The three Applicants sought to set aside orders which granted the National Crime Agency a Property Freezing Order and a Disclosure Order against each of them and six other Respondents. McGowan J  EWHC 899 (Admin) Bailii Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Criminal Practice Updated: 14 January 2022; Ref: scu.562907
Applications for discharge of orders under the 2002 Act. Edis J  EWHC 255 (Admin) Bailii Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 England and Wales Criminal Practice Updated: 10 January 2022; Ref: scu.560247
 EWCA Crim 19 Bailii Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 England and Wales Criminal Sentencing Updated: 10 January 2022; Ref: scu.560265
Appeal against a confiscation order made under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (the Act). It requires consideration of the tainted gifts regime created by the Act. Davis LJ, Edis J, Watt HHJ  EWCA Crim 10 Bailii Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 England and Wales Criminal Sentencing Updated: 10 January 2022; Ref: scu.559510
Police had discovered quantities of stolen goods at the appellant’s business premises. He was convicted of receiving stolen goods, and confiscation order made. He now appealed from the inclusion in that order of sums of VAT which had already been accounted for to HMRC. Held: (Hughes and Toulson JJSC dissenting) The defendant’s appeal succeeded. Including … Continue reading Harvey, Regina v: SC 16 Dec 2015
Applications were made in relation to payment of legal fees in proceeds of crime recovery proceedings Globe J  EWHC 1480 (QB) Bailii Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 England and Wales Criminal Practice Updated: 31 December 2021; Ref: scu.510164
Civil recovery orders had been made against the applicant. He had been accused and acquitted of drug trafficking allegations in Europe, but the judge had been persuaded that he had no proper explanation for the accumulation of his wealth, and had rejected his evidence as unreliable. Held: The defendant’s appeal failed. The making of an … Continue reading Gale and Another v Serious Organised Crime Agency: SC 26 Oct 2011
Challenge to civil recovery order Lord Justice Mummery, Lord Justice Richards, And, Lord Justice Leveson  EWCA Civ 518 Bailii Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 England and Wales Criminal Sentencing Updated: 31 December 2021; Ref: scu.509313
FTTTx INCOME TAX AND NICs – tax assessments and penalty assessments – whether SOCA had reasonable grounds to suspect income accruing to appellant due to criminal conduct so that s. 317(1)(a) Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 applied giving it jurisdiction – yes – whether tax assessments for 2004/05 and 2005/06 raised timeously – yes – … Continue reading Fenech v Serious Organised Crime Agency: FTTTx 10 Oct 2013
Application for leave to appeal against refusal of leave to bring judicial review of a decision of the respondent agency. Leave to appeal was granted, but the matter was returned to the administrative court for review. Ward LJ, Sedley LJ, Hooper LJ  EWCA Civ 375,  1 All ER 465 Bailii Proceeds of Crime … Continue reading UMBS Online, Regina (on the Application Of) v Serious Organised Crime Agency: CA 21 Mar 2007
No Waiver for disclosure of Advice EAT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE: Admissibility of evidence The claimant sought disclosure of certain legal advice on the basis that its effect, and a summary of its contents, had been put before the court and therefore privilege was waived. The Tribunal rejected the application and the EAT held that they … Continue reading Brennan and others v Sunderland City Council Unison GMB: EAT 16 Dec 2008
The court was asked whether, as second mortgagee on the defendant’s properties, the claimant agency had the equitable power of marshalling of prior charges. The first chargee had charges over two properties, and sold the first, satisfying it debt, but leaving the Agency with no effective return. The bank’s same debts had also been secured … Continue reading Serious Organised Crime Agency v Szepietowski and Others: ChD 15 Oct 2010
The defendants appealed against confiscation orders on the basis that in various ways, the Crown had failed to comply with procedural requirements. Held: The courts must remember the importance of such procedures in the fight against crime, and must not allow procedural or technical failures to defeat that purpose. Courts should rather look to see … Continue reading Sekhon, etc v Regina: CACD 16 Dec 2002
The applicants had been imprisoned and held without trial, being suspected of international terrorism. No criminal charges were intended to be brought. They were foreigners and free to return home if they wished, but feared for their lives if they did. A British subject, who was suspected in the exact same way, and there were … Continue reading A v Secretary of State for the Home Department, and X v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 16 Dec 2004
The defendant had pleaded to charges of possession of drugs with intent to supply. He was sentenced, but then the prosecutor was 14 months’ late serving its notice with regard to the confiscation order under section 16. The crown now appealed . .
