Devolution issue arises as to Act of NI Minister The basis for the Attorney’s reference is his assertion that the universal credit provisions in question breach articles 8, 12 and 14 of the ECHR and article 1 of the first protocol to the ECHR and are therefore invalid per section 24 of the 1998 Act. … Continue reading Northern Ireland Devolution Issues, A Reference By The Attorney General (Northern Ireland): SC 5 Feb 2020
Five questions referred by the Attorney General for Northern Ireland. Held: The matter was adjourned: ‘it is desirable that legal questions be determined against the background of a clear factual matrix, rather than as theoretical or academic issues of law. The opportunity for discussion and determination of the legal questions raised in the AGNI’s reference … Continue reading Northern Ireland of devolution issues, Reference by the Attorney General for (Northern Ireland): SC 14 Jan 2019
A member state was not allowed to impose a tax regime which discriminated against the subsidiaries of a company based in that state where they were based in other member states, but discrimination was allowed where the subsidiaries were based outside EU. United Kingdom legislation restricting fiscal reliefs or advantages to cases where the relevant … Continue reading Imperial Chemical Industries v Colmer: ECJ 16 Jul 1998
The claimant had brought and lost an action relating to his dismissal by the defendant, who now appealed against an order that he was not estopped from bring a second claim on a different basis namely race discrimination, disapplying the rule in Henderson. Held: The Council’s appeal succeeded. The rule in Henderson should have been … Continue reading Divine-Bortey v London Borough of Brent: CA 14 May 1998
The court was asked as to the meaning of ‘qualification’ when considered under the Act: ‘It is our view that the word ‘qualification’ itself and the other words in the definition viz ‘authority, recognition, registration, enrolment, approval and certification’ convey with reasonable clarity the idea of (a) some sort of status conferred on an employee … Continue reading Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland v Bone: 15 Sep 1993
The applicants complained that as an unmarried couple they had been excluded from consideration as adopters. Held: Northern Ireland legislation had not moved in the same way as it had for other jurisdictions within the UK. The greater commitment to traditional family structures did not however justify the difference. The rules were unlawful discrimination.Lord Hoffmann … Continue reading In re P and Others, (Adoption: Unmarried couple) (Northern Ireland); In re G: HL 18 Jun 2008
Judges: Carswell LCJ Citations:  NI 78 Citing: Cited – Regina v Derby Crown Court, ex parte Brooks QBD 1985 The court set out the characteristics of abuse of process in criminal matters. It may be an abuse of process if: ‘the prosecution have manipulated or misused the process of the court so as to … Continue reading Re Molloy’s Application: CANI 1998
The Court dismissed an appeal against a sentence of 10 years’ imprisonment imposed for armed robbery of almost andpound;9,000 from a bank: ‘Armed robbery at banks is a growing form of criminal activity and the efforts of the courts to deter do not appear to be achieving appreciable success. Accordingly we are satisfied that the … Continue reading Regina v Coates: CANI 1998
MacDermott LJ said: ‘The attitude of the courts in this jurisdiction to the offence of supplying proscribed drugs is well known (see the observation of the Lord Chief Justice in Haveron and a series of subsequent cases). In short the courts in this jurisdiction view the supply or possession with intent to supply, of any … Continue reading Regina v Hutton: QBNI 1998
Jacobs J said: ‘I do not think it is right to divide up the claim for an invention which consists of a combination of elements and then to seek to identify who contributed which element. I think the inquiry is more fundamental than that. One must seek to identify who in substance made the combination. … Continue reading Henry Brothers (Magherafelt) Ltd v Ministry of Defence Northern Ireland Office: ChD 1997
Police’s Complete Immunity was Too Wide (Grand Chamber) A male teacher developed an obsession with a male pupil. He changed his name by deed poll to the pupil’s surname. He was required to teach at another school. The pupil’s family’s property was subjected to numerous acts of vandalism, which the police investigated and in respect … Continue reading Osman v The United Kingdom: ECHR 28 Oct 1998
