EWFC B149 Bailii Children Act 1989 20 Children Updated: 04 January 2022; Ref: scu.552434
Appeal from settlement of property order made in favour of two of the parties’ children. Lady Justice King, Lord Justice Moylan, And, Lord Justice Newey  EWCA Civ 1947 Bailii, Judiciary Children Act 1989 England and Wales Child Support Updated: 28 December 2021; Ref: scu.670641
Appeal by the mother against orders made in private law proceedings in relation to her daughter, A, who is rising 7 years of age. Lady Justice King  EWCA Civ 1749 Bailii England and Wales Children Updated: 17 December 2021; Ref: scu.670058
Care proceedings . .
Guidance was given on expert medical evidence in children cases and administrative procedures. . .
No legal definition of ‘exceptional circumstances’, bill draftsmen to give full explanation. . .
The Guardian ad litem is the ideal person to collate expert evidence in readiness for the hearing. . .
References:  EWFC B149 Links: Bailii Statutes: Children Act 1989 20 Last Update: 05-Oct-15 Ref: 552434
Judgment on the preliminary issue of whether this court has jurisdiction to hear an application for a child arrangements order under s.8 of the Children Act 1989 when the child and parents concerned all live abroad.  EWFC 105 Bailii England and Wales Jurisdiction, Children Updated: 21 January 2022; Ref: scu.671046
In the context of an application for a care order the LA now presented a final care plan of permanence away from their birth family by way of adoption and, accordingly, sought placement orders in addition to care orders. Wood HHJ  EWFC B155 Bailii Adoption and Children Act 2002, Children Act 1989 England and … Continue reading Re B (Children): FC 15 Sep 2014
Public law care proceedings  EWFC B170 Bailii Children Act 1989 England and Wales Children Updated: 12 January 2022; Ref: scu.540392
Reasons for directing a re-consideration of findings of fact made within Part IV Children Act 1989 care proceedings, following an investigation into the cause of life-threatening injuries to a 10 month old baby boy. Cobb J  EWHC 326 (Fam) Bailii England and Wales Children Updated: 10 January 2022; Ref: scu.560255
Care proceedings Mr Justice Keehan  EWHC 2369 (Fam),  1 WLR 6749,  WLR(D) 537,  3 FCR 742 Bailii, WLRD Children Act 1989 31(2) England and Wales Children Updated: 05 January 2022; Ref: scu.648664
Appeal by a mother against the decision reached at the end of a fact-finding hearing in proceedings under the Children Act 1989 Jackson, Ryder, Bean LJJ  EWCA Civ 992 Bailii England and Wales Children Updated: 04 January 2022; Ref: scu.553239
 EWCA Civ 719 Bailii England and Wales Children Updated: 02 January 2022; Ref: scu.550205
Application by the father for permission to appeal as to whether care orders in respect of the children should be discharged with the result the children could return to live with their father; whether the section 34(4) order should be discharged so that the children could have direct contact with their father; and thirdly, whether … Continue reading Re C (Children Appeal): FC 30 May 2014
‘This appeal concerns the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. It raises general questions relating to: (1) the place which the habitual residence of the child occupies in the scheme of that Convention, and (2) whether and when a wrongful retention of a child may occur if the travelling parent originally … Continue reading Re C (Children): SC 14 Feb 2018
HHJ Lynn Roberts  EWFC B133 Bailii Children Act 1989 Children Updated: 22 December 2021; Ref: scu.537721
Twins were conjoined (Siamese). Medically, both could not survive, and one was dependent upon the vital organs of the other. Doctors applied for permission to separate the twins which would be followed by the inevitable death of one of them. The parents, devout Roman Catholics, resisted. Held: The parents’ views were subject to the overriding … Continue reading In Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation): CA 22 Sep 2000
The claimant sought to enforce a judgment debt against a foreign resident company, and for this purpose to examine or have examined a director who lived abroad. The defendant said that the rules gave no such power and they did, the power was outside the rule-maker’s power. Held: Even though the rule-making power is wide … Continue reading Masri v Consolidated Contractors International Co Sal and Others: HL 30 Jul 2009
Originating summons in the inherent jurisdiction of the High Court asking for an order granting permission to interview two young girls, represented by CAFCASS Legal. The third defendant is the children’s mother, NP. The local authority in which the children and their mother reside, Manchester City Council, has also been represented as an interested party. … Continue reading Greater Manchester Chief Constable v KI and Another (Children) and others: FD 26 Jul 2007
