EAT Unfair Dismissal – CompensationIn each case, The employee sought additional damages for non-economic loss after an unfair dismissal. Held: The Act could be compared with the Discrimination Acts which explicitly awarded damages for hurt feelings. Clear authority lay against such awards in unfair dismissal cases. An Employment Tribunal considering a claim for damages for … Continue reading Dunnachie v Kingston Upon Hull City Council; Williams v Southampton Institute; Dawson v Stonham Housing Association: EAT 8 Apr 2003
The complainant was a post office employee. He brought a claim for unfair dismissal, but he posted it at a time when in the normal course of delivery, it would not arrive. He claimed to be unaware of the normal times for delivery. Held: It was for the claimant to establish that his case fell … Continue reading Consignia Plc v Russell Sealy: CA 19 Jun 2002
The claimant challenged refusal of his claim of discrimination. He was profoundly deaf. He applied for work, and indicated his disability, but no provision was made for a signer to appear at the interview. The interview was re-arranged, but he failed. Held: The tribunal gave reasons for finding that the disability had played no part … Continue reading Murphy v Sheffield Hallam University: EAT 11 Jan 2000
The employer appealed against a finding of unlawful deduction of wages. Held: The words ‘any . . emolument’ includes overtime pay, which may be isolated from other contractual terms as to pay. An arrangement under which the employer had tried to defeat a claim for unpaid overtime, by redescribing the basic pay rate failed. The … Continue reading Pendragon Plc v Nota: EAT 18 Mar 2002
The applicant had, in earlier proceedings before the Employment Tribunal, withdrawn issues she had raised. She now sought to pursue them, and the respondent asserted that she was estopped from doing so, and that the matter was res judicata. The chairman, having received a letter withdrawing the case, had entered the decision without hearing from … Continue reading Rothschild Asset Management Limited v Ako: CA 1 Mar 2002
The applicant claimed that the respondent Council had discriminated against her. After complicated applications, leave to appeal was granted on limited grounds, but on appeal the applicant had been allowed to extend that appeal. Held: An appeal tribunal might use its case management powers to allow limited departure from the permitted grounds of appeal, only … Continue reading General Council of the Bar v Miriki: CA 21 Dec 2001
The claimant’s case had come before the Employment Appeal Tribunal. Before the hearing he was asked to sign a consent to the tribunal sitting as chairman and one assessor. She was not told that the assessor would be an employer. When she discovered this she withdrew her consent but the appeal went ahead. Held: The … Continue reading Haney v Brent Mind and another: CA 27 Oct 2003
The place where an employee was employed for the purposes of the employer’s business was to be determined by a consideration of the factual circumstances which obtained until the dismissal. Where an employee had worked in only one location under his contract of employment for the purposes of the employer’s business then it defied common … Continue reading High Table Limited v Horst, Jowett and and Burley: CA 1 Jul 1997
The Court was asked whether a district judge qualifies as a ‘worker’ for the purpose of the protection given to whistle-blowers under Part IVA of the 1996 Act, and if not then was the absence of protection an infringement of her human rights. Held: As an office holder, she was neither employee nor worker, and … Continue reading Gilham v Ministry of Justice: SC 16 Oct 2019
The applicant was a roadsweeper. She complained of disability discrimination, when after becoming unable to walk, her employer after considering her for other posts dismissed her for incapacity. Held: The ability to walk was a part of the irreducible minimum capacity required of the job. The Code of Practice could not be used as an … Continue reading Archibald v Fife Council: IHCS 9 Dec 2003
The applicant was recruited in Saudi Arabia in 1986 as a flight attendant under a contract expressed to be subject to Saudi Arabian law. After being trained in Jeddah, and then employed in India for four years, she was transferred to be based in London, from which all her tours of duty as a flight … Continue reading Carver (Nee Mascarenhas) v Saudi Arabian Airlines: CA 17 Mar 1999
Where the parties to an industrial tribunal application had consented to the matter being dealt with by a chairman sitting alone and disputes of fact looked as if they might arise, the chairman should refer the matter to a full tribunal for hearing. Citations: Times 09-Oct-1998, Times 28-Oct-1998 Statutes: Industrial Tribunals Act 1996 4(5) Jurisdiction: … Continue reading Sogbetun v Hackney London Borough Council: EAT 9 Oct 1998