The claimant’s son had been stabbed to death. She challenged the refusal of the coroner to continue with the inquest with a view to examining the responsibility of any of the police in having failed to protect him. Held: The question amounted to asking whether the coroner’s decision on the resumption should have been affected … Continue reading Hurst, Regina (on the Application of) v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis v London Northern District Coroner: HL 28 Mar 2007
A meeting was not a public meeting just because the public attended without objection. A press conference to which press only had had invitations was not as such public, and a report of it was not protected under the Act Judges: Carswell LCJ Citations: Times 11-Nov-1998,  NI 358 Statutes: Defamation Act (Northern Ireland) 1955 … Continue reading Turkington and Others (Practising as McCartan Turkington Breen) v Times Newspapers Ltd: CANI 11 Nov 1998
The Commission was a creation of statute, and had not been given power to intervene in judicial proceedings. The coroner was investigating deaths at Omagh from a terrorist bombing, and the Commission sought to intervene. The Act should not be read restrictively, but nor could provisions be read into it which did not exist at … Continue reading Regina v Greater Belfast Coroner, ex parte Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission: CANI 11 May 2001
The court was asked as to the liability in damages of information society services, in this case Facebook, for misuse of private information as a result of postings on their sites by third parties. The postings divulged historic sexual ffending. Held: With the passage of time the protection of an offender by prohibiting the disclosure … Continue reading CG v Facebook Ireland Ltd and Another: CANI 21 Dec 2016
French consignees of a shipment of peaches sued in France the Australian issuers of the bill of laiding under which the goods were carried (a contract claim) and the Dutch carriers and master of the ship in which they were carried (tort claims). Held: There was no jurisdiction under Article 6(1) because none of the … Continue reading Reunion Europeenne Sa and Others v Spliethoff’s Bevrachtingskantoor Bv and Another: ECJ 27 Oct 1998
The deceased had been shot by soldiers of the British Army whilst in a car in Northern Ireland. The car was alleged to have ‘run’ a checkpoint. The claimants said the investigation, now 20 years ago, had been inadequate. The claim was brought under human rights law, but predated by many years the incorporation of … Continue reading In re McKerr (Northern Ireland): HL 11 Mar 2004
The appellant was detained under section 37 of the 1983 Act as a mental patient with a restriction under section 41. He sought his release. Held: The standard of proof in such applications remained the balance of probabilities, but that standard was flexible, and varied according to the seriousness of the allegation. The only misdirection … Continue reading AN, Regina (on the Application of) v Mental Health Review Tribunal (Northern Region) and others: CA 21 Dec 2005
ICO An undertaking to comply with the seventh data protection principle has been signed by Department of Justice Northern Ireland. This follows the sale of a filing cabinet that contained documents originating from within the Northern Ireland Prison service. The documents contained personal data, as defined by section 1 of the Data Protection Act 1998 … Continue reading Department of Justice Northern Ireland (Undertakings ): ICO 19 Jun 2014
Legislation which disallowed claimants who asserted that they had been discriminated against, on the grounds of their religious background, from appealing through the courts system, was a clear breach of their human rights. A limitation will not be compatible with Article 6(1) if it does not pursue a legitimate aim and if there is not … Continue reading Tinnelly and Sons Ltd and Others and McElduff and Others v United Kingdom: ECHR 10 Jul 1998
The claimant suffered a condition which would lead to the development of vocal nodules unless she followed a program which would allow her to avoid raising her voice. She said that employer should not have placed her within a noisy environment. The employer appealed against a decision that she suffered a disability saying that she … Continue reading SCA Packaging Ltd v Boyle (Northern Ireland): HL 1 Jul 2009
The UK lodged a derogation with the Court as regards its human rights obligations in Northern Ireland because of the need to control terroist activity. The Government of Ireland intervened. From August 1971 until December 1975 the UK authorities exercised a series of ‘extrajudicial’ powers of arrest, detention and internment in Northern Ireland. The case … Continue reading The Republic of Ireland v The United Kingdom: ECHR 18 Jan 1978