Issue Resolutions Hearing. The local authority having originally sought care orders, the court having seen improvements after considerable support ordered for the children to continue to reside at home. Bond HHJ  EW Misc 2 (CC) Bailii Children Act 1989 Children Updated: 30 November 2021; Ref: scu.521634
The court was asked whether, where a party loses mental capacity in the course of proceedings, such loss of capacity has the automatic and immediate effect of terminating their solicitor’s retainer. The Costs judge had held that, as a matter of law, a supervening incapacity even if intermittent, automatically frustrates and thereby terminates a contract … Continue reading Blankley v Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals NHS Trust: QBD 5 Feb 2014
When considering contact applications after domestic violence, the approach should be child centred, and according to the criteria in the Act. The circumstances of the violence should be looked into, and the potentially damaging effect of contact with a violent parent should not be underestimated. The parent’s possible contribution to the child and facing up … Continue reading In Re L (A Child) (Contact: Domestic Violence); In Re V (A Child) (Contact: Domestic Violence); In Re M (A Child) (Contact: Domestic Violence); In Re H (A Child) (Contact: Domestic Violence); In re L, V, M and H (Children): CA 21 Jun 2000
The father applied to the court to have the media excluded from the hearing into the residence and contact claims relating to his daughter. Held: It was for the party seeking such an order to justify it. In deciding whether or not to exclude the press in the welfare or privacy interests of a party … Continue reading Child X (Residence and Contact- Rights of Media Attendance) (Rev 2): FD 14 Jul 2009
The court considered whether discriminatory acts after the termination of employment were caught by the respective anti-discrimination Acts. The acts included a failure to give proper references. They pursued claims on the basis of victimisation after their primary discrimination claims. Held: The 1975 and 1976 Acts were similarly phrased and the wording in the 1995 … Continue reading Relaxion Group plc v Rhys-Harper; D’Souza v London Borough of Lambeth; Jones v 3M Healthcare Limited and three other actions: HL 19 Jun 2003
The court considered the approach to be taken when considering whether to order a child’s attendance at court in care proceedings. It was argued that the starting point of assuming that a child should not attend, failed to respect the human right to a fair trial of all concerned. Held: The existing law erects a … Continue reading In re W (Children) (Family proceedings: Evidence) (Abuse: Oral Evidence): SC 3 Mar 2010
In Smith, the lender instructed a valuer who knew that the buyer and mortgagee were likely to rely on his valuation alone. The valuer said his terms excluded responsibility. The mortgagor had paid an inspection fee to the building society and received a copy of the report, and relying on it, had bought the house. … Continue reading Smith v Eric S Bush, a firm etc: HL 20 Apr 1989
Two children were born in Norway to a British mother (M) and Norwegian father (F). Having lived in Norway, M brought them to England to stay, but without F’s knowledge or consent. M replied to his application for their return that the children would be at risk if returned, alleging psychological abuse by F. She … Continue reading Re E (Children) (Abduction: Custody Appeal): SC 10 Jun 2011
The local authority had obtained a care order so that it could inform the three children of the identity of their father’s first marriage, the mother and father being unwilling to make the disclosure. He had been convicted of relatively minor indecent assaults on two children in that first family, but in later therapy sessions … Continue reading In re M (Children): CA 1 Jul 2011
The parties had been a lesbian couple each with children. Each now was in a new relationship. One registered the two daughters of the other at a school now local to her but without first consulting the birth mother, who then applied for residence and or contact. The other mother took the children secretly to … Continue reading In Re G (A Minor) (Interim Care Order: Residential Assessment); G (Children), In Re (Residence: Same Sex Partner): HL 26 Jul 2006
Three children, after their parents’ separation, spent substantial amounts of time with each, despite the acrimony between their parents and frequent court applications. The father argued that without a shared residence order he was treated as a second-class parent by authorities with whom he had to deal over matters relating to the children. The judge … Continue reading In Re D v D (Children) (Shared Residence Orders): CA 20 Nov 2000
The court was asked as to the extent to which a court, having once declared its decision, could later change its mind. Though this case arose with in care proceedings, the court asked it as a general question. The judge in a fact finding hearing in care proceedings had issued a provisional judgment, but after … Continue reading Re L and B (Children): SC 20 Feb 2013
