EAT JURISDICTIONAL POINTS – 2002 Act and pre-action requirements
Whether the statutory grievance procedure applies to a claim of post-termination victimisation. It does.
A claim alleging victimisation . .
EAT JURISDICTIONAL POINTS – 2002 Act and pre-action requirements
1267 – 1278 – 1285 – 1297 – 1361 – 1449 – 1491 – 1533 – 1677 – 1688 – 1689 – 1700 – 1706 – 1710 – 1730 – 1737 – 1738 – 1751 – 1774 – 1792 – 1793 – 1804 – 1814 – 1819 – 1824 – 1828 – 1831 – 1832 … Continue reading Acts
A teacher of Hong Kong national origin was refused qualified teacher status in this country because the Secretary of State had not exercised a power conferred on him by the relevant regulations to treat her Hong Kong qualifications as equivalent to the necessary UK qualifications. The refusal was alleged to constitute indirect racial discrimination. The … Continue reading Hampson v Department of Education and Science: HL 7 Jun 1990
The applicant appealed an order striking out her complaint of race discrimination as hopeless. She sought recognition as a veterinary surgeon. Her claim had been dismissed because, under the section the College exercised a statutory power. She asserted that the regulations gave a wide discretion to the College to exempt individuals from all or part … Continue reading Dr (Mrs) U A Uruakpa v Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons: EAT 18 Jun 2001
Swedish students on vocational courses in the UK had received loans from their home country, but were denied the grants towards their course fees which were made to English students. They claimed race discrimination. Although the withholding of grants was an indirect discrimination, it fell outside the Act and was not actionable because the acts … Continue reading Nabadda and Others v Westminster City Council; Gomilsek v Haringey London Borough Council: CA 24 Feb 2000
The claimant sought to bring an action for race discrimination. The defendant argued that the alleged acts of discrimination took place whilst he was on a posting abroad in Cyprus after serving 16 years in England, and that therefore the tribunal did not have jurisdiction. The EAT considered that the question had to be looked … Continue reading Saggar v Ministry of Defence: CA 27 Apr 2005
The company appealed against a finding of race discrimination. Held: As a matter of law the concept of vicarious liability provided for in Section 41(1) of the Act, identical to that under Section 32(1) of the Race Relations Act 1976. Citations:  UKEAT 56 – 94 – 2703,  IRLR 529 Links: Bailii Statutes: Race … Continue reading Tower Boot Company Ltd v Jones: EAT 27 Mar 1995
Appeal from striking out of claims for victimisation Judges: Laws, Gage, Rimer LJJ Citations:  EWCA Civ 1052,  ICR 208,  IRLR 232 Links: Bailii Statutes: Race Relations Act 1976 2(1) Jurisdiction: England and Wales Discrimination Updated: 14 June 2022; Ref: scu.341669
Judges: Langstaff QC Rec Citations:  UKEAT 377 – 01 – 1109 Links: Bailii Statutes: Race Relations Act 1976 Employment, Discrimination Updated: 14 June 2022; Ref: scu.204199
Three Defence employees sought to bring claims of variously race and sex discrimination against the Ministry. In each case their services were provided almost entirely abroad, and the defendant argued that there was no jurisdiction to hear the case, and that jurisdiction was not created by minimal presence here. Held: The provisions as to jurisdiction … Continue reading Saggar v Ministry of Defence: EAT 25 May 2004
The claimant was a social work student. He attended a work experience placement, and challenged the report given by the defendants on that placement, saying it was discriminatory and defamatory. He appealed a strike out of his claim. Held: The occasion was one of qualified privilege. The claimant had to establish malice to defeat that … Continue reading Meade v Pugh and Another: QBD 5 Mar 2004
The employer, a vehicle hire operator, explained to the Claimant employee following her appointment as a receptionist their policy that if she received an enquiry from any coloured or Asians, judging by their voices, she was to tell them that there were no vehicles available. Upset by that policy she promptly resigned, and later claimed … Continue reading Weathersfield Ltd (T/a Van and Truck Rentals) v Sargent: CA 10 Dec 1998
The council had dismissed a black road sweeper to whose appointment the trade union objected on racial grounds. Held: The council’s motive for doing so, to avert industrial action, could not avail them. Woolf J said: ‘In this case although the employer’s motives are wholly unobjectionable, he is clearly treating the black employee less favourably … Continue reading Regina v Commission for Racial Equality (ex parte Westminster City Council): QBD 1984
The tribunal considered the method of selection of the pool on a claim for indirect discrimination. In this case the claimant alleged that an age test applied on his application would effectively limit the proportion of coloured who would meet the tests. Held: The Commission’s appeal was allowed in part. The proportion of late immigrants … Continue reading Perera v Civil Service Commission (No 2): EAT 1982
The appellant, of Nigerian origin had been brought here at the age of 14 with false identity papers, and was put to work caring for the respondent’s children. In 2008 she was dismissed and ejected from the house. She brought proceedings alleging racial discrimination, but the only element of her claim which succeeded was of … Continue reading Hounga v Allen and Another: SC 30 Jul 2014
The Court discussed the nature of ‘a requirement or condition’ for the purposes of the 1976 Act. Held: Dillon LJ said: ‘The case of Perera decided that there can only be a requirement or condition within s.1(1)(b) of the Race Relations Act 1976 if the requirement or condition, or whatever other word may be used … Continue reading Meer v London Borough of Tower Hamlets: CA 26 May 1988