The Sentence Review Commissioners had decided not to order the release of the prisoner, who was serving a life sentence. He had been released on licence from a life sentence and then committed further serious sexual offences against under-age girls and was recalled. In considering his application for a further licence he complained that the … Continue reading In re D; Doherty, Re (Northern Ireland); Life Sentence Review Commissioners v D: HL 11 Jun 2008
The company decided to make redundancies. The applicants, all selected, had worked in more than one section of the plant. All employees worked under the same contract, but employees were chosen only from the one section. The complainants said that the entire workforce should have been considered. Held: Under the Order it was for the … Continue reading Murray and Another v Foyle Meats Ltd (Northern Ireland): HL 8 Jul 1999
A party had applied to a judge for what in effect amounted to leave to appeal and had been refused. Held: Wherever power is given to a legal authority to grant or refuse leave to appeal, the decision of that authority is, from the very nature of the thing, final and conclusive and without appeal, … Continue reading In re Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890, Ex parte Stevenson: CA 1892
The Northern Ireland Parliament had elected its first minister and deputy more than six weeks after the election, but the Act required the election to be within that time. It was argued that as a creature of statute, the Parliament could not act outside the powers spelled out. Held: When the Act had been drafted … Continue reading Robinson v Secretary of State for Northern Ireland and Others: HL 25 Jul 2002
The Commission challenged the compatibility of the NI law relating to banning nearly all abortions with Human Rights Law. It now challenged a decision that it did not have standing to bring the case.
Held: (Lady Hale, Lord Kerr and Lord Wilson . .
The Court concludes that in Northern Ireland:
(i) There is no general right to abortion whether under the common law or under statute.
(ii) The Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission (‘the Commission’) has legal standing under the . .
Hudoc Judgment (Merits and just satisfaction) Preliminary objection rejected (locus standi); No violation of Art. 2, not established that applicant . .
The coroner intended to hold an inquest into the deaths on the Omagh bombing. The Commission sought the right to be involved on the basis that human rights of interest to it might arise, and the coroner refused, saying that they had no standing to . .
Provisions against discrimination on religious grounds in Northern Ireland, could apply to appointment of a firm to a panel of experts, where one person was designated to carry out that work. ‘it is essential, for there to be ’employment,’ that the . .
The special relationship between an auditor and a bank, meant that a duty of care could extend even to a second bank with its own auditors. In determining whether there had been an assumption of responsibility, the the relevant factors would include . .
The appellant faced a criminal trial. He was granted legal aid for two counsel. He asked for two particular junior counsel, but the certificate required him to instruct leading counsel and a junior. He objected that this deprived him of the right to . .
The defendant appealed his conviction for obtaining property by deception where part of the offence had taken place abroad.
Held: Smith should be overturned. The last act or terminatory theory remains the binding common law of England and . .
The Crown Court was able to increase the amount of a confiscation order after making the original order, where further assets were revealed, but not beyond assessed benefit to him of the crime. . .
The defendant had admitted charges of obtaining property by deception. A confiscation hearing concluded that he had benefitted to a much greater extent than could be recoverd. Before then however both his parents had died, and he stood to inherit . .
The appellant said that the police Service of Northern Ireland had failed properly to police the ‘flags protest’ in 2012 and 2013. The issue was not as to the care and effort taken, but an alleged misunderstanding of their powers.
Held: Treacy . .
(Northern Ireland) Children had been taken to school in the face of vehement protests from Loyalists. The parents complained that the police had failed to protect them properly, since the behaviour was so bad as to amount to inhuman or degrading . .
In each case a death had occurred many years earlier where the deceased had apparently died at the hands of the armed forces. The relatives now challenged the range of verdicts which could be left to a coroner’s jury.
Lord Bingham said: ‘The . .
