In 2002 the SFO was investigating allegations that drug companies were selling generic drugs, including penicillin-based antibiotics and warfarin, to the National Health Service at artificially sustained prices. To further the investigation the SFO obtained search warrants and executed them. The company challenged the release of the documents recovered to other government departments. They had … Continue reading Regina (Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd) v Serious Fraud Office: CA 11 Nov 2004
Once a guilty plea has been accepted in the Magistrates Court to an either way case, the Magistrates may still commit for sentence after hearing all factors including the defendant’s antecedents, but he should be allowed to make representations. Magistrates are to commit a defendant for sentence to the Crown Court only when satisfied that … Continue reading Regina v Warley Magistrates Court, ex parte Director of Public Prosecutions; Same v Staines Magistrates Court, ex parte Same; Etc: QBD 13 May 1998
A reverse legal burden applied to defendants accused of an offence under section 17 of the Forestry Act 1967 which, in specified circumstances, created an absolute offence of felling a tree without a felling licence. Clarke LJ said: ‘It is thus clear that, while the general principles are those set out in Edwards, each case … Continue reading Grundy and Co Excavations Ltd and Another, Regina (on the Application of) v Halton Division Magistrates Court: Admn 24 Feb 2003
Application for judicial review of a decision of the Medway Magistrates’ Court, to proceed with a trial of the claimant in his absence despite the provision of medical evidence. Judges: Richards LJ, Treacy J Citations:  EWHC 1403 (Admin) Links: Bailii Statutes:
The concept of forfeiture in the Act was dependent upon the seizure of goods. The Act also made a distinction between the initial detention of goods and formal seizure. The six months time limit under the Magistrates Courts Act was calculated from seizure not detention. The seizure was challenged by a notice of claim. Until … Continue reading Commissioners of Customs and Excise v Venn and Others: QBD 11 Dec 2001
The Magistrates appealed against an order of mandamus requiring a case to be stated after rejecting the request by the authority as frivolous. The authority had sought to prevent the emission of noise from land used for a Motocross racing track. Held: The appeal succeeded. Magistrates refusing to state a case should give brief reasons … Continue reading Regina v Mildenhall Magistrates’ Court, Ex Parte Forest Heath District Council; Regina v North West Suffolk (Mildenhall) Magistrates’ Court ex parte Forest Heath District Council: CA 16 Apr 1997
The defendant company traded as A and J Bull Containers. They hired out a builder’s skip which was left out, unlit, on the highway at night. A cyclist rode into it and died. An information was laid against ‘A J Bull Ltd’, charging an offence under the Highways Act 1980. The hearing took place after … Continue reading Marco (Croydon) Ltd v Metropolitan Police Commissioner: QBD 1983
Citations: Times 16-Jun-1998 Statutes: Magistrates Courts Act 1980 111(3) Jurisdiction: England and Wales Magistrates Updated: 15 May 2022; Ref: scu.83101
The papers for an appeal must supply sufficient material to enable the court to assess grounds for costs. Citations: Times 03-May-1993 Statutes: Magistrates Courts Act 1980 64 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Litigation Practice Updated: 11 May 2022; Ref: scu.88291
The Crown Court could join charges of indecent assault and assault occasioning actual bodily harm after a youth was sent there for indecency charges. Citations: Times 18-Mar-1998 Statutes: Magistrates Courts Act 1980 24 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Criminal Practice Updated: 11 May 2022; Ref: scu.87662
Two police officers were being brought to trial, charged with assault occasioning bodily harm. They applied to the trial judge for an order directing the prosecution to inform the defence whether any members of the jury panel had criminal convictions, and if so, to give details. The trial judge made the order. The court considered … Continue reading Regina v Sheffield Crown Court ex parte Brownlow: CA 1980
DONALDSON LJ: Mr. Phillips appeals by case stated against his conviction and a fine of andpound;5 imposed by Mr Loy, the Leeds Stipendiary Magistrates, in September 1978 for failure to comply with a School Attendance Order. It is not the conviction or the fine which irks Mr. Phillips. His irritation, and perhaps even anger, is … Continue reading Phillips v Brown: QBD 20 Jun 1980
The court considered the power to require magistrates to state a case on an interloctory issue. Held: Where the Justices had not made a final determination they had no jurisdiction to state a case. Section 111 applies only to a final determination of a case. Citations:  QB 920 Statutes: Magistrates Courts Act 1980 11191) … Continue reading Streames v Copping: 1985