Claim brought by the National Crime Agency (the ‘NCA’) for a civil recovery order under Chapter 2 of Part 5 of the POCA in relation to certain assets (the ‘Disputed Assets’) held by the First and Second Defendant. . .
The parties sought guidance from the court on the circumstances which arose in ancillary relief proceedings where a legal representative came to believe that one party might be holding the proceeds of crime. In the course of ancillary relief . .
Proceedings for the civil recovery of the proceeds of unlawful conduct . .
Order for costs after rejection of challenge to Order under the 2002 Act. . .
Reasons for order releasing funds from sums subject to restraint order. . .
The claimant sought civil recovery against the third defendant and those said to be assisting him by holding property on his behalf. . .
FTTTx Income Tax – Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 – application by Appellants to stay proceedings in appeals against assessments and penalty determinations on grounds of lack of resources due to subjection of their . .
The court heard appeals against disclosure orders made under the 2002 Act. The appellants argued that neither the offence, nor the assets nor the appellants themselves were within the jurisdiction. . .
The appellants challenged an order made against them under the 2002 Act where Mr Gale had been prosecuted abroad, but not convicted on drug trafficking allegations. The Agency said that no satisfactory explanation had been given of the considerable . .
Mr Gale had been prosecuted twice in foreign courts on allegations of drug trafficking. Each prosecution had failed. The Agency nevertheless sought an order under the 2002 Act alleging that his property was the fruit of criminal activity.
The Claimants claimed damages in a sum in excess of US$300,000,000 arising out of delays by the Defendant, their bankers, in executing four transfers from the Claimants’ account during the period September 2006 to March 2007 and the Defendant’s . .
The Agency asked to have set aside four orders allowing the defendant to have excluded from his assets subject to an interim receiving order to allow payment of his legal expenses.
Held: There was no rule that assets once excluded from an . .
Several of the defendants applied for assets to be excluded from an interim receiving order in order to enable them to meet legal expenses. . .
S owned several propertie in charge to the bank, but the Agency said that each had been acquired with the proceeds of criminal activity. The parties had settled the claim by the grant of a second charge in favour of the Agency. However when that . .
The defendant challenged the making of civil orders for recovery of what were alleged to be the proceeds of crime. They complained that no specific offence had been made out. The court was asked, as a preliminary issue: ‘Whether a claim for civil . .
The defendant appealed against a confiscation order made following his conviction for conspiracy to supply controlled drugs. . .
The bank had reported to the respondent its suspicions about funds it held for the claimant. The accounts were frozen, and the customer now sought a judicial review of the refusal of the Agency to reconsider its decision.
Held: The review was . .
Statutory provisions which reversed the burden of proof in cases involving drug smuggling and other repeat offenders, allowing confiscation orders to be made were not necessarily in contravention of the article 6 right. However the question of . .
Save in cases involving children and ancillary and other situations requiring it, cases in the family division were not inherently private. The appellant failed to obtain an order that details of an action under the section should not be disclosed . .
Having been convicted of theft, a confiscation order had been made against which the appellant appealed. The Court of Appeal certified a question of whether confiscation provisions under the 1988 Act were in breach of the defendant’s human rights. . .
The fact that the elderly victim of the robbery of which the defendant had been convicted had failed to pick out Mr Edwards when she was shown two volumes of photographs of possible burglars which included his photograph was not disclosed to the . .