(Northern Ireland) The applicant sought judicial review of a decision not to disclose documents held by the respondent to him saying that the refusal was disproportionate and infringed his human rights. The respondents said that the documents were . .
A company complained that it had been refused a tender for work because of discrimination on the ground of religious belief or political opinion since the unions on the site refused to work with the company’s employees, the unions believing the . .
1267 – 1278 – 1285 – 1297 – 1361 – 1449 – 1491 – 1533 – 1677 – 1688 – 1689 – 1700 – 1706 – 1710 – 1730 – 1737 – 1738 – 1751 – 1774 – 1792 – 1793 – 1804 – 1814 – 1819 – 1824 – 1828 – 1831 – 1832 … Continue reading Acts
PIP Arrangements not Discriminatory The claimant suffered a life limiting condition, but not so that her death could be reasonably expected within six months. She complained that the resulting unavailability of PIP and UC without assessment was discriminatory as opposed to those who were predicted not so to survive, but did in fact do so. … Continue reading The Department for Communities v Cox: CANI 3 Aug 2021
Application for Judicial Review of the findings of the International Monitoring Commission contained in its Report presented to Parliament on 20 April 2004 and further of a Direction given by the Secretary of State under Section 51B(2) of the Northern Ireland Act 1998 issued on 28 April 2004. By that Direction the Secretary of State … Continue reading Sinn Fein, Re an Application for Judicial Review: QBNI 14 Feb 2005
Scoffield J  NIQB 120 Bailii Northern Ireland Act 1998 52A 52B Northern Ireland Northern Ireland, Constitutional Updated: 26 January 2022; Ref: scu.670947
The claimant made application for judicial review of the stated intention of the Government of the UK to issue an article 50 notice to leave the EU, by means of the use of the royal Prerogative. They said that any use of the royal prerogative had been displaced by the 1998 Act. Held: There was … Continue reading McCord, Re Judicial Review: QBNI 28 Oct 2016
Scoffield J  NIQB 93 Bailii Northern Ireland Act 1998, Executive Committee (Functions) Act (Northern Ireland) 2020 Northern Ireland Planning Updated: 18 January 2022; Ref: scu.670939
Application by the Committee on the Administration of Justice (CAJ) and Brian Gormally for judicial review of an alleged on-going failure of the Executive Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly to discharge its statutory duty under section 28E of the Northern Ireland Act 1998.  NIQB 59 Bailii Northern Ireland Act 1998 28E Northern Ireland … Continue reading The Committee on The Administration of Justice (CAJ) and Another, Re Judicial Review: QBNI 30 Jun 2015
The court considered whether a power of appeal to the existed.
Held: A power did exist under FETO, and the CANI having mistakenly excluded a power to appeal the Supreme Court could nevertheless hear it. Both appeals were allowed. . .
(Grand Chamber) The applicant had lived with his family in a slum bordering on a municipal house-hold refuse tip. A methane explosion at the tip resulted in a landslide which engulfed the applicant’s house, killing his close relatives. The applicant claimed that the local authorities were responsible for the accident at the tip and for … Continue reading Oneryildiz v Turkey: ECHR 18 Jun 2002
The tribunal set out the test for whether a dismissal was for redundancy: ‘Free of authority, we understand the statutory framework . . involve a three-stage process: (1) was the employee dismissed: If so, (2) had the requirements of the employer’s business for employees to carry out work of a particular kind ceased or diminished, … Continue reading Safeway Stores Plc v Burrell: EAT 24 Jan 1997
The applicant, who feared for his life if identified, sought the release to him of materials discovered by the police in searching premises associated with a loyalist paramiliitary group. He thought that they might include information sourced form the security services. The request was refused. The police offered assistance and advice with the applicant’s security … Continue reading A, Re Application for Judicial Review: QBNI 25 Jun 2001
The claimant police officer considered being transferred to Northern Ireland. He asked and was incorrectly told that his housing allowance would not be affected by taking time off work. Held: The break between employments had affected his entitlements. The finding of a duty of care and its breach involved no new extension of the law. … Continue reading Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis v Lennon: CA 20 Feb 2004