The court discussed the test to be applied to an employment to see whether a British court had jurisdiction over it: ‘But in other cases there is more difficulty. I refer particularly to the type of case we have here of the airline pilot. He is based in Great Britain, but ordinarily works for the … Continue reading Todd v British Midland Airways: CA 2 Jan 1978
An employment tribunal had no power to dismiss a claim as without a reasonable prospect of success before it was begun to be heard. The power to regulate its own hearings did not include such a power, and the power to dismiss a claim as frivolous or vexatious, or for failure to comply with directions … Continue reading Care First Partnership Ltd v Roffey and Others: CA 22 Nov 2000
There had been alleged differential treatment of an employee in relation to a similar offence on a different occasion. Held: Waterhouse J set out three possible ways where decisions made by an employer in truly parallel circumstances in relation to a different employee may be relevant. In the first, employees may be led by an … Continue reading Hadjioannou v Coral Casinos Ltd: EAT 1981
The claimants said that they had been tortured by Saudi police when arrested on false charges. They sought damages, and appealed against an order denying jurisdiction over the defendants. They said that the allegation of torture allowed an exception to state immunity. Held: The Kingdom’s appeal succeeded. The protection of state immunity was essentially a … Continue reading Jones v Ministry of Interior for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and others: HL 14 Jun 2006
The claimant appealed after her claim for sex discrimination had failed. She had been dismissed from her position an associate minister of the church. The court had found that it had no jurisdiction, saying that her appointment was not an employment. However the jurisdiction in sex discrimination cases was wider, extending to those who ‘contract … Continue reading Percy v Church of Scotland Board of National Mission: HL 15 Dec 2005
A full-time a full-time chairman of industrial tribunals, a full time chairman of social security appeal tribunals, and a social security commissioner are workers within the meaning of the European legislation, even though, by domestic legislation they were statutory officers, and so excluded from protection. The word ‘worker’ has a special community meaning, and it … Continue reading Perceval-Price, and others v Department of Economic Development etc: CANI 12 Apr 2000
The appellant, a part time recorder challenged his exclusion from pension arrangements. Held: The appeal was allowed. No objective justification has been shown for departing from the basic principle of remunerating part-timers pro rata temporis. ‘The reality is that recorders are expected to observe the terms and conditions of their appointment, and that they may … Continue reading O’Brien v Ministry of Justice: SC 6 Feb 2013
No Condemnation Without Opportunity For Defence Ridge, a Chief Constable, had been wrongfully dismissed without being given the opportunity of presenting his defence. He had been acquitted of the charges brought against him, but the judge at trial had made adverse comments about his behaviour. He now accepted that he should leave, but sought to … Continue reading Ridge v Baldwin (No 1): HL 14 Mar 1963
Jurisdictional Points – Claim In Time and Effect Date of Termination – – Application/claim – Preliminary issues The statutory provisions in the Employment Rights Act 1996, the Employment Tribunals Extension of Jurisdiction (England and Wales) Order 1994 and the Equality Act 2010, which operate to extend time limits to facilitate conciliation before the institution of … Continue reading Luton Borough Council v Haque: EAT 12 Apr 2018
The right of appeal from the tribunal to the EAT in matters of contract law was lost in the new regulations; there are no statutory provision for what would be a statutory procedure.. Citations: Times 19-Nov-1997 Statutes: Industrial Tribunals Act 1996 Cited by: See Also – Pendragon Plc v Jackson EAT 30-Jun-1998 . . Lists … Continue reading Pendragon Plc v Jackson: EAT 19 Nov 1997
CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE In 2009 the Claimant/Appellant presented complaints of unfair dismissal, race discrimination and victimisation against her former employers (the Trust). The claims were dismissed in February 2011. In March 2011 she presented claims against the Respondent Unison, her former union, alleging race victimisation and detrimental treatment by its representative in … Continue reading Oni v Unison Trade Union: EAT 5 Feb 2018
The EAT was asked to decide what the words ‘an email address’ in paragraph 9(2) of schedule 1 of the Employment Tribunals (Early Conciliation: Exemptions and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2014/254 meant. The EAT decided that Parliament meant an actual email address. The Appellant had in error supplied an email address that did not exist. … Continue reading Galloway v Wood Group Uk Ltd (Procedure : Meaning of ‘An Email Address’): EAT 18 Jan 2019