amnesty_ahmedEAT2009 EAT RACE DISCRIMINATION – Direct discriminationRACE DISCRIMINATION – Indirect discriminationRACE DISCRIMINATION – Protected by s. 41UNFAIR DISMISSAL – Constructive dismissalClaimant, of (northern) Sudanese ethnic origin, applied for promotion to role of ‘Sudan researcher’ for Amnesty International – Not appointed because Amnesty believed that the appointment of a person of her ethnic origin would compromise … Continue reading Amnesty International v Ahmed: EAT 13 Aug 2009
Same Sex Partner Entitled to tenancy Succession The protected tenant had died. His same-sex partner sought a statutory inheritance of the tenancy. Held: His appeal succeeded. The Fitzpatrick case referred to the position before the 1998 Act: ‘Discriminatory law undermines the rule of law because it is the antithesis of fairness. It brings the law … Continue reading Ghaidan v Godin-Mendoza: HL 21 Jun 2004
The claimant was a police sergeant. After many years he had not been promoted. He began proceedings for race discrimination. Whilst those were in course, he applied for a post elsewhere. That force wrote to his own requesting a reference. In the light of the discrimination claim, they were advised not to reply for fear … Continue reading Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police v Khan: HL 11 Oct 2001
E complained that his exclusion from admission to the school had been racially discriminatory. The school applied an Orthodox Jewish religious test which did not count him as Jewish because of his family history. Held: The school’s appeal failed. English law may be at fault because it made no allowance for any justification of direct … Continue reading E, Regina (on The Application of) v Governing Body of JFS and Another: SC 16 Dec 2009
Allowance of Stigma Damages The employees claimed damages, saying that the way in which their employer had behaved during their employment had led to continuing losses, ‘stigma damages’ after the termination. Held: It is an implied term of any contract of employment that the employer shall not without reasonable and proper cause conduct itself in … Continue reading Malik v Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI); Mahmud v Bank of Credit and Commerce International: HL 12 Jun 1997
Contrary to his employers orders, a milkman allowed children to assist him in his milkround. One was injured, and sued the milkman’s employer. Held: The milkman had not gone so far outside the activities for which he was employed for the employer to escape liability. Lord Scarman said: ‘In words which have frequently been quoted … Continue reading Rose v Plenty: CA 7 Jul 1975
Extension oh Human Rights Beyond Borders The appellants complained that the system set up by the respondent where Home Office officers were placed in Prague airport to pre-vet applicants for asylum from Romania were dsicriminatory in that substantially more gypsies were refused entry than others, and that it was contrary to the obligations of the … Continue reading Regina v Immigration Officer at Prague Airport and another, ex parte European Roma Rights Centre and others: HL 9 Dec 2004
Bias may not be intentional The applicant claimed that he had been denied appointment to a job with London Regional Transport because he had brought a number of previous race discrimination claims against it or associated companies. An industrial tribunal had upheld his claim of victimisation contrary to section 2(1) of the 1976 Act, finding … Continue reading Swiggs and others v Nagarajan: HL 15 Jul 1999
No Judicial Review of Decisions of Private Body Despite the wide range of its powers, the disciplinary committee of the Jockey Club remains a domestic tribunal. Judicial review is not available to a member. Tne relationship is in contract between the club and its member. Sir Thomas Bingham MR: ‘No serious racecourse management, owner, trainer … Continue reading Regina v Disciplinary Committee of the Jockey Club, ex parte Aga Khan: CA 4 Dec 1992
The appellants were mothers of two servicemen who had died whilst on active service in Iraq. They appealed refusal to grant a public inquiry. There had already been coroners inquests. They said that Article 2 had been infringed. Held: The appeal was dismissed. The right to an inquiry was procedural and depended first on the … Continue reading Gentle, Regina (on the Application of) and Another v The Prime Minister and Another: HL 9 Apr 2008
The claimant, a male to female transsexual, challenged a decision by the respondent to refuse breast augmentation treatment. The Trust had a policy ‘GRS is a Low Priority treatment due to the limited evidence of clinical effectiveness and is not routinely funded.’ Held: The claim for judicial review failed. There was no general medical concensus … Continue reading AC v Berkshire West Primary Care Trust, Equality and Human Rights Commissions intervening: Admn 25 May 2010
Dyson LJ considered the interaction between race relations law and planning permission in the context of gypsy encampments. He looked at section 71 of the 1976 Act and said: ‘In my judgment, it is important to emphasise that the section 71(1) duty is not a duty to achieve a result, namely to eliminate unlawful racial … Continue reading Baker and Others, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government and Others: CA 28 Feb 2008
The Council applied for the committal of the defendant for an alleged breach of a without notice injunction. Notice of the injunction had been placed at the site, requiring nobody to move caravans onto the land. Held: The application succeeded. Having examined the case law the need for committal was established. The defendant was to … Continue reading Broxbourne Borough Council v Robb and Others: QBD 27 Jun 2011
The court was asked as to the duty of local housing authorities towards homeless people who claim to be ‘vulnerable’, and therefore to have ‘a priority need’ for the provision of housing accommodation under Part VII of the Housing Act 1996. Those . .