A claim was made under the TUPE regulations. The company replied that the part of the business transferred was not a discrete economic entity. Held: The regulations did not require that in order to be governed by the regulations, a business transferred had to be a discrete entity. Judges: Lord Justice May Lord Justice Mummery … Continue reading Fairhurst Ward Abbotts Limited v Botes Building Limited and others: CA 13 Feb 2004
The claimant’s child had died as a result of negligence in hospital. The parents had been told the result of police investigation and decision not to prosecute, and the hospital’s own investigation, but had not been sufficiently involved. There remained unresolved suspicions of negligence having been covered up. They had been refused legal aid to … Continue reading Khan, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Health: CA 10 Oct 2003
A surviving same-sex partner sought a right of succession to a tenancy (of their previously shared flat). Interveners ‘pointed out that a growing number of national courts in European and other democratic societies require equal treatment of unmarried different-sex partners and unmarried same-sex partners, and that that view is supported by recommendations and legislation of … Continue reading Karner v Austria: ECHR 24 Jul 2003
The appellant’s son and two others had been shot dead by police officers. There remained considerable controversy over the circumstances. The matter had been taken to the ECHR which had found the enquiry inadequate. The parties now disputed the steps taken to give effect to that decision. The court held that the 1998 is not … Continue reading In re McKerr: CANI 10 Jan 2003
(Northern Ireland) The chief constable appealed against a decision that the directions he had given, that officers with poor attendance records for sickness should not be considered for promotion. Held: The Chief Constable had, following the Act, found a serious management problem. The directions were designed to encourage good attendance, and were within his powers, … Continue reading In re Shields: HL 6 Feb 2003
The claimant company said that the 2010 Act was outside the competence of the Scottish Parliament insofar as it severely restricted the capacity of those selling cigarettes to display them for sale. They suggested two faults. First, that the subject matters were reserved to the UK Parliament under the 1998 Act. Second that the Act … Continue reading Imperial Tobacco Ltd v The Lord Advocate: SC 12 Dec 2012
The appellants challenged the legality under European law of orders under the Act restricting their freedom of movement, after suspicion of involvement in football violence. Held: Although the proceedings under which orders were made were civil, the standard of proof required was virtually that of a criminal court. Public policy could be used to justify … Continue reading Gough and Another v Chief Constable of Derbyshire: CA 20 Mar 2002
The appellant had been detained in a mental hospital after a conviction. Later released, he was recalled, but he was not given written reasons as required by a DoH circular. However the SS referred the recall immediately to the Tribunal. He appealed from refusal of a finding that his subsequent detention had been unlawful. Held: … Continue reading Lee-Hirons v Secretary of State for Justice: SC 27 Jul 2016
Challenge to two child limit for child tax credit. Judges: Patten, Leggatt, Nicola Davies LJJ Citations:  EWCA Civ 615,  4 All ER 787,  1 WLR 5687,  WLR(D) 233 Links: Bailii, WLRD Statutes: Welfare Reform and Work Act 2016 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited by: Appeal from – SC, CB and 8 … Continue reading SC and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and Others: CA 16 Apr 2019
The claimant objected to the retention of data about him as to his attendance at assorted political protests. He had not engaged in criminality. Judges: Gross LJ, Irwin J Citations:  EWHC 1471 (Admin),  HRLR 23 Links: Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights 8, Data Protection Act 1998 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited … Continue reading Catt v The Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis: Admn 30 May 2012
The claimant was born an Iraqi, but had been granted British Nationality. He was later detained in Iraq suspected of membership of a terrorist group. No charges were brought, and he complained that his article 5 rights were infringed. The defendant argued that UN resolution 1546 requiring it to maintain order in Iraq displaced the … Continue reading Al-Jedda, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Defence: Admn 12 Aug 2005
The defendant appealed against his conviction in 1998 of murder based on a confession said to have been made to a fellow prisoner on remand. A witness supporting that confession said after the trial that he had lied under police pressure. The appeal had been allowed, and the court now considered whether there should be … Continue reading Regina v Stone: CACD 14 Feb 2001