EAT Unfair Dismissal Disability discrimination The Tribunal had found a dismissal to be unfair because of flaws in a grievance procedure, following which the Claimant had resigned. They also found that the Claimant, who suffered an obsessive compulsive disorder, was subjected to taunts that she would not have had inflicted on her if she had … Continue reading Abbey National Plc v Fairbrother: EAT 12 Jan 2007
EAT Practice and Procedure: Appellate Jurisdiction/Reasons/Burns-Barke – UNFAIR DISMISSAL – Constructive dismissal Reasons The simplification of the wording of the Rule relating to the content of the Reasons (i.e. the change from Rule 30(6) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules of Procedure) Regulations 2004 to Rule 62(5) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules … Continue reading Vairea v Reed Business Information Ltd: EAT 3 Jun 2016
EAT Sex Discrimination – DirectThe complainant had been suspended from her position as Vice President of the Law Society. The Society and its officers appealed findings of sex and race discrimination against her. The complainant appealed findings that she had lied to the tribunal on oath, and that the discrimination had been only indirect. Held: … Continue reading The Law Society v Kamlesh Bahl: EAT 7 Jul 2003
The claimant began proceedings against his employer, the Immigration Service after his security clearance was withdrawn. He complained that the respondent had been allowed by the Tribunal to present evidence he was not himself allowed to see and challenge. The EAT had approved this use of a closed material procedure. Held: The appeal succeeded. Every … Continue reading Home Office v Tariq: CA 4 May 2010
The union appellant challenged the validity of the imposition of fees on those seeking to lay complaints in the Employment Tribunal system. Held: The appeal succeeded. The fees were discriminatory and restricted access to justice. The consequence of the order had been very substantially to reduce the number of cases coming before the tribunal, and: … Continue reading Unison, Regina (on The Application of) v Lord Chancellor: SC 26 Jul 2017
The employee had failed to mention at the hearing of his claim for a redundancy payment a fact which was arguably highly material to the issue of whether his refusal of alternative employment was reasonable; and his claim had been dismissed. He applied for a review. Held: The court was asked whether, and in what … Continue reading Flint v Eastern Electricity Board: EAT 1975
Mr Lawson was employed by Serco as a security supervisor at the British RAF base on Ascension Island, which is a dependency of the British Overseas Territory of St Helena. Mr Botham was employed as a youth worker at various Ministry of Defence establishments in Germany; under the NATO Status of Forces Agreement of 1951 … Continue reading Serco Ltd v Lawson; Botham v Ministry of Defence; Crofts and others v Veta Limited: HL 26 Jan 2006
The claimant stock broking firm sought to recover its uninsured losses after having paid out for what was said to have been negligent advice by the respondent, a self-employed broker working for them. Held: The power to recover such losses were part of the contract with the broker, and the provision did not offend against … Continue reading Charles Stanley and Co Ltd v Adams: QBD 19 Jul 2013
Discrimination – History of interactions relevant When a tribunal considered whether the motive for an act was discriminatory, it should look not just at the act, but should make allowance for earlier acts which might throw more light on the act in question. The Tribunal should assess the totality of the evidence on any material … Continue reading Dr Anya v University of Oxford and Another: CA 22 Mar 2001
The employers had dismissed the employee for misconduct. The Tribunal found that the employers had a genuine belief in the misconduct alleged and there had been a reasonable investigation. The real issue was whether it was reasonable to dismiss for the misconduct alleged. The Tribunal found that no reasonable employer would have dismissed the employee … Continue reading Fuller v London Borough of Brent: CA 15 Mar 2011
The claimant had been dismissed from his post as chair of archeology after criticism of his marking practices. Though a report vindicated him, the respondent continued with disciplinary procedures. He claimed unfair dismissal. The EAT had allowed the university’s appeal saying that the found repudiatory breach had been remedied before the resignation. The University now … Continue reading Buckland v Bournemouth University Higher Education Corporation: CA 24 Feb 2010
The claimant had submitted a grievance complaining in general terms of the way in which she had been treated by a manager. She did not, however, refer to a particular incident relied on in her pleading as one of the two ‘last straw’ incidents that led to her resignation. The respondent contended that by reason … Continue reading Shergold v Fieldway Medical Centre: EAT 5 Dec 2005
