Scots Bills were Outwith Parliament’s Competence The AG questioned the constitutionaliity of Bills designed to give effect to two treaties to which the UK is a signatory, and passed by the Scottish Parliament as to the care of children. Held: The laws had effect also outside Scotland purporting to pre-empt the power of the UK … Continue reading References (Bills) By The Attorney General and The Advocate General for Scotland – United Nations Convention On The Rights of The Child and European Charter of Local Self-Government: SC 6 Oct 2021
The provisions of rule 4.16(7) providing for confidentiality in children proceedings were Convention compliant: ‘such proceedings are prime examples of cases where the exclusion of the press and public may be justified in order to protect the privacy of the child and parties and to avoid prejudicing the interests of justice. To enable the deciding … Continue reading B v The United Kingdom; P v The United Kingdom: ECHR 2001
Where a child has been abducted from a country which has not signed the Convention on abduction of children, an English court should be very reluctant to apply English cultural traditions in substitution for those of the home country. Exceptions exist only for persecution, or ethnic, sex or other discrimination. ‘The welfare principle as paramount … Continue reading In Re E (Children) (Abduction: Non-Convention Country): CA 7 Jul 1999
Two children were born in Norway to a British mother (M) and Norwegian father (F). Having lived in Norway, M brought them to England to stay, but without F’s knowledge or consent. M replied to his application for their return that the children would be at risk if returned, alleging psychological abuse by F. She … Continue reading Re E (Children) (Abduction: Custody Appeal): SC 10 Jun 2011
The parents of a baby born to a HIV positive mother were strongly opposed to the testing of the child for HIV and to any form of medical intervention. Held: There is a presumption that the united view of the parents of a child as to the treatment of the child correctly identified the best … Continue reading In Re C (A Child) (HIV Test): FD 14 Sep 1999
M and F disputed the return of their child D to Romania. F had obtained there an order for custody, and now appealed from refusal of the court here to recognise that order and enforce it. The judge had found that the proceedings in Romania had failed to allow adequate service of proceedings and opportunity … Continue reading D (A Child) (International Recognition): CA 27 Jan 2016
Appeal by a child against an order raising issues of general public importance in respect of two matters: first, the powers of the court to compel third parties without parental responsibility (or any other form of power or control over the child) to take steps to secure the return of an abducted child; and, second, … Continue reading In re B (A Child): CA 20 Jun 2014
latterdayECHR0314 The claimant said that it had been wrongfully deprived of relief from business rates for its two temples. It asserted that it was a religion, and that the treatment was discriminatory. The government said that the refusal was on the basis alone that the temples were not open to the public, and similar differentiations … Continue reading The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v United Kingdom: ECHR 4 Mar 2014
The deceased soldier died of heat exhaustion whilst on active service in Iraq. It was said that he was owed a duty under human rights laws, and that any coroner’s inquest should be a fuller one to satisfy the state’s duty under Article 2. Held: The SSD’s appeal succeeded. ‘jurisdiction’ within the meaning of Article … Continue reading Smith, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Defence and Oxfordshire Assistant Deputy Coroner (Equality and Human Rights Commission intervening): SC 30 Jun 2010
The claimant sought to challenge the policy that a 17 year old under arrest was to be treated as an adult for interview purposes, even though at every other stage of a criminal investigation and prosecution, he would be treated as a child. He had . .
The defendant had published a set of guidelines for intelligence officers called upon to detain and interrogate suspects. The defendant said that the guidelines could only be tested against individual real life cases, and that the court should not . .