The defendant attained the age of 18 after the offence but before his sentence. Under 18, he would have been subject to an order of detention in a young offenders institution, with a maximum of twelve months. They imposed a sentence of four concurrent detention and training orders totaling 18 months. Held: The 1963 Act, … Continue reading Aldis v Director of Public Prosecutions: CACD 11 Feb 2002
The claimant had faced an application for a closure order on his premises for their use for unlawful drugs. The matter was adjourned twice at his request. On the third occasion he sought to rely upon the need for a closure order to be confirmed with 14 days to say that the order must lapse. … Continue reading Regina (Brian Turner) v Highbury Magistrates Court: QBD 11 Oct 2005
Decision on what is to happen on one of three Justices retiring is for open court. Citations: Ind Summary 29-Jan-1996 Statutes: Magistrates Courts Act 1980 121(1) Magistrates Updated: 09 April 2022; Ref: scu.86611
The court was asked whether magistrates’ courts have a discretion to extend the time to state a case after the expiration of the 21 days specified in section 111(2) of the Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 (the 1980 Act) as the time within which an application for a case to be stated for the opinion of … Continue reading Mishra v Colchester Magistrates’ Court: Admn 14 Nov 2017
The defendants appealed by case stated from convictions under the 2006 Act arising from the treatment of cows including at a slaughterhouse. Arguments were put that the prosecution was time barred. Held: The court recognsed the limited role of the investigators and the CPS who would eventually institute proceedings. Time started running under s.31(1)(b) of … Continue reading Riley and Others v Crown Prosecution Service: Admn 18 Oct 2016
An award of costs is inevitable after a finding of statutory nuisance and such costs include cost of establishing the nuisance. ‘The wide discretion as to whether to grant an adjournment conferred by section 10 and section 54 of the Magistrates’ Court Act 1980 cannot, usually, be impugned. But it is a power which must … Continue reading Regina v Dudley Magistrates Court ex parte Hollis; Robert v Same: Admn 25 Nov 1997
In each case the local authority sought to recover possession of its own land. In the Lambeth case, they asserted this right as against an overstaying former tenant, and in the Leeds case as against gypsies. In each case the occupiers said that the recovery of possession interfered with their right respect for their family … Continue reading Kay and Another v London Borough of Lambeth and others; Leeds City Council v Price and others and others: HL 8 Mar 2006
Ban on Prisoners talking to Journalists unlawful The two prisoners, serving life sentences for murder, had had their appeals rejected. They continued to protest innocence, and sought to bring their campaigns to public attention through the press, having oral interviews with journalists without undertakings from the journalists not to publish any element of the interview. … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for The Home Department Ex Parte Simms: HL 8 Jul 1999
Sentencing of Political Protesters The defendants appealed against sentences for causing a public nuisance. They had been protesting against fracking by climbing aboard a lorry and blocking a main road for several days. Held: The appeals from immediate custodial sentences were successful, and suspended sentences imposed. The defendants had expressed remorse for their actions and … Continue reading Roberts and Others v Regina: CACD 6 Dec 2018
The defendant effectively sought to appeal against his conviction on his own guilty plea to possession of wild bird eggs. They had been collected before possession itself was made an offence, and he had received them before the 2004 Act, after which only the person originally collecting an egg could lawfully possess it. He said … Continue reading Dodsworth v Crown Prosecution Service: Admn 8 Nov 2010
There are no degrees of nullity The plaintiffs had owned mining property in Egypt. Their interests were damaged and or sequestrated and they sought compensation from the Respondent Commission. The plaintiffs brought an action for the declaration rejecting their claims was a nullity. The Commission replied that the courts were precluded from considering the question … Continue reading Anisminic Ltd v Foreign Compensation Commission: HL 17 Dec 1968