EAT VICTIMISATION DISCRIMINATION – Protected disclosureS.47B of the Employment Rights Act 1996 provides that ‘A worker has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that the worker has made a protected disclosure.’In cases where a Claimant has … Continue reading Fecitt and Others v NHS Manchester: EAT 23 Nov 2010
The applicant had appealed the dismissal of his case for unfair dismissal. His notice of appeal did not request extended reasons from the tribunal, nor challenged the adequacy of the tribunal’s reasoning. At the EAT he sought to argue that the reasons were inadequate, but he was not allowed to argue the point. The notice … Continue reading Tran v Greenwich Vietnam Community Project: CA 25 Apr 2002
Same Sex Partner Entitled to tenancy Succession The protected tenant had died. His same-sex partner sought a statutory inheritance of the tenancy. Held: His appeal succeeded. The Fitzpatrick case referred to the position before the 1998 Act: ‘Discriminatory law undermines the rule of law because it is the antithesis of fairness. It brings the law … Continue reading Ghaidan v Godin-Mendoza: HL 21 Jun 2004
The court considered the nature of evidence which will be available to tribunals considering a race discrimination claim. Held: A complainant must prove his or her case on the balance of probabilities, but it is unusual to find direct evidence of racial discrimination, and a case will usually depend on what inferences can properly be … Continue reading King v Great Britain China Centre: CA 1991
On being told he was to be dismissed, Mr Jones had taken early retirement. He made a claim in the County Court that his pension had been wrongly reduced, The court rejected his allegation that he had acted under duress. His subsequent claim of unfair dismissal in the Employment ribunal was also rejected, but his … Continue reading Jones v Mid-Glamorgan County Council: CA 13 May 1997
The parties had a joint venture agreement which provided that any dispute was to be referred to an arbitrator from the Ismaili community. The claimant said that this method of appointment became void as a discriminatory provision under the 2003 Regulations. The High Court found the appointment to be outwith the provisions, but this was … Continue reading Jivraj v Hashwani: SC 27 Jul 2011
The claimant had a statement of special educational needs, which she sought to have altered to specify a different school. She appealed from a refusal to amend the statement, saying that the Tribunal had not given sufficient weight to educational experts without stating why. Held: The appeal was dismissed. The court contrasted the approaches taken … Continue reading H v East Sussex County Council and Others: CA 31 Mar 2009
amwell_dogherty The claimant had secretly recorded the disciplinary hearings and also the deliberations of the disciplinary panel after their retirement. The tribunal had at a case management hearing admitted the recordings as evidence, and the defendant appealed, saying also that it had been disclosed too late. Held: The evidence contained in the recordings was relevant … Continue reading Amwell View School v Dogherty: EAT 15 Sep 2006
The claimant firm of solicitors sought an order requiring the defendant to amend her employment tribunal claim so as to accord with the partnership agreement to which she was party, and to submit to arbitration. The defendant said that statutory provisions said that her freedom to go to court could not be ousted, and that … Continue reading Clyde and Co Llp and Another v Winkelhof: QBD 22 Mar 2011
Regulations debarred a claim after a certain time even where the delay had been because of a deliberate concealment of information by an employer. Held: Availability of other means of redress was not sufficient to displace this rule. Advocate General Leger said: ‘an action brought under the Equal Pay Act and an action brought under … Continue reading Levez v T H Jennings (Harlow Pools) Ltd: ECJ 1 Dec 1998
The employee complained of his employer’s repeated failure to regrade him, and alleged discrimination. The employer said his claim was out of time. Held: Mummery J made the distinction between single acts of discrimination, and continuing discrimination: ‘the tribunal erred in law in failing to treat the acts complained of on regrading and failure to … Continue reading Owusu v London Fire and Civil Defence Authority: EAT 1 Mar 1995
Allowance of Stigma Damages The employees claimed damages, saying that the way in which their employer had behaved during their employment had led to continuing losses, ‘stigma damages’ after the termination. Held: It is an implied term of any contract of employment that the employer shall not without reasonable and proper cause conduct itself in … Continue reading Malik v Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI); Mahmud v Bank of Credit and Commerce International: HL 12 Jun 1997
The employer was to make 530 members of its staff redundant. Each staff member was assessed and scored. The claimants said that the method of selection was unfair, and sought disclosure of the scores of all employees. Held: It was wrong to order discovery of the forms of employees who had not been selected for … Continue reading British Aerospace plc v Green and Others: CA 18 Apr 1995
