The mere fact that Oak Leaf’s primary focus in advertising is on England did … Continue reading Oak Leaf Conservatories Ltd v Weir and Another: TCC 24 Oct 2013
There had been a consent order in the terms of an unless order giving the landlord an order for possession unless the tenant paid sums by a certain date, time being of the essence. The order was not complied with and the tenant applied for a . .
Munitions were being carried to Cochin on board the defendants’ vessel. Some was jettisoned in a fire and the remainder was damaged. The cargo owners sought damages in India for short delivery under the bills of lading, as to the jettisoned cargo . .
An action against ship in rem prevents a personal action against the owner; there would be a risk of double jeopardy. . .
When granting asset freezing orders in support of proceedings in a foreign jurisdiction the court should exercise caution, particularly under the section since the court would not have full knowledge of the issues. Where good grounds existed, and . .
When a action in rem against a ship was in fact parallel to an action in personam begun in India and awaiting a decision; an action was not to be allowed here.
Lord Steyn: ‘It is settled that an estoppel by convention may arise where parties to . .
Two obligations in a charterparty which had not been fulfilled, namely the obligation to nominate a vessel, to be the subject matter thereof, and the obligation to provide it.
Held: The former was the principal obligation. Lord Goff said: . .
A world wide asset freezing order, should as regards property in other jurisdictions allow that those having control of such assets must be free to deal with them as required by local law and other legal obligations. An order had included a ‘Baltic . .
The claimant brought proceedings in Switzerland (a party to the Lugano Convention) against the defendant who was domiciled in England, alleging that he had conspired with one of the claimant’s employees to misappropriate some US$ 21 million. It was . .
Application by the claimant for interim injunctive relief. . .
The contractors appealed a decision that an arbitrator had jurisdiction to hear a claim against them in respect of works carried out on the Thelwall viaduct. The contractors denied that there had been a dispute which could found a reference, and no . .
Security for costs should not to be granted against an EC National in the absence of some particular difficulty. The Treaty required citizens of other states which were signatories of the convention. The importance of accurate evidence is . .
On a proper construction of the expression ‘place where the harmful event occurred’ in Article 5(3) of the Convention of 27 September 1968 on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters as amended by the Convention . .
The clamants brought actions for damages for torts said to have been committed by the defendants in Russia. They said that the defendant was domiciled within the jurisdiction under the EU Regulation.
Held: Domicile for the issue of . .
World-wide freezing orders had been made under the 1982 Act. The defendants were members of a Turkish family with substantial business interests in the telecommunications industry. In breach of orders made in the US some defendants had sought to . .
An arbitration process which sought to join parties who denied being part of the contract for arbitration could not itself decide the contractual power to enforce the arbitration. Accordingly the High Court had no jurisdiction either to apply the . .
The defendant sought to set aside service of a claim outside the jurisdiction, saying that no good and arguable case had been made out that he was domiciled in the UK. The bank said that he owned a house in London.
Held: Although domicile is . .
The parties were involved in an international investment dispute arbitration. An injunction had been sought to prevent repatriation of assets to Bolivia.
Held: The international system of arbitration was not subject to any national law and did . .
The defenders registered internet domain names. The claimants alleged an intended infringement of their trade marks, saying the defenders had a history of opening sites intended to deceive. The defenders who were resident in Greece said that the . .
Various parties had sought relief in the English courts and in Switzerland after an alleged fraud. There had been a mistake in service of the proceedings in England. The high court had dispensed with service an backdated the effect of the order to . .
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The need to avoid conflict between trade marks registered in more than one country within the community was not dealt with by the Directive, but regard had to taken of the Convention. The Cour d’Appel had issued a final judgment in proceedings for registration of the mark in France. Held: An English court was not … Continue reading Prudential Assurance Co Ltd v Prudential Insurance Co of America: CA 12 Mar 2003
The claimant had failed to obtain an order under a compromise agreement ordering that a foreign resident was not to be contacted. Held: The place of performance of an obligation not to contact somebody under the Convention was the place of residence of the person who was not to be contacted, not that of the … Continue reading Kenburn Waste Management Ltd v Bergmann: CA 30 Jan 2002
By a contract, a party accepted an obligation not to contact persons in a certain country. When a breach was alleged, the question arose as to in which jurisdiction the breach had occurred. It was held that the obligation was a negative obligation and although it appeared to fall upon the person who agreed to … Continue reading Kenburn Waste Management Ltd v Bergmann: ChD 9 Jul 2001
Arbitration jurisdiction applications stayed The claimant sought declaratory relief as to the basis of a purchase after he placed a bid for a blockchain-based non-fungible token (also known as an NFT) associated with an artwork by the artist known as Beeple titled ‘Abundance’. The court was now asked to decide was whether the English court … Continue reading Soleymani v Nifty Gateway Llc: ComC 24 Mar 2022
Application for interim injunctions to suport litigation in Israel between two Israeli parties. Judges: Snowden J Citations:  EWHC 3357 (Ch) Links: Bailii Statutes: Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 25 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Litigation Practice, Jurisdiction Updated: 12 April 2022; Ref: scu.555020