The defendant was convicted of an offence to which section 15 of the Theft Act did not apply. It involved a deception of the auditors of BCCI in concealing a number of substantial loans made to a group of companies run by the defendant. Buxton J had . .
A substantial confiscation order was made with respect to money seized from the applicant on the ground that customs officers believed the money was directly or indirectly the proceeds of drugs trafficking and/or was intended for use in drug . .
Appeal from sentencing for money laundering and of doing acts tending and intended to pervert the course of public justice. . .
ICO (Central Government) The complainant requested information about restraint and confiscation orders made under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (POCA). The Ministry of Justice (MoJ) denied holding the requested . .
Applications relating to asset freezing orders. . .
The court considered how to deal with a payment into court for the benefit of the parties when assets of one were to be made subject to a restraint order. . .
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The applicants had had their requests for asylum refused. They complained that if they were removed from the UK, their article 3 rights would be infringed. If they were returned to Pakistan or Vietnam they would be persecuted for their religious faiths. Held: A distinction was to be made between domestic cases involving actions within … Continue reading Regina v Special Adjudicator ex parte Ullah; Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 17 Jun 2004
Davis LJ, Lang DBE, Patterson DBE JJ  EWCA Crim 1731,  1 WLR 1400,  1 Cr App R (S) 41,  Lloyd’s Rep FC 21,  Crim LR 12,  Crim LR 127 Bailii Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 England and Wales Criminal Sentencing Updated: 05 January 2022; Ref: scu.554245
23178/13 – Communicated Case,  ECHR 168 Bailii European Convention on Human Rights, Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Human Rights, Criminal Sentencing Updated: 28 December 2021; Ref: scu.542941
ECHR Article 1 para. 1 of Protocol No. 1 Peaceful enjoyment of possessions Narrow scope of review for order confiscating wages from employment obtained using a false passport: violation Facts – The applicant, an Ivoirian national living illegally in the United Kingdom, obtained employment using a false French passport. From 2003 to 2007 he accumulated … Continue reading Paulet v The United Kingdom: ECHR 13 May 2014
The claimant was responsible for recovering money under the 2002 Act, and alleged that the first defendant had been engaged in a mortgage fraud. Held: To succeed in such a claim for recovery the Claimant must prove, ‘on a balance of probabilities’, that the matters alleged to constitute unlawful conduct occurred. The court had a … Continue reading Assets Recovery Agency v Olupitan and Another: QBD 8 Feb 2007
Appeal brought by way of case stated from the decision of the Crown Court at Chelmsford on 1 March 2013 to uphold the decision of the Magistrates’ Court to order the forfeiture of a sum of andpound;6,500 pursuant to section 298 of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 Andrews J  EWHC 462 (Admin) Bailii … Continue reading Nuro v The Home Office: Admn 7 Feb 2014
Several defendants appealed against confiscation orders made against them on convictions for avoiding customs and excise duty by re-importing cigarettes originally intended for export. They had accepted the orders being made by consent, but now appealed saying that the consent had been given following inaccurate legal advice. Held: The appeals were allowed. The fact that … Continue reading Mackle, Regina v: SC 29 Jan 2014
 ScotCS CSIH – 81 Bailii Scotland Citing: See Also – Scottish Ministers v Stirton and Another SCS 5-Feb-2008 Application for an interim administration order in terms of the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 and for warrant for inhibition and arrestment . . See Also – Scottish Ministers v Stirton and Another SCS 30-Apr-2009 . … Continue reading The Scottish Ministers v Stirton and Another: SCS 11 Oct 2013
The claimant’s husband had been made subject to a criminal confiscation order in the sum of pounds 5.5 million. She now sought to appeal an action against life policies in which she claimed a 50% interest. Held: Despite the finding that she had some awareness of her husband’s activities, the claimant was entitled to keep … Continue reading Gibson v Revenue and Customs Prosecution Office: CA 12 Jun 2008