A mother sought to challenge guidelines issued by the respondent which would allow doctors to protect the confidentiality of women under 16 who came to them for assistance even though the sexual activities they might engage in would be unlawful. Held: A person under 16 who was otherwise competent was entitled to seek medical assistance, … Continue reading Axon, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Another: Admn 23 Jan 2006
The claimant journalist sought disclosure of papers acquired by the respondent in its conduct of enquiries into the charitable Mariam appeal. The Commission referred to an absolute exemption under section 32(2) of the 2000 Act, saying that the exemption continued until the papers were destroyed, or for 20 years under the 1958 Act. Held: The … Continue reading Kennedy v The Charity Commission: SC 26 Mar 2014
Two boys were born to Russian parents in what became Kazakhstan. After their parents’ divorce, their mother married a Bulgarian and they all came to live in Bulgaria. The mother was granted a permanent residence permit and the boys were entitled to residence on the basis of her permit. They were educated at Bulgarian primary … Continue reading Ponomaryov and Others v Bulgaria: ECHR 21 Jun 2011
(Grand Chamber) The claimant, a muslim woman complained that she had not been allowed to attend lectures wearing a headscarf. Held: Any limitations on the right to an education must not curtail it ‘to such an extent as to impair its very essence and deprive it of its effectiveness.’ ‘Although [A2P1] does not impose a … Continue reading Leyla Sahin v Turkey: ECHR 10 Nov 2005
(Grand Chamber) The applicant had been denied access to written examinations and to a lecture at the University of Istanbul because she was wearing an Islamic headscarf. This was prohibited not only by the rules of the university but also by the Constitution of Turkey. Held: Article 9 does not protect every act motivated or … Continue reading Leyla Sahin v Turkey: ECHR 29 Jun 2004
Proceedings had been brought to challenge the validity of Orders in Council which had frozen the assets of the claimants in those proceedings. Ancillary orders were made and confirmed requiring them not to be identified. As the cases came to the Supreme Court, applications were also now made to lift the anonymity orders. Held: The … Continue reading In re Guardian News and Media Ltd and Others; HM Treasury v Ahmed and Others: SC 27 Jan 2010
The applicant, a Muslim girl sought to be allowed to wear the gilbab to school. The school policy which had been approved by Muslim clerics prohibited this, saying the shalwar kameeze and headscarf were sufficient. The school said she was making a voluntary choice not to attend. Held: The applicant was not choosing to stay … Continue reading SB, Regina (on the Application of) v Denbigh High School: CA 2 Mar 2005
Parties challenged the compliance of proceedings with the convention where there had been considerable delay. Held: The reasonable detention provision (article 5(3)) and the reasonable time requirement (article 6(1)) conferred free-standing rights, which could be broken notwithstanding absence of effect on the fairness of the trial. The threshold for delay was high, but once established … Continue reading Dyer v Watson and Burrows: PC 29 Jan 2002
The court was asked whether a school was entitled to refuse to allow a Muslim girl to wear the niqab full face veil at school. The reasons were ‘first educational factors resulting from a teacher being unable to see the face of the girl with a niqab; second the importance of a uniform policy as … Continue reading X, Regina (on the Application of) v Y School: Admn 21 Feb 2007
Administrative Discretion to be Used Reasonably The applicant challenged the manner of decision making as to the conditions which had been attached to its licence to open the cinema on Sundays. It had not been allowed to admit children under 15 years of age. The statute provided no appeal procedure, and the applicant sought a … Continue reading Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation: CA 10 Nov 1947
The defendant challenged the obligatory requirement that evidence given by a person under 17 in sex or violent offence cases must normally be given by video link. Held: The purpose of the section was to improve the quality of the evidence presented to a court. There was no absolute right for a defendant to be … Continue reading D (A Minor), Regina (on the Application of) v Camberwell Green Youth Court: HL 27 Jan 2005
ECJ Grand Chamber – Judgment – Reference for a preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 2006/54/EC – Equal treatment of male and female workers – Commissioning mother who has had a baby through a surrogacy arrangement – Refusal to grant her paid leave equivalent to maternity leave or adoptive leave – United Nations Convention … Continue reading Z v A Government Department And The Board of Management of A Community School: ECJ 18 Mar 2014