The scheme provided by the Ministry of Defence to compensate soldiers for being injured by criminal acts did not cover a wound inflicted by a shell fired from a tank whilst on peacekeeping duties. This was akin to a war injury. Auld LJ said: ‘there is no irrationality in the Ministry’s adoption of the Scheme … Continue reading Regina v Ministry of Defence, Ex Parte Walker: CA 5 Feb 1999
The claimant sought judicial review of the decision made by TfL not to allow an advertisement on behalf of the Trust to appear on the outside of its buses. It was to read: ‘NOT GAY! EX-GAY, POST-GAY AND PROUD. GET OVER IT!’. The decision was said to be based on the resondent’s policies. The respondent … Continue reading Core Issues Trust v Transport for London: Admn 22 Mar 2013
The trust, operators of Ashworth Secure Hospital sought from the defendant journalist disclosure of the name of their employee who had revealed to the defendant matters about the holding of Ian Brady, the Moors Murderer, and in particular medical records. Held: The need for involvement by the third party in the source’s wrongdoing is a … Continue reading Mersey Care NHS Trust v Ackroyd: QBD 7 Feb 2006
An employee was employed under a contract of employment for 2 years with a waiver clause. 5 weeks before the end of that period the employer wrote to the employee, extending her contract by nearly 4 months and specifying that all other conditions of the contract were to remain. Held: ‘In many cases the correct … Continue reading Mulrine v University of Ulster: CANI 1993
Damages were awarded for a breach of statutory duty where the claimant had suffered loss or damage by reason of the breach. The publication at issue went beyond reporting and ‘it reached deeply into the substance of the matter which the court had closed its doors to consider’. A mental health review tribunal is a … Continue reading Pickering v Liverpool Daily Post and Echo Newspapers plc: HL 1991
Administrative Discretion to be Used Reasonably The applicant challenged the manner of decision making as to the conditions which had been attached to its licence to open the cinema on Sundays. It had not been allowed to admit children under 15 years of age. The statute provided no appeal procedure, and the applicant sought a … Continue reading Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation: CA 10 Nov 1947
The House was asked whether the 1971 Act permitted the relevant authorities, by resort to their development plans, to support the retention of traditional industries or was the ambit of the Act such as to permit only ‘land use’ aims to be pursued? The court considered also the relevance of personal considerations in planning matters. … Continue reading Westminster City Council v Great Portland Estates plc: HL 31 Oct 1984
Housing benefit regulations had been found unlawful and were amended. The Court now considered what payments should have been made before the amendments came into effect. Held: The appeal was allowed, and RR’s housing benefit entitlement is to be recalculated without making the under-occupancy deduction of 14%. There is nothing unconstitutional about a public authority, … Continue reading RR v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: SC 13 Nov 2019
The charge was fraudulent evasion of the restriction on importation of dangerous drugs. For that offence to be committed, the drugs in question must necessarily arrive in this country. Held: If sending a letter from abroad to England containing false pretences constituted an offence punishable here, so must taking part in the dispatch of drugs … Continue reading Regina v Wall: 1974
The charge was attempting to obtain property by deception by posting letters from Northern Ireland to pools promoters in England. The demand had arrived in England and had been intended to do damage there. Held: ‘The attempt to obtain the money by deception in the shape of a letter can be likened to the demand … Continue reading Regina v Baxter: 1972
Four members of the Ulster Volunteer Force had combined to inflict punishment on an allegedly delinquent member of the organisation. The punishment was to consist of knee-capping (the firing of a bullet or bullets into a knee or other joint, so as to cripple but not kill the victim) and a beating. In the event … Continue reading Regina v Gamble: 1989
An application to extradite a former head of state for an offence which was not at the time an offence under English law would fail, but could proceed in respect of allegations of acts after that time. No immunity was intended for heads of state. International law prohibiting torture has the character of jus cogens … Continue reading Regina v Bartle and Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and Others, ex parte Pinochet Ugarte; Regina v Evans and Similar (No 3): HL 24 Mar 1999