A Scottish court has no jurisdiction to act in a Scottish bankruptcy case could not act to retrieve property assigned without consideration to an English company with no connection to Scotland other than the gift. Citations: Times 14-Oct-1998 Statutes: Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 Sch 8 Citing: See also – Re Thoars (Dec’d); Reid … Continue reading Reid v Ramlort Ltd: IHCS 14 Oct 1998
A claim for trespass to Cypriot property was justiciable in the UK if the title to the land was not in question or doubt. Citations: Times 27-Dec-1996 Statutes: Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 Jurisdiction: England and Wales International, Torts – Other Updated: 08 April 2022; Ref: scu.82123
The claimant sought to register and enforce here, a judgment obtained by default in Germany. It was argued that he had not had, under section 27(2) sufficient opportunity to make a proper reply to the proceedings, and that the Brussels Convention created a right of appeal outside the range of appeals under the Civil Procedure … Continue reading TSN Kunststoffrecycling Gmbh v Jurgens: CA 25 Jan 2002
The appellant republic appealed against an order allowing the enforcement against it of a judgment obtained in the US by the claimant. There is no treaty between the US and the UK for the mutual recognition and enforcement of judgments, and an action must be brought on the judgment. The action pleaded the waiver of … Continue reading Republic of Argentina v NML Capital Ltd: CA 4 Feb 2010
When considering an application for security for costs against a litigant resident in the EU, the courts must allow for the new additional scope for enforcement of any judgment under the 1982 Act. In this case, an order for security for costs against a plaintiff German company was refused because these additional powers made it … Continue reading Porzelack KG v Porzelack (UK) Ltd: 1987
Restitution when Contract Void ab initio A claim for restitution of money paid under a contract which was void ab initio is not a claim in contract, nor tort, nor delict, it was justiciable only in the court of domicile. The Brussels Convention does not decide jurisdiction. ‘But it is clearly recognised that article 5 … Continue reading Kleinwort Benson Limited v City of Glasgow District Council: HL 19 Jun 1997
The court was asked whether a judgment of a fellow member state of the European Union ruling against a stay of proceedings on the basis that an arbitration clause was not incorporated in the contract can be relied on as creating an issue estoppel so as to prevent the English court deciding the point differently. … Continue reading National Navigation Co v Endesa Generacion Sa (The Wadi Sudr): CA 17 Dec 2009
The respondent had issued bonds but in 2001 had declared a moratorium on paying them. The appellant hedge fund later bought the bonds, heavily discounted. Judgment was obtained in New York, which the appellants now sought to enforce against assets in the UK. They argued that the terms of issue waived state immunity. Held: The … Continue reading NML Capital Ltd v Argentina: SC 6 Jul 2011
Application was made to register two judgments obtained in France. They were registered without a hearing, in standard practise. The defendant said as to one judgment that it had not been mentioned in the application and was thus not a judgment that . .
The defendant had been a dentist in the Netherlands. An action for damages was begun against him, but then stayed. Judgment was later entered in the Netherlands after he had moved to the UK, and of which he was ignorant. There was no subsisting . .
The defendant had fled from Haiti with a large part of that country’s assets while in power. Proceedings were pending in France which gave no jurisdiction to grant a worldwide freezing or disclosure order. He had used a firm of English solicitors as . .
The defendant state sought to prevent the company enforcing a judgment entered against it in the USA.
Held: Where the judgment was properly obtained, a claim of sovereign immunity would not operate to allow avoidance of an enforcement of the . .
The defendant appealed an order for enforcement of a judgment obtained in France, saying that the order did not reflect or identify correctly the orders made. . .
The House was asked whether an asylum applicant whose original application was determined in Scotland, but his application for leave to appeal rejected in London, should apply to challenge those decisions in London or in Scotland.
Held: Such . .
Presumption in Favour of Open Proceedings There had been an unauthorised dissemination by the petitioner to third parties of the official shorthand writer’s notes of a nullity suit which had been heard in camera. An application was made for a committal for contempt. Held: The House equated the contempt to a breach of an injunction … Continue reading Scott v Scott: HL 5 May 1913
A petitioner for a decree of nullity of an English marriage in the English courts on the grounds of lack of consent to the marriage, having failed to obtain such decree, obtained a declaration from the Belgian court that the English marriage, was void ab initio on the ground that the marriage was merely a … Continue reading Vervaeke v Smith: HL 1983
Males J  EWHC 3157 (Comm) Bailii Civil Judgments and Jurisdiction Act 1982 25 England and Wales Litigation Practice Updated: 22 December 2021; Ref: scu.537543
ECJ If the reasoning of a decision rendered in divorce proceedings shows that the provision which it awards is designed to enable one spouse to provide for himself or herself, or if the needs and resources of each of the spouses are taken into consideration in the determination of its amount, the decision will be … Continue reading Van den Boogaard v Laumen: ECJ 27 Feb 1997
ECJ 1. Article 18 of the convention of 27 September 1968 on Jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters applies even where the parties have by agreement designated a court which is to have jurisdiction within the meaning of article 17 of that convention. 2. Article 18 of the Convention of … Continue reading Elefanten Schuh Gmbh v Pierre Jacqmain: ECJ 24 Jun 1981
The parties were spanish companies. They were involved in proceedings against each other in Spain. The respondent had begun an action here for negligent misrepresentation against the appellant. The appellant argued that given the Spanish . .
Acting on guidance, the parties representatives and the tribunal had assumed that part of the award relating to loss of future earnings would not be taxable. The question now was whether the tribunal had power of its own motion to review its . .