The Revenue appealed against discharge of a restraint order. The discharge had been on the basis that some of the offences under investigation (perpetrating a fraud on the revenue) took place before the 2002 Act came into effect. Held: The appeal succeeded. Under the former law, criminal proceedings had to be about to be begun … Continue reading In re Hill and Others (Restraint Order): CACD 20 Dec 2005
The defendant had been convicted of handling and receiving stolen goods. He now appealed from a confiscation order made under the 2002 Act. The defendant having admitted to benefiting from a criminal lifestyle, the court had to decide to what extent, if any, he had benefited over the relevant period from his ‘general criminal conduct’, … Continue reading Harvey, Regina v: CACD 3 Jul 2013
The defendants appealed against orders requiring them to disclose documents in an action regarding the payment of bribes, saying that the requirement effectively required them to incriminate themselves. Held: The appeal failed. The public interest required that those alleged to be in the possession of property belonging to a third party should be allowed to … Continue reading Kensington International Ltd v Republic of Congo: CA 7 Nov 2007
Cere Needed Releasing Future Claims A compromise agreement which appeared to claim to settle all outstanding claims between the employee and employer, did not prevent the employee later claiming for stigma losses where, at the time of the agreement, the circumstances which might lead to a claim were unknown to either party, and such losses … Continue reading Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA v Ali, Khan and others (No 1); BCCI v Ali: HL 1 Mar 2001
Each defendant challenged the way he had been treated on revocation of his parole licence, saying he should have been given the opportunity to make oral representations. Held: The prisoners’ appeals were allowed. Lord Bingham stated: ‘While an oral hearing is most obviously necessary to achieve a just decision in a case where facts are … Continue reading Regina v Parole Board ex parte Smith, Regina v Parole Board ex parte West (Conjoined Appeals): HL 27 Jan 2005
The appellant said that the police officers had acted unlawfully when collecting the evidence used against him, in that the information used to support the request for permission to undertake clandestine surveillance had been insufficiently detailed, and that the police had acted in breach of his article 8 rights in obtaining evidence by surveillance since … Continue reading Kinloch v Her Majesty’s Advocate: SC 19 Dec 2012
The defendants appealed against confiscation orders made on conviction for dealing with goods with intent to defraud the CandE of payable duty namely in bringing in excess numbers of cigarettes. Held: The appeal succeeded. In many cases the Customs and Excise had prosecuted on a basis which was invalidated by the alteration of the 1992 … Continue reading Regina v Khan; Regina v Lockett: CACD 12 Mar 2009
The claimant challenged a decision to seize a sustantial sum of cash being carried by him whilst passing through London City Airport. In the magistrates court, the claimant had objected to the reliance on parts of a customs officer’s statement which he said was argument, and not fact. Held: The case had been a simple … Continue reading Wiese v The UK Border Agency: Admn 29 Jun 2012
The Court considered whether a whole life sentence under section 269(4) of the 2003 Act was compatible with Article 3. The defendant had been convicted of murdering a policeman and of attempted murder of two others. Held: The whole life tarriff was quashed. The 2003 Act introduced the possibility of a whole life sentence with … Continue reading Bieber (Aka Coleman) v Regina: CACD 23 Jul 2008
The defendant had been convicted of offences under the 1979 Act, but then conditionally discharged. He had appealed against a confiscation order. The prosecutor now appealed against an order quashing the confiscation. Held: The appeal was allowed. The answer lay in the important distinction between situations where the court was exercising a discretion, and where … Continue reading Varma, Regina v: SC 10 Oct 2012
Rejection of Submission of No Case to Answer The defendant had faced a charge of affray. The court having rejected his submission of having no case to answer, he had made an exculpatory statement from the dock. He appealed against his conviction. Held: Lord Lane LCJ said: ‘How then should the judge approach a submission … Continue reading Regina v Galbraith: CCA 1981
The claimant challenged the legality of a search warrant and the method of its execution on his home. He complained that the police had ensured publicity for the execution of the warrant. Held: The obtaining of a search warrant is never to be treated as a formality. It authorises the invasion of a person’s home. … Continue reading Redknapp and Another v Commissioner of the City of London Police and Another: Admn 23 May 2008