(Plenary Court) The applicant was held in prison in the UK, pending extradition to the US to face allegations of murder, for which he faced the risk of the death sentence, which would be unlawful in the UK. If extradited, a representation would be made to the judge at the time of sentencing that the … Continue reading Soering v The United Kingdom: ECHR 7 Jul 1989
Bingham LJ discussed the nature of frustration of contract: ‘The essence of frustration is that it is caused by some unforeseen supervening event over which the parties to the contract have no control and for which they are therefore not responsible. To say that the supervening event occurs without the default or blame or responsibility … Continue reading Lauritzen A/A v Wijsmuller BV;( ‘The Super Servant Two’): CA 12 Oct 1989
Proceedings for LA to change child’s nationality Two children taken into care were of Indian nationality, though born in the UK. The LA wanted to apply for UK nationality so as to regularise their immigration status. The parents objected. The parents now appealed from rejection of their requests for the discharge of the long standing … Continue reading Y (Children In Care: Change of Nationality): CA 6 Aug 2020
The mother had been, whilst in a previous relationship, involved in care proceedings after the death from physical abuse of her baby. Whilst being severely critical of her, the court had been unable to identify the author of the child’s death. Now, whilst in a later relationship she gave birth to a further child of … Continue reading In re J (Children): SC 20 Feb 2013
This case concerns a claimant with fluctuating capacity to conduct legal proceedings. At a time when she had capacity, she retained a firm of solicitors under a conditional fee agreement. The issue was whether the CFA terminated automatically by reason of frustration when she subsequently lost capacity, so that it did not govern the continued … Continue reading Blankley v Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals NHS Trust: CA 27 Jan 2015
Single Sex Schooling failed to prepare for life The Chief Inspector appealed from a decision that it was discriminatory under the 2010 Act to educate girls and boys in the same school but under a system providing effective complete separation of the sexes. Held: The action was discriminatory. However, the scheme operated against individuals, both … Continue reading Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills v The Interim Executive Board of Al-Hijrah School: CA 13 Oct 2017
Acquisition of Habitual Residence Habitual residence can in principle be lost and another habitual residence acquired on the same day. Held: The provisions giving the courts of a member state jurisdiction also apply where there is an alternative jurisdiction in a non-member state such as the United States. The Regulation also deals with how child … Continue reading A v A and another (Children) (Children: Habitual Residence) (Reunite International Child Abduction Centre intervening): SC 9 Sep 2013
When a court considered which of two parents might be responsible for a non-accidental injury to their child, what the court cannot do is decide that one parent is the perpetrator but that the other parent cannot be excluded as the perpetrator. Counsel had not brought to the attention of the court when applying for … Continue reading ZM v JM; Re M (children) (fact-finding hearing: burden of proof); In re M (a Child) (Non-accidental injury: Burden of proof): CA 19 Nov 2008
Balance of probabilities remains standard of proof There had been cross allegations of abuse within the family, and concerns by the authorities for the children. The judge had been unable to decide whether the child had been shown to be ‘likely to suffer significant harm’ as a consequence. Having found some evidence to suggest that … Continue reading In re B (Children) (Care Proceedings: Standard of Proof) (CAFCASS intervening): HL 11 Jun 2008
A child was found to have bruising consistent with physical abuse. Either or both parents might have caused it, but the judge felt it likely that only one had, that he was unable to decide which, and that they were not so serious that he had to say that the other must have known. Held: … Continue reading In re S-B (Children) (Care proceedings: Standard of proof): SC 14 Dec 2009
An undisclosed principal will not be permitted to claim to be party to a contract if this is contrary to the terms of the contract itself. Thus the provision in the standard form B contract of the London Metal Exchange ‘this contract is made between ourselves and yourselves as principals, we alone being liable to … Continue reading JH Rayner (Mincing Lane) Ltd v Department of Trade and Industry: HL 1989
Hudoc Judgment (Merits and just satisfaction) Violation of Art. 6-1; Pecuniary damage – claim rejected; Non-pecuniary damage – financial award; Costs and expenses award – domestic proceedings; Costs and expenses . .