Guidance for Wasted Costs Orders Guidance was given on the circumstances required for the making of wasted costs orders against legal advisers. A judge invited to make an order arising out of an advocate’s conduct of court proceedings must make full allowance for the fact that an advocate has to make decisions quickly and under … Continue reading Ridehalgh v Horsefield; Allen v Unigate Dairies Ltd: CA 26 Jan 1994
The appellant had been dismissed after using the company email to forward an inappropriate email in breach of the company’s policies. Later he was disciplined for making an appointment in breach of the company’s procedures. He again misused the company’s email system and was dismissed, but several others were also. The company had offered a … Continue reading Way v Spectrum Property Care Ltd: CA 22 Apr 2015
nambalatEAT2011 EAT National Minimum Wage Act 1998National Minimum Wage Regulations 1999, Reg. 2(2)Unauthorised deductions from wagesAll three Claimants were foreign domestic workers employed in the Respondents’ households. The EAT held that the work done by each of the three Claimants for their respective employers was work to which regulation 2(2) of the National Minimum Wage … Continue reading Nambalat v Taher and Another: EAT 8 Dec 2011
‘Manifestly Inapproproiate’ is a general Test The Appellant was employed as Senior Project Leader – Technology. The Respondent raised issues about his performance. On 26 January 2016 an informal performance management process commenced and objectives were set, with targets to be measured in June 2016, October 2016 and January 2017. Before those deadlines arrived, his … Continue reading Fallahi v TWI Ltd (Unfair Dismissal): EAT 17 Aug 2021
EAT Unlawful Deduction From Wages – The principles enunciated in Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co Ltd v New Garage and Motor Co Ltd  AC 1979 and re-stated in Lordsvale Finance PLC v Bank of Zambia  QB 752, Alfred McAlpine Capital Projects v Tilebox Ltd  EWHC 281 TCC,  BLR 271 and Murray v … Continue reading Cleeve Link Ltd v Bryla: EAT 8 Oct 2013
Non-derogating control orders – HR Compliant MB and AF challenged non-derogating control orders made under the 2005 Act, saying that they were incompatible with their human rights. AF was subject to a curfew of 14 hours a day, wore an electronic tag at all times, could not leave a nine square mile area, and had … Continue reading Secretary of State for the Home Department v MB; Same v AF: HL 31 Oct 2007
Burchell case remains good law The appellant head teacher had been dismissed for failing to disclose the fact that her partner had been convicted of a sex offence. She now appealed from rejection of her claim for unfair dismissal. Held: The appeal was dismissed. The tribunal was entitled to conclude that it was a reasonable … Continue reading Reilly v Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council: SC 14 Mar 2018
The Industrial Tribunal has no jurisdiction to consider and rule upon other acts of racial discrimination not included in the complaints in the Originating Application. Racial discrimination may be established as a matter of direct primary fact. ‘More often racial discrimination will have to be established, if at all, as a matter of inference. It … Continue reading Chapman and Another v Simon: CA 1994
When an Employment Tribunal looked at whether a dismissal was reasonable, the test related not to an assessment of what tribunal members would think or do, but rather whether to ask whether the employer’s response was within a ‘band or range of reasonable responses’ of a reasonable employer to the situation. Earlier conflicting decisions were … Continue reading Foley v Post Office; HSBC Bank Plc (Formerly Midland Bank Plc) v Madden: CA 31 Jul 2000
The court considered whether a teacher employed by the Secretary of State to teach in one of its European Schools was entitled to protection against unfair dismissal. Held: The claimants’ appeals were allowed and the cases remitted to the Employment Tribunals. The employments fell within the exeptions governing employment abroad identified in Lawsn -v- Serco. … Continue reading Duncombe and Others v Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families (No 2): SC 15 Jul 2011
Employment Tribunals to Provide Sufficient Reasons Tribunals, when giving their decisions, are required to do no more than to make clear their findings of fact and to answer any question of law raised. Bingham LJ said: ‘It has on a number of occasions been made plain that the decision of an Industrial Tribunal is not … Continue reading Meek v City of Birmingham District Council: CA 18 Feb 1987
The claimant had made separate complaints of unfair dismissal, and under the 1986 Act. He now appealed an order combining the two cases. The respondent alleged that there were common issues of law and fact.