The defendant had been convicted of drugs offences, and sentenced under the 1994 Act. The gains he had made exceeded his then assets. Later he acquired further property honestly, and the Court now considered whether those assets could be taken to cover the earlier shortfall, by allowing for them when issuing a certificate to increase … Continue reading Peacock, Re: SC 22 Feb 2012
The applicant suffered mutiple sclerosis and considered that she might wish to go abroad to end her life. She asked the court to make more clear the guidance provided by the Director as to whether her partner might be prosecuted under section 2(1) if he accompanied her to Switzerland. She said that the failure to … Continue reading Purdy, Regina (on the Application of) v Director of Public Prosecutions and Another: QBD 29 Oct 2008
The defendant agreed to help a friend named Harrington to hide some money for a period. Under the arrangement Harrington transferred around andpound;123,000 into the defendant’s bank account. The defendant used some of it to make some purchases for Harrington and, after an interval, he repaid the balance to Harrington less about andpound;5,000. The prosecution’s … Continue reading Geary, Regina v: CACD 30 Jul 2010
Extension oh Human Rights Beyond Borders The appellants complained that the system set up by the respondent where Home Office officers were placed in Prague airport to pre-vet applicants for asylum from Romania were dsicriminatory in that substantially more gypsies were refused entry than others, and that it was contrary to the obligations of the … Continue reading Regina v Immigration Officer at Prague Airport and another, ex parte European Roma Rights Centre and others: HL 9 Dec 2004
The defendant had been convicted of involvement in a substantial VAT fraud, and made subject to a confiscation order. He was made subject to a confiscation order in respect of the amounts lost to the fraud where he was involved, but argued that the court had made each of 16 defendants liable for the full … Continue reading May, Regina v: HL 14 May 2008
The defendant appealed against confiscation orders made under the 2002 Act. He had bought a flat with a substantial deposit from his own resources, and the balance from a lender. That lender was repaid after he took a replacement loan. He was later convicted of having misled the first lender in his application. The judge … Continue reading Waya, Regina v: SC 14 Nov 2012
The RCPO appealed against refusal of permission to continue their application for a confiscation order. The defendant had been convicted of conspiracy to supply class A drugs, but said that the application was now out of time. Held: The appeal failed. Where a confiscation order application was to be made outside the two year time … Continue reading Regina v Iqbal; Revenue and Customs Prosecution Office (RCPO) v Iqbal: CACD 3 Feb 2010
The court was asked whether the Financial Services Authority had itself the power to prosecute offences under the 2002 Act. The defence said that the FSA’s powers were limited to offences under the 2000 Act. The FSA relied on its common law power to bring a prosecution. Held: the FSA was not a statutory body, … Continue reading Rollins, Regina v: CACD 9 Oct 2009
The defendants had had confiscation orders made against them. They had appealed on the basis that the orders were made more than six months after sentence. The prosecutor now appealed saying that the fact that the order were not timely did not invalidate them. Held: The appeal was allowed. The confiscation orders made by the … Continue reading Regina v Soneji and Bullen: HL 21 Jul 2005
The court considered the proper approach for the court to adopt, and the proper orders for the court to make, in confiscation proceedings where a number of criminals (some of whom may not be before the court) had between them acquired property or money as a result of committing an offence for which all or … Continue reading Ahmad, Regina v: SC 18 Jun 2014
PI Damages not Reduced for Own Pension The plaintiff policeman was disabled by the negligence of the defendant and received a disablement pension. Part had been contributed by himself and part by his employer. Held: The plaintiff’s appeal succeeded. Damages for personal injury were not to be reduced by deducting the full net value of … Continue reading Parry v Cleaver: HL 5 Feb 1969