The plaintiff in civil proceedings had arranged with the police that, if (as happened) the police obtained a search warrant and the claimant obtained an Anton Piller order, they should be executed simultaneously. The court had been informed of the . .
Where a patient lacks capacity, there is the power to provide him with whatever treatment or care is necessary in his own best interests. Medical treatment can be undertaken in an emergency even if, through a lack of capacity, no consent had been . .
An application was made for a wardship after allegations of child abuse.
Held: The test for evidence of child abuse which is appropriate is the ordinary civil standard of balance of probabilities as applied to the facts of each case.
F’s application for permission to appeal against an order refusing the father’s application for face to face contact with his two children and providing that there should be no direct contact, but he did provide specifically for indirect contact. He . .
A child (aged five) was placed in emergency foster care after his mother was detained in hospital under the Mental Health Act. The mother was then too unwell to discuss section 20. The local authority thought that there was no need to issue care . .
Appeal against an order made after an agreement within the family that the children should live with the paternal grandmother.
Orse In re W (Parental Agreement with Local Authority)
The mother had placed her three children with their . .
Grandparents with care of child need leave to apply for contact after child in care. . .
Children appealed against dismissal of their care proceedings on the basis that the threshold had not been reached. The parents resisted.
Held: It could not be said that the decision so plainly wrong that the judge’s conclusion on the facts . .
Contact order pending adoption was a final order not variable as continuing. . .
It ws improper to attach domestic violence type orders to an injunction within Children Act proceedings for contact. . .
The father sought leave to appeal a care order and an order releasing his child for adoption.
Held: The court applied Re W as to the extent of the duty of the appellate court in such matters. The appeal would stand no reasonable prospect of . .
The Court was wrong to phase out contact between a child and his mother inconsistently with the Local Authority’s plan. . .
Review of authority to terminate contact after change and some re-investigation. . .
The court took the opportunity to emphasise the importance of parental responsibility as an incident of family life. McFarlane LJ said: ‘Whether or not a parent has parental responsibility is not simply a matter that achieves the ticking of a box on . .
Power to restrain applications for contact not to be used save for oppression. . .
The court may not order a Local Authority having care of child to obtain a psychiatric report. . .
The court may impose detailed conditions on the form of indirect contact. His Lordship set out the relevant principles: ‘1 Overriding all else, as provided by section 1(1) of the Children Act 1989, the welfare of the child was the paramount . .
Waite LJ: ‘It is now well settled that the implacable hostility of a mother towards access or contact is a factor which is capable, according to the circumstances of each particular case, of supplying a cogent reason for departing from the general . .
Power to restrain contact application appropriate only in extreme cases. . .
Appeal against order as to media arrangements for fact finding hearing.
McFarlane LJ said: ‘In the present case, Jackson J used the power available to him to move from the default position so as to allow a controlled degree of publicity. This . .
The children had been taken into care, and freed for adoption. The mother appealed saying the blame for non-accidental injury was misplaced. The court had not thought her responsible for the non-accidental injuries, but she had been unwilling to . .
The mother JJ’s first baby had died after physical abuse inflicted either by her or the father. In care proceedings for a later child, the judge concluded ‘T-L’s injuries could have been inflicted by either, or both, of them. Singling out a likely . .
The parties had lived together as a married couple. They had had a child together by artificial insemination. It was then revealed that Mr J was a woman. The parties split up, and Mr J applied for an order for contact with the child.
Held: The . .
TL, the mother appealed against refusal of her application by the appellant for a residential parenting assessment pursuant to section 38(6) of the Children Act 1989. . .
In each case litigants in person had sought to be allowed to have the assistance and services of a Mackenzie friend in children cases. In one case, the court had not allowed confidential documents to be disclosed to the friend.