The court was asked whether it was lawful for the Secretary of State to make subordinate legislation imposing a cap on the amount of welfare benefits which can be received by claimants in non-working households, equivalent to the net median earnings of working households. The challenge was under the 1998 Act on the basis that … Continue reading SG and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: SC 18 Mar 2015
The appellant challenged a decision that he did not qualify for asylum or humanitarian protection and that his further representations were not a fresh human rights claim under paragraph 353 of the Immigration Rules. He argued that the return to the UK of his wife and daughter changed the circumstances requiring a fresh application. Held: … Continue reading Zoumbas v Secretary of State for The Home Department: SC 27 Nov 2013
The respondent had arrived and claimed asylum. Three claims were rejected, two of which were fraudulent. She had two children by a UK citizen, and if deported the result would be (the father being unsuitable) that the children would have to return with her. Held: The mother’s appeal succeeded. The court had to consider the … Continue reading ZH (Tanzania) v Secretary of State for The Home Department: SC 1 Feb 2011
The applicants had had their requests for asylum refused. They complained that if they were removed from the UK, their article 3 rights would be infringed. If they were returned to Pakistan or Vietnam they would be persecuted for their religious faiths. Held: A distinction was to be made between domestic cases involving actions within … Continue reading Regina v Special Adjudicator ex parte Ullah; Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 17 Jun 2004
The claimants had acted as foster carers for several years, but challenged a potential decision to discontinue that when, as committed Christians, they refused to sign to agree to treat without differentiation any child brought to them who might be homosexual. A declaration was sought as to the legality of the proposed decision. Held: A … Continue reading Johns and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Derby City Council and Another: Admn 28 Feb 2011
ECHR Grand Chamber – Article 1 Jurisdiction of states Jurisdiction of Armenia as regards Nagorno-Karabakh and the adjacent occupied territories Article 8 Article 8-1 Respect for family life Respect for home Respect for private life Denial of access to homes to Azerbaijani citizens displaced in the context of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict: violation Article 13 Effective … Continue reading Chiragov And Others v Armenia: ECHR 16 Jun 2015
ECHR Article 1 Jurisdiction of states Jurisdiction of Azerbaijan as regards a disputed area near Nagorno-Karabakh on the territory of Azerbaijan Article 8 Article 8-1 Respect for family life Respect for home Respect for private life Impossibility for an Armenian citizen displaced in the context of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict to gain access to his home … Continue reading Sargsyan v Azerbaijan: ECHR 16 Jun 2015
A prison policy requiring prisoners not to be present when their property was searched and their mail was examined was unlawful. The policy had been introduced after failures in search procedures where officers had been intimidated by the presence of prisoners. Particularly when examining documents subject to legal professional privilege, the rules did not allow … Continue reading Regina (Daly) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 23 May 2001
The bank challenged measures taken by HM Treasury to restrict access to the United Kingdom’s financial markets by a major Iranian commercial bank, Bank Mellat, on the account of its alleged connection with Iran’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programmes. The bank sought to have the direction given under section 7 of the 2008 Act. … Continue reading Bank Mellat v Her Majesty’s Treasury (No 2): SC 19 Jun 2013
ECHR Article 8 Positive obligations Article 8-1 Respect for family life Delays and lack of transparency in family reunification proceedings: violation Facts – In the year 2000 the applicant, a Congolese national, was granted refugee status under the mandate of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Cameroon (UNHCR Cameroon). According … Continue reading Tanda-Muzinga v France: ECHR 10 Jul 2014
Application for judicial review of a decision by the PSNI to release to local newspapers for publication images of persons suspected of being involved in sectarian rioting and violent offending at an interface area at Fountain Street/Bishop Street Londonderry in May, June and July 2010. The applicant, a child who was born in July 1996, … Continue reading JR 38, Re Judicial Review: QBNI 21 Mar 2013