The defendants had been convicted of offences of failing to comply with planning enforcement notices (and fined andpound;10.00), and subsequently made subject to criminal confiscation orders. The orders had been made in respect of the gross income receipts of the business, limited to andpound;760,000. The defendants said that the activities had been otherwise lawful and … Continue reading Basso and Another v Regina: CACD 19 May 2010
Costs of Wrongly Appointed Receiver ‘The contest in this case is about who should bear the costs and expenses of a receiver appointed under an order which ought not to have been made. The appellant, who is a former partner in a well known firm of accountants, was appointed to act as management receiver of … Continue reading Barnes (As Former Court Appointed Receiver) v The Eastenders Group and Another: SC 8 May 2014
The claimants sought damages after delays by the bank in processing transfer requests. The bank said that the delays were made pending reports of suspected criminal activity. The bank’s delay had stigmatised the claimant causing further losses. The bank requested that the claims be struck out. The claimants sought permission to amend their claims. Held: … Continue reading Shah and Another v HSBC Private Bank (UK) Ltd: QBD 26 Jan 2009
The appellant had made a loan to a third party defendant in criminal fraud proceedings. At the time he did not know that that third party was subject to a restraint order under the 2002 Act. When he did come to know of the order he was asked to say it was a gift. He … Continue reading Kenny v Regina: CACD 30 Jan 2013
The claimant had served an asset freezing order on the bank in respect of one of its customers. The bank paid out on a cheque inadvertently as to the order. The Commissioners claimed against the bank in negligence. The bank denied any duty of care. . .
The appellant had pleaded guilty to a number of offences of dishonesty and asked for a number of others to be taken into consideration. One of the offences to which he had pleaded guilty and one of those which he had asked to be taken into . .
The appellants complained that the recovery order made against them in part under the transitional provisions were unlawful. They had claimed benefits as single people but were married to each other and for a house not occupied. The difficulty was . .
The appellant challenged a confiscation order made on his conviction of VAT fraud. It was argued that one could not be made unless a proper notice had been given, and none of the offences occurred before 1995. On the assumption that section 1 of the . .
The claimant sought damages for the losses it had suffered as a result of price fixing by the defendant companies in the vitamin market. The European Commission had already fined the defendant for its involvement.
Held: In an action for breach . .
Whether fresh evidence from forensic consultant psychiatrists should be admitted; and if so, whether the fresh evidence shows that the appellant, was not fit to plead when a confiscation order was made pursuant to the provisions of the Proceeds of . .
The Albanian claimant was found at Heathrow Airport with a ticket to Tirana and with over andpound;20,000 in cash in his baggage. The district judge held that the cash had been obtained through unlawful conduct and that it was therefore recoverable . .
(From High Court of Justiciary (Scotland)) The defendant had been convicted of drug trafficking. He complained that the following confiscation order had infringed his human rights being based an assumption of guilt and which was incompatible with . .
The prosecutor appealed a finding that the proceeds of cheating the revenue were not the proceeds of crime within the 2002 Act.
Held: The appeal succeeded. The case was different from Galbraith in that there was a clear finding of a cheat. The . .
The claimants sought to have set aside search and seizure warrants obtained to further enquiries into suspected breaches of EU sanctions against ZANU-PF of Zimbabwe. They alleged non-disclosure and misrepresentation.
Held: A decision to claim . .
Appeal against sentence presents a challenge which is restricted to the term of imprisonment imposed in default of payment of a confiscation order made under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002. . .
The prosecutor appealed from a terminal ruling, acceding to a submission of no case to answer advanced on behalf of all four defendants.
Proof to the criminal standard can be discharged by circumstantial evidence and then by inference: ‘No . .
An application had been made under section 298 of the 2002 Act for the forfeiture of cash. The application had been dismissed by the magistrates’ court, but they also refused order the defendant’s costs. The police appealed to the Crown Court . .