The claimants sought damages after publication of articles alleging severe mistreatment of a servant. One defendant had settled and apologised, but the defendant publisher and author had persisted with the allegation. The claimants who lived in Sudan, now appealed an order that they provide security for costs, seeking to adduce additional evidence of their means.
Held: ‘the court, once satisfied that the case is one in which the claimant ought to put up security for the defendant’s costs before continuing with his action, is going to find itself in one of two situations. Either it will be satisfied that it probably has a full account of the resources available to the claimant, in which case it can calculate with reasonable confidence how much the claimant can afford to put up; or it will not be satisfied that it has a full account, and so cannot make the calculation. Does it follow in the latter situation that the court must go straight to the amount sought by the defendant and, having pruned it of anything which appears excessive or disproportionate, fix that as the security? Or is there a middle way – for example to set an amount which represents the court’s best estimate of what the claimant, despite having been insufficiently candid, can afford?
In our judgment there is such a power, but it resides in the court’s discretion rather than in legal principle. In the second situation we have postulated, the requirements of the law have been exhausted: what remains is to set a suitable sum. This classically is where discretion fills the space left by judgment: the court has a choice of courses, none of which it can be criticised for taking provided it makes its election on a proper factual basis uninfluenced by extraneous considerations. ‘
Sedley LJ, Keene LJ, Longmore LJ
 EWCA Civ 1123, Times 28-Aug-2006
England and Wales
Cited – Ladd v Marshall CA 29-Nov-1954
Conditions for new evidence on appeal
At the trial, the wife of the appellant’s opponent said she had forgotten certain events. After the trial she began divorce proceedings, and informed the appellant that she now remembered. He sought either to appeal admitting fresh evidence, or for . .
Cited – Electra Private Equity Partners (a Limited Partnership) and others v KPMG Peat Marwick (a Firm) and others CA 23-Apr-1999
In interlocutory appeals some relaxation of the strictness of the conditions set down in Ladd v Marshall might be appropriate, according to the nature of the interlocutory hearing and the individual circumstances of the case. That would particularly . .
Cited – Banks and Another v Cox and Another CA 17-Jul-2000
The court considered the principles of admitting new evidence on appeal after the introduction of the new rules. Moritt LJ: ‘In my view the principles reflecting in the rules in Ladd v Marshall  1 WLR 1489 remain relevant to any application . .
Cited – Bubbins v United Kingdom ECHR 17-Mar-2005
The deceased had returned home drunk, and climbed in through a window. His girlfriend saw only his legs and reported an intruder to the police. He refused to identify himself when challenged by the police and on pointing a gun from the window he was . .
Cited – Hamilton v Al Fayed (No 4) CA 2001
The court considered the applicability of cases before the introduction of the new rules on the exercise of a judge’s discretion.
Held: The old cases ‘remain powerful persuasive authority’. . .
Cited – Hertfordshire Investments Ltd v Bubb and Another CA 25-Jul-2000
When considering an application for a re-hearing of a County Court action in order to consider and admit new evidence, the county court and High Court practice is now the same and the judge should consider the list of questions in Ladd v Marshall, . .
Cited – Thune v London Properties Limited CA 1990
The court considered the applicability of the principles in Ladd v Marshall to an appeal from an interlocutory order being an application for security for costs.
Held: The application to admit fresh evidence was refused. Bingham LJ: ‘There is . .
Cited – Keary Developments v Tarmac Constructions CA 1995
The court set out the principles to be applied by the court upon an application for security for costs.
1. The court has a complete discretion whether to order security, and accordingly it will act in the light of all the relevant . .
Cited – Brimko Holdings Limited v Eastman Kodak Company 2004
The defendant sought security for costs. The court considered the burden of proof in such a claim: ‘. . the court should not restrict its evaluation of the ability of a claimant to provide security to the means of the claimant itself. If the . .
Cited – Nasser v United Bank of Kuwait CA 11-Apr-2001
The claimant, a foreign resident, alleged that her jewels had been stolen from a deposit box while in possession of the defendants. The defendants sought security for costs.
Held: An order for security may not legitimately be based on the bare . .
Cited – Tolstoy Miloslavsky v United Kingdom ECHR 19-Jul-1995
The applicant had been required to pay andpound;124,900 as security for the respondent’s costs as a condition of his appeal against an award of damages in a defamation case.
Held: It followed from established case law that article 6(1) did not . .
Cited – Kufaan Publishing Ltd v Al-Warrak Publishing Ltd CA 1-Mar-2002
Cited – Buttes Oil and Gas Co v Hammer (No 3) HL 1982
The House considered a dispute between two Us oil companies about the right to exploit an oil field in the Gulf. Each claimed to have a concession granted by the ruler of a Gulf state. Each state claimed that the oil field was within its territorial . .
Cited – Campbell v MGN Ltd (No 2) HL 20-Oct-2005
The appellant sought to challenge the level of costs sought by the claimant after she had succeeded in her appeal to the House. Though a relatively small sum had been awarded, the costs and success fee were very substantial. The newspaper claimed . .
Cited – Kufaan Publishing Limited v Al-Warrak Publishing Limited and others CA 5-Nov-1998
Cited – Jeyaretnam v Mahmood 21-May-1992
For the purpose of an application to discharge an order for service on a defendant outside the jurisdiction, the court declined to evaluate allegations of lack of independence or impartiality in the defendant’s home country of Singapore on the . .
Cited – Skrine and Co (a Firm) and others v Euromoney Publications plc and others QBD 10-Nov-2000
The court was asked to strike out parts of a defemation pleading alleging that (i) the Malaysian Prime Minister had acted in a manner intended and/or calculated to interfere with the independent judiciary; (ii) Malaysian judges applied the law of . .
Appeal from – Al-Koronky and Another v Time Life Entertainment Group Ltd and Another QBD 29-Jul-2005
The defendant to the defamation claim sought security for costs. There had been allegations of dishonesty on either side.
Held: The court should not, upon such an application, enter into the merits of the case in any detail, save in the . .
These lists may be incomplete.
Updated: 31 January 2021; Ref: scu.243991