Held: The decision was one for the . .
The court considered whether a power of appeal to the existed.
Held: A power did exist under FETO, and the CANI having mistakenly excluded a power to appeal the Supreme Court could nevertheless hear it. Both appeals were allowed. . .
The claimant sought to assert race discrimination by the Labour Party in not selecting him as a political candidate. The defendant, chairman of the party appealed.
Held: A political party when selecting candidates was not acting as a . .
The employer appealed an award of ten thousand pounds including aggravated damages, and other elements after a finding of sex discrimination. They also awarded six hundred pounds in interest. It was asserted that Scots law did not allow for . .
The Hospital Medical Group argued that Dr Westwood was in business on his own account as a doctor, in which he had three customers, the NHS for his services as a general practitioner, the Albany Clinic for whom he did transgender work, and the . .
EAT Rights On Insolvency
Two separate Employment Tribunals decided that Claimants who had been employed (without knowing it) by a company which had entered a CVA were entitled to claim arrears of pay and . .
EAT Rights On Insolvency – Two separate Employment Tribunals decided that Claimants who had been employed (without knowing it) by a company which had entered a CVA were entitled to claim arrears of pay and . .
The Tribunal considered the applicability of the 1996 Act to those employed abroad after the repeal of s196: ‘In our view the repeal of section 196 (2) cannot be taken to have had the effect that employees who had or whose employment had a . .
The claimant had been unfairly dismissed but in addition to this employment she had also lost her earnings from a private practice as an aerobics teacher at the same facility where she was employed. She had been awarded damages for the employment . .
The claimant succeeded in her claim for unfair dismissal, but now appealed against the reversal of the decision by the EAT. She had been dismissed for incapability to which she had contributed by her conduct. She had refused a move to another bank . .
The claimant had been dismissed for gross misconduct. As a teacher he had drunk alcohol at school, and taken a bottle of wine. His complaint of unfair dismissal had been dismissed, and he appealed that decision, saying the school had departed from . .
The appellant’s application for full registration as a qualified medical practitioner had been refused by the GMC after a five-year maximum period of limited registration. His application for full registration in accordance with section 25 of the . .
The applicant cleaner sought compensation for unfair dismissal. The issue was whether she was an employee of the respondents, of their client where she did her work, or was not an employee at all. She worked for an agency, who sent her out to . .
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Estoppel or abuse of process/Amendment
The appeal was dismissed on issue estoppel. Issue estoppel applied not to the declarations made by the first Employment Tribunal, as . .
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Appellate jurisdiction/reasons/Burns-Barke
An Employment Tribunal decision must comply in both form and substance with 30(6) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules . .
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Appellate jurisdiction/reasons/Burns-Barke
An Employment Tribunal decision must comply in both form and substance with 30(6) of the Employment Tribunals (Constitution and Rules . .
The claimants were airline pilots employed by the respondent company with headquarters in Hong Kong. The court was asked whether an English Tribunal had jurisdiction to hear their complaints of unfair dismissal.
Held: The pilots were employed . .
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Preliminary issues
Employer entitled to counterclaim under Article 4 Employment Tribunals (Extension of Jurisdiction) England and Wales Order 1994 when a bankrupt Claimant makes . .
Our law-index is a substantial selection from our database. Cases here are restricted in number by date and lack the additional facilities formerly available within lawindexpro. Please do enjoy this free version of the lawindex. Case law does not ‘belong’ to lawyers. Judgments are made up of words which can be read and understood (if … Continue reading law index