Gebhard v Consiglio dell’Ordine degli Avvocati e Procuratori di Milano: ECJ 30 Nov 1995

Practice by lawyers in other European jurisdictions were governed by the general principles of freedom of establishment under the Treaty: ‘National measures liable to hinder or make less attractive the exercise of fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the Treaty must fulfil four conditions: they must be applied in a non discriminatory manner; they must be justified by imperative requirements in the general interest; they must be suitable for securing the attainment of the objective which they pursue; and they must not go beyond what is necessary in order to attain it.’
ECJ A national of a Member State who pursues a professional activity on a stable and continuous basis in another Member State where he holds himself out from an established professional base to, amongst others, nationals of that State comes under the chapter relating to the right of establishment and not the chapter relating to services. As appears from the third paragraph of Article 60 of the Treaty, the rules on freedom to provide services cover – at least where the provider moves in order to provide his services – the situation in which a person moves from one Member State to another, not for the purposes of establishment there, but in order to pursue his activity there on a temporary basis. The temporary nature of the activities in question has to be determined in the light of its duration, regularity, periodicity and continuity. This does not mean that the provider of services within the meaning of the Treaty may not equip himself with some form of infrastructure in the host Member State (including an office, chambers or consulting rooms) in so far as such infrastructure is necessary for the purposes of performing the services in question. 3. The possibility for a national of a Member State to exercise his right of establishment, and the conditions for his exercise of that right, must be determined in the light of the activities which he intends to pursue on the territory of the host Member State. Where the taking-up of a specific activity is not subject to any rules in the host State, a national of any other Member State will be entitled to establish himself and pursue that activity there. On the other hand, where the taking-up or the pursuit of a specific activity is subject to certain conditions in the host Member State, a national of another Member State intending to pursue that activity must in principle comply with them. Such conditions, which may consist in particular of an obligation to hold particular diplomas, to belong to a professional body or to comply with certain rules of professional conduct or with rules relating to the use of professional titles, must fulfil certain requirements where they are liable to hinder or make less attractive the exercise of a fundamental freedom guaranteed by the Treaty, such as freedom of establishment. There are four such requirements: they must be applied in a non-discriminatory manner; they must be justified by imperative requirements in the general interest; they must be suitable for securing the attainment of the objective which they pursue; and they must not go beyond what is necessary in order to attain it. As far as conditions relating to the possession of a qualification are concerned, Member States must take account of the equivalence of diplomas and, if necessary, proceed to a comparison of the knowledge and qualifications required by their national rules and those of the person concerned.
The court accepted that it does not have jurisdiction under the preliminary reference procedure to rule on the compatibility of a national measure with EU law


Times 13-Dec-1995, C-55/94, [1995] ECR 1-4165, [1995] EUECJ C-55/94




EC Treaty 43, Council Directive 77/249/EEC




CitedOrdre des avocats au Barreau de Paris v Onno Klopp ECJ 12-Jul-1984
Europa In laying down that freedom of establishment shall be attained at the end of the transitional period, article 52 imposes an obligation to attain a precise result the fulfilment of which must be made easier . .
CitedGroupement National des Negociants en Pommes de Terre de Belgique Belgapom) v ITM Belgium SA and Vocarex SA ECJ 11-Aug-1995
European Community quantitative restrictions on import not relevant to every states legislation. Measures applying equally to all traders within a member state were not discriminatory.
Trade between Member States is not likely to be impeded, . .
CitedJean Reyners v Belgian State ECJ 21-Jun-1974
Europa The rule on equal treatment with nationals is one of the fundamental legal provisions of the community. As a reference to a set of legislative provisions effectively applied by the country of establishment . .
CitedJean Thieffry v Conseil de l’ordre des avocats a la cour de Paris ECJ 28-Apr-1977
Europa Freedom of establishment, subject to observance of professional rules justified by the general good, is one of the objectives of the treaty. In so far as community law makes no special provision, these . .
CitedKraus v Land Baden-Wurttemberg ECJ 31-Mar-1993
Diplomas acquired in one member state require may authorisation for use in another state. . .
CitedVlassopoulou v Ministerium fur Justiz, Bundes- u Europaangelegenheiten Baden-Wurttemberg ECJ 7-May-1991
The authorities of a Member State when considering a request by a national of another Member State for authorisation to exercise a regulated profession, must take into consideration the professional qualification of the person concerned by making a . .

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Lists of cited by and citing cases may be incomplete.

Legal Professions, European

Updated: 03 June 2022; Ref: scu.161295