The defendant had consumed alcohol so that the alcohol level was 102 milligrammes of alcohol in 100 millilitres of blood. An appeal was heard as to whether there existed special reasons for not disqualifying him. Held: The court considered when it should find special reasons allowing it a discretion not to disqualify a driver who … Continue reading Taylor v Rajan: 2 Jan 1974
Blackmail was alleged under section 21 of the 1968 Act, the letter making the unwarranted demand with menaces having been posted from England to an intended victim in Germany. Held: The appeal was dismissed. To allow an English court to have jurisdiction where elements of the offence occurred abroad, the last act constituting the actus … Continue reading Treacy v Director of Public Prosecutions: HL 1970
The respondent appealed against a finding that the provision which made a loan agreement completely invalid for lack of compliance with the 1974 Act was itself invalid under the Human Rights Act since it deprived the respondent lender of its property rights. It was also argued that it was not possible to make a declaration … Continue reading Wilson v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry; Wilson v First County Trust Ltd (No 2): HL 10 Jul 2003
National Security Certificates issued in Northern Ireland which had the effect of preventing his making a claim of discrimination, was disproportionate. The Act guaranteed person’s a right not to be discriminated for religious belief or political opinion in the job market. That is a civil right. The government argued that since the post applied for … Continue reading Devlin v The United Kingdom: ECHR 30 Oct 2001
A Company and its Directors are not same paersons Mr Salomon had incorporated his long standing personal business of shoe manufacture into a limited company. He held nearly all the shares, and had received debentures on the transfer into the company of his former business. The business failed, and a subsequent debenture holder now said … Continue reading Salomon v A Salomon and Company Ltd: HL 16 Nov 1896
Limitation of Loss from Negligent Mis-statement The plaintiffs sought damages from accountants for negligence. They had acquired shares in a target company and, relying upon the published and audited accounts which overstated the company’s earnings, they purchased further shares. Held: The duties of an auditor are founded in contract and the extent of the duties … Continue reading Caparo Industries Plc v Dickman and others: HL 8 Feb 1990
Prisoner’s death – need for full public enquiry The deceased had been a young Asian prisoner. He was placed in a cell overnight with a prisoner known to be racist, extremely violent and mentally unstable. He was killed. The family sought an inquiry into the death. Held: There had been a police investigation and trial … Continue reading Amin, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 16 Oct 2003
The prisoner challenged the decision to place him in segregation under Prison Rule 43. Under rule 43(1) the initial power to segregate was given to ‘the governor’. The case arose from the fact that the governor of one prison had purported to authorise the segregation of a prisoner on his arrival at another prison to … Continue reading Regina v Deputy Governor of Parkhurst Prison, Ex parte Hague, Weldon v Home Office: HL 24 Jul 1991
Constitutional Status of Chanel Islands considered The Court was asked as to the role, if any, of the courts of England and Wales (including the Supreme Court) in the legislative process of one of the Channel Islands. It raised fundamental questions about the constitutional relationship between the United Kingdom and the Bailiwicks of Guernsey and … Continue reading Barclay and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice and Others: SC 22 Oct 2014
Change in Doctors’ Information Obligations The pursuer claimed that her obstetrician had been negligent, after her son suffered severe injury at birth. The baby faced a birth with shoulder dystocia – the inability of the shoulders to pass through the pelvis. The consultant considered that a vaginal birth was preferable and did not given advice … Continue reading Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board: SC 11 Mar 2015
(Scotland) By the 2014 Act, the Scottish Parliament had provided that each child should have a named person to monitor that child’s needs, with information about him or her shared as necessary. The Institute objected that the imposed obligation to share information was outwith the powers of the Parliament. It extended the information to be … Continue reading The Christian Institute and Others v The Lord Advocate: SC 28 Jul 2016
