BW (Witness Statements By Advocates): UTIAC 12 Dec 2014

(i) It is timely to recall the golden rule of judicial adjudication that justice must not only be done but must manifestly be seen to be done.
(ii) In certain cases, likely to be rare, evidence presented to the Upper Tribunal may include a witness statement compiled by a representative involved in the hearing before the First-tier Tribunal (‘FtT’). In practice, this is most likely to occur in cases where such evidence is considered necessary to demonstrate that the appellant was deprived of his right to a fair hearing at first instance.
(iii) Evidence of this kind will not be required if the determination of the FtT speaks for itself on the relevant issue.
(iv) In applications for permission to appeal, the distinction between legal submissions and arguments (on the one hand) and evidence about events at the hearing (on the other) must be carefully observed.
(v) Where an advocate makes a witness statement in the circumstances outlined above, a change of advocate may be necessary, since the roles of advocate and witness are distinct, separated by a bright luminous line. An advocate must never assume the role of witness.
(vi) The respondent’s rule 24 response must engage specifically with additional evidence of this kind.


[2014] UKUT 568 (IAC)




England and Wales


Updated: 04 July 2022; Ref: scu.543194