The appellant had complained to the Employment Tribunal alleging race discrimination by the Respondent. That claim had failed, and several appeals had also failed. The claim alleged indirect discrimination, and the respondent admitted unwitting . .
The claimant’s brother had died whilst in custody. Prosecutions of police officers had failed, and the claimant alleged that Crown Prosecution Service had been negligent and discriminatory in its conduct of the prosecution. . .
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Striking-out/dismissal
Consideration of ss.12(1A) and 27A Race Relations Act 1976. Employment Judge correct in striking out Claimant’s . .
EAT Race Discrimination : Direct – Indirect – Continuing act
The Employment Tribunal was correct to find that it had no jurisdiction to entertain claims for direct and indirect discrimination on the grounds . .
EAT RACE DISCRIMINATION – Burden of proof
The Employment Tribunal did not apply section 54A(2) of the Race Relations Act 1976. The facts upon which the Claimant relied, taken as a whole were such that the . .
EAT TRADE UNION RIGHTS – Action short of dismissal
VICTIMISATION DISCRIMINATION – Other forms of victimisation
The Employment Tribunal did not err in failing to determine the Appellant’s claim under . .
EAT VICTIMISATION DISCRIMINATION
SEX DISCRIMINATION – Burden of Proof
Ex-employee given unfavourable reference – Claim that terms of reference were partly on account of her having previously brought . .
An employer’s liability for racial abuse by its employees is wider than its liability under the rules of vicarious liability. The statute created new obligations. Sex and race discrimination legislation seeks to eradicate the ‘very great evil’ of . .
EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE: Case management
UNFAIR DISMISSAL: Constructive dismissal
RACE DISCRIMINATION: Burden of proof
An Employment Tribunal did not err in law when it upheld the Claimant’s . .
The claimant had been a cook. A poster was put up at work redrawn to show her in a sexually suggestive pose. The court now considered an appeal agreed by consent by the parties.
Held: Since the case had been heard, the Court of Appeal in Tower . .
EAT SEX DISCRIMINATION: Burden of proof
RACE DISCRIMINATION: Inferring discrimination
Tribunal found Claimant to have suffered both sex and race discrimination in course of her employment as a . .
The court considered the use of injunctions to restrain breaches of planning control. The applicants were gypsies who had taken up occupation of land in mobile homes. The respondent had given them twelve months for them to find alternative . .
EAT RACE DISCRIMINATION: Direct / Burden of proof / Other losses
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE: Delay in ET judgment
STATUTORY DISCIPLINE and GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES: Impact on compensation
C, aged 40, . .
The professor had sought time off to represent another lecturer claiming race discrimination against the University. The University said that her behaviour created a conflict of interest with the University. She continued and herself claimed . .
EAT Unfair dismissal – Procedural fairness/automatically unfair dismissal
Practice and Procedure – Appellate jurisdiction/Reasons/Burns-Barke
Race discrimination – Direct / Burden of proof / . .
The claimant sought to allege race discrimination and appealed refusal by the respondents to release required documents. She had been turned down for an appointment to the Trident task force, and sought disclosure of the reasons. The respondent said . .
A flat was sold, but before the purchasers registered the transfer, the seller was sequestrated, and his trustee registered his own interest as trustee. The buyer complained that the trustee was unjustly enriched.
Held: The Act defined the . .