Held: The . .
The father appealed against orders made in the county court in the course of child contact enforcement proceedings. He had residence of the child, but had repeatedly failed to make his son available for contact at the times ordered causing financial . .
At the council’s independent, single-sex grammar schools there were more places available for boys than girls. Consequently the council were obliged to set a higher pass mark for girls than boys in the grammar school entrance examination.
Three elder brothers and sisters of Z had been taken into care after one suffered serious non-accidental injury. Before Z’s birth the authority planned for a placement, but had stayed with her parents for nearly a year subject to supervision in the . .
The father sought to withdraw his application for contact, but the court took the opportunity to explain some points relating to contact disputes.
Held: Such disputes engender very deep feelings. Courts must ensure contact with both parents . .
The court considered an application for a residence order as between same sex parents where the child was born after artificial insemination. . .
The court considered the benefits to a child of continuing parental contact while the child remained in care.
Simon Brown LJ said: ‘I recognise of course that the threshold criteria for a care order under section 31 of the 1989 Act require the . .
Application for leave to appeal – adjourned for two man court. . .
The Court allowed an appeal by parents against a judge’s conclusion that their children had suffered and were likely to suffer significant harm and it remitted the issue for re-hearing. The professional evidence had been that the parents’ . .
The mother appealed an order that her younger son be placed in care and freed for adoption. Hers and her children’s lives had been chaotic. Nevertheless she complained that she had not been given the opportunity to demonstrate her ability to care . .
A lesbian couple had split up and disputed the care of the children. An order had been made but then, in breach of that order, one removed the children overnight to Cornwall. An argument was made that the court had failed to give proper weight to . .
The applicant sought a joint residence order, and for a declaration that the rules preventing such hearings being in public breached the requirement for a public hearing.
Held: Both FPR 1991 rule 4.16(7) and section 97 are compatible with the . .
‘Mrs S is the maternal aunt of three children E, born in 1992; S, born in 1993 and T born in 1997 to her sister, who sadly has a history of mental illness. The only issue that I have to review this morning is the management of an application which . .
Guidance on the incorporation of time for judgment writing when determining the timetable, under section 32 of the Children Act 1989, for the disposal of an application for a care or supervision order. . .
The child was placed for adoption. In the period before adoption, contact with her family continued. The prospective adopters said that this was unsettling.
Held: It would be unusual to make an order for contact against the wishes of the . .
The maternal grandmother sought permission to intervene in care proceedings to put herself forward as the carer of her young grandchild. The local authority and the guardian objected to the intervention. The judge had refused it. The grandmother . .
The applicant complained of ill-treatment while he was in the care of a local authority and living with foster parents. He sought access to his case records held by the local authority but his request was denied.
Held: The refusal to allow him . .
The court was asked, in proceedings for care and supervision orders under the Act, what have the local authority to be in a position to prove at the time when they make the application? To what extent can they rely upon evidence, which emerges, or . .
A contact order had been properly granted with an order freeing the child for adoption. Butler-Sloss LJ: ‘The effect of an order freeing a child for adoption is to extinguish parental responsibility of those previously endowed with it and thus to . .
The mother applied for but was refused, a residence order. The judge had questioned the need for an order, feeling that section 1(5) raised a presumption against making an order.
Held: The appeal succeeded. There was no such presumption. The . .
The council had taken the applicant’s children into care alleging that the mother had harmed them. In the light of the subsequent cases casting doubt on such findings, the mother sought the return of her children. She applied now that the hearings . .
The applicants were members of six homeless families who had occupied accommodation in Northern Ireland. The council concluded that members of each household except one had been guilty of criminal and anti-social behaviour, as a result of which the . .
A court has the power under the Act to impose a condition on a residence order to prevent a proposed move within the UK. Such an order would be exceptional. In the absence of such a condition, there was nothing to require a parent with residence . .
A shared residence order may be still made if it is needed, but it remains an unusual order. Connell J discussed the guidance given as to shared residence order
Butler-Sloss LJ said: ‘Miss Moulder, representing the father, accepts that the . .