In the course of an action regarding their residence arrangements, the older children of the family sought an order to be allowed separate legal representation, and now appealed a refusal. Held: The rights of freedom of expression and to participate in family life now outweighed the former paternalistic view of the courts. As children grew … Continue reading Mabon v Mabon and others: CA 26 May 2005
The claimant challenged fines imposed on him after three illegal immigrants were found to have hidden in his lorry in the immigration control zone at Dunkirk. The 1999 At was to have been amended by the 2002 Act, and the implementation was by the 2002 Order. That Order was now said to be ineffective. Held: … Continue reading Bogdanic v The Secretary of State for The Home Department: QBD 29 Aug 2014
Same Sex Partner Entitled to tenancy Succession The protected tenant had died. His same-sex partner sought a statutory inheritance of the tenancy. Held: His appeal succeeded. The Fitzpatrick case referred to the position before the 1998 Act: ‘Discriminatory law undermines the rule of law because it is the antithesis of fairness. It brings the law … Continue reading Ghaidan v Godin-Mendoza: HL 21 Jun 2004
The appellants were teachers in Christian schools who said that the blanket ban on corporal punishment interfered with their religious freedom. They saw moderate physical discipline as an essential part of educating children in a Christian manner. Held: The appeal was dismissed. For Article 9 to be engaged (aside from certain other threshold conditions) the … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for Education and Employment and others ex parte Williamson and others: HL 24 Feb 2005
M applied for a parental order under the 2008 Act. The child had been born through a surrogacy arrangement in India, which was lawful there, but would have been unlawful here. The clinic could not guarantee a biological relationship with the child. The father had since died of liver cancer. The court considered whether the … Continue reading A v P (Surrogacy: Parental Order: Death of Applicant): FD 8 Jul 2011
Diplock LJ said: ‘The Convention is one of those public acts of state of Her Majesty’s Government of which Her Majesty’s judges must take judicial notice if it be relevant to the determination of a case before them, if necessary informing themselves of such acts by inquiry of the appropriate department of Her Majesty’s Government. … Continue reading Salomon v Customs and Excise Commissioners: CA 1966
Judicial review was sought of a decision by the respondent to prosecute a child for her alleged sexual abuse of her younger sisters. Agencies other than the police and CPS considered that a prosecution would harm both the applicant and her sisters. It was said that the applicant had herself been groomed by an adult … Continue reading E and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v The Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 10 Jun 2011
Courts Not to Investigate Parliament’s Actions It was alleged that the respondent had misled Parliament to secure the passing of a private Act. The claimant said that the land taken from him under the Act was no longer required, and that he should be entitled to have it returned. Held: When an enactment is passed … Continue reading Pickin v British Railways Board: HL 30 Jan 1974
Under the 1998 and 2006 Acts, the Welsh Assembly was empowered to pass legislation subject to confirmation by the English Parliament Secretary of State. The Local Government Byelaws (Wales) Bill 2012 was passed by the Assembly and purported to remove the requirement for confirmation and to add to the list of legislation which might be … Continue reading Local Government Byelaws (Wales) Bill 2012 – Reference By The Attorney General for England and Wales: SC 21 Nov 2012
An undisclosed principal will not be permitted to claim to be party to a contract if this is contrary to the terms of the contract itself. Thus the provision in the standard form B contract of the London Metal Exchange ‘this contract is made between ourselves and yourselves as principals, we alone being liable to … Continue reading JH Rayner (Mincing Lane) Ltd v Department of Trade and Industry: HL 1989
A general provision creating a new order for lifelong restriction was read as not extending to certain convictions under the Firearms Act 1968, since the sentences applicable to such convictions fell outside the legislative competence of the . .
The Scottish Parliament passed legislation in anticipation of the UK leaving the EU. The Attorney General referred to the supreme court the question of whether some clauses were outwith the power of the Parliament. The Presiding Officer said that . .
(Scotland) The power to detain a person suffering from a mental illness, in order to ensure the safety of the public, and even though there was no real possibility of treatment of the mental condition in hospital, was not a disproportionate . .
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