Statute’s Mischief May be Inspected The House considered limitations upon them in reading statements made in the Houses of Parliament when construing a statute. Held: It is rare that a statute can be properly interpreted without knowing the legislative object. The courts may look outside a statute in order to identify the ‘mischief’ Parliament was … Continue reading Black-Clawson International Ltd v Papierwerke Waldhof Aschaffenburg AG: HL 5 Mar 1975
The applicants had each entered the UK with a view to seeking asylum, but having failed to seek asylum immediately, they had been refused any assistance, were not allowed to work and so had been left destitute. Each had claimed asylum on the day following their arrival. Held: The appeal by the Secretary of State … Continue reading Adam, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department; Limbuela v Same; Tesema v Same: HL 3 Nov 2005
Reference to Parliamentary Papers behind Statute The inspector sought to tax the benefits in kind received by teachers at a private school in having their children educated at the school for free. Having agreed this was a taxable emolument, it was argued as to whether the taxable benefit was the cost to the employer, or … Continue reading Pepper (Inspector of Taxes) v Hart: HL 26 Nov 1992
An horrific rape had taken place. The defendant was arrested on a separate matter, tried and acquitted. He was tried under a false ID. His DNA sample should have been destroyed but wasn’t. Had his identity been known, his DNA could have been kept because of other convictions. He was arrested for the rape after … Continue reading Attorney General’s Reference No. 3 of 1999: HL 14 Dec 2000
Banker’s Liability for Negligent Reference The appellants were advertising agents. They were liable themselves for advertising space taken for a client, and had sought a financial reference from the defendant bankers to the client. The reference was negligent, but the bankers denied any assumption of a duty of care to a third party when purely … Continue reading Hedley Byrne and Co Ltd v Heller and Partners Ltd: HL 28 May 1963
The plaintiff, who worked in financial services, complained of the terms of the reference given by his former employer. Having spoken of his behaviour towards members of the team, it went on: ‘his former superior has further stated he is a man of little or no integrity and could not be regarded as honest . … Continue reading Spring v Guardian Assurance Plc and Others: HL 7 Jul 1994
The plaintiff bought her apartment, but discovered later that the foundations were defective. The local authority had supervised the compliance with Building Regulations whilst it was being built, but had failed to spot the fault. The authority appealed a finding that it was liable, arguing that the claims were time barred and that it had … Continue reading Anns and Others v Merton London Borough Council: HL 12 May 1977
Lloyds Agents Owe Care Duty to Member; no Contract Managing agents conducted the financial affairs of the Lloyds Names belonging to the syndicates under their charge. It was alleged that they managed these affairs with a lack of due careleading to enormous losses. Held: The assumption of responsibility principle enunciated in Hedley is not confined … Continue reading Henderson v Merrett Syndicates Ltd: HL 25 Jul 1994
Police Obligations to Witnesses is Limited A prosecution witness was murdered by the accused shortly before his trial. The parents of the deceased alleged that the failure of the police to protect their son was a breach of article 2. Held: The House was asked ‘If the police are alerted to a threat that D … Continue reading Hertfordshire Police v Van Colle; Smith v Chief Constable of Sussex Police: HL 30 Jul 2008
Liability in Damages on Statute Breach to be Clear Damages were to be awarded against a Local Authority for breach of statutory duty in a care case only if the statute was clear that damages were capable of being awarded. in the ordinary case a breach of statutory duty does not, by itself, give rise … Continue reading X (Minors) v Bedfordshire County Council; M (A Minor) and Another v Newham London Borough Council; Etc: HL 29 Jun 1995
The court was asked whether it was lawful for the Secretary of State to make subordinate legislation imposing a cap on the amount of welfare benefits which can be received by claimants in non-working households, equivalent to the net median earnings of working households. The challenge was under the 1998 Act on the basis that … Continue reading SG and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: SC 18 Mar 2015