Court of Appeal’s powers limited to those Given The jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal is wholly statutory; it is appellate only. The court has no original jurisdiction. It has no jurisdiction itself to entertain any original application for judicial review; it has appellate jurisdiction over judgments and orders of the High Court made by … Continue reading In re Racal Communications Ltd; In Re a Company: HL 3 Jul 1980
The appellant’s daughter had been stopped entering the country with andpound;150,000 in cash. The police sought an order for its forfeiture, suspecting a link with terrorism. The magistrates found no evidence of such, and declined to make the order, but equally refused to award the defendant her costs. She now appealed against the refusal to … Continue reading Perinpanathan, Regina (on The Application of) v City of Westminster Magistrates Court and Another: CA 4 Feb 2010
No Breach of Solicitor Client Confidence Allowed B was charged with the murder of a young girl. He made a confession to the police, but later changed his story, saying his stepfather had killed the girl. He was acquitted. The stepfather was then charged with the murder. At his committal for trial, B was called … Continue reading Regina v Derby Magistrates Court Ex Parte B: HL 19 Oct 1995
The defendant, a 12 year old boy , had been charged, with others, with offences of violence. He denied the charges. He objected to his interview with admissions being used. On being admitted he then pleaded guilty. Later cases against co-defendants . .
Application by prosecutor to amend name of defendant company but after time limit for issue. . .
Two fraud prosecutions against the claimants had lasted for 15 and 20 years respectively.
Held: Article 6.1 applies to all stages of criminal proceedings, including sentencing and any appeal. The ‘reasonable time’ in criminal matters, . .
The Claimant aged 14 appeared before the Magistrates’ Court with a 20 year old Co-Defendant. The Magistrates declined jurisdiction in his case and the Claimant indicated Not Guilty pleas. The Magistrates concluded that it was in the interest of . .
The appellant had been sentenced to 5 years imprisonment and a confiscation order pounds 5.4m with six years in default. Small payments were made later by his receivers, but the interest had taken the total sums due over pounds 8m at the time of . .
‘The issue in the case is whether the words ‘the said sum . . as was due at the time the period of detention was imposed’ in section 79(2) of the Magistrates’ Court Act (MCA) 1980 should be construed in the case of confiscation orders made under the . .
The claimant appealed against the refusal of the return of money seized from him by the respondent’s officers under the 2002 Act. The magistrates had declined jurisdiction saying that the complaint was out of time. The claimant said that his request . .
Prosecutor’s appeal against refusal of adjournment. . .
Where a youth appears with an adult on a grave crime allegation in an adult court, and the case against the adult does not proceed, the assessment of whether the youth should be committed to the Crown Court must be carried out by the adult court. . .
A defendant indicating guilt at the plea before venue hearing was entitled to greater discount for that guilty plea than a defendant entering plea at the pre trial review at Crown Court. Crown Courts are to reduce sentencing discounts accordingly. . .
The claimant had successfully defended a forfeiture case, but had been refused an order for her costs by the magistrates. The magistrates had found that the case had been properly brought under the 2002 Act, even though it had failed.
Held: . .
The defendants appealed convictions for contempt of court, on the basis of having wilfully interrupted the court. The respondent said that no appeal lay.
Held: The statute was ambiguous, and ‘there can be no good reason why a person convicted . .
The claimant was an employee of the company manufacturing alcohol measuring devices. He sought judicial review of decisions by magistrates to require him to attend court to give evidence which would require him to breach obligations of confidence he . .
The court objected to the insistence on leaving the burden throughout a prosecution on the defendant on the ground that ‘the discharge of an evidential burden proves nothing – it merely raises an issue’. The House emphasised the special nature of . .
The two prisoners, serving life sentences for murder, had had their appeals rejected. They continued to protest innocence, and sought to bring their campaigns to public attention through the press, having oral interviews with journalists without . .
A defendant seeking to avoid answering questions so as not to incriminate himself is to be given some understanding and latitude in respecting his own interpretation. The beneficiary of a pardon could be called upon to incriminate himself because he . .
The court heard appeals from rulings under the 2004 Act.
Held: In section 1, the hunting of a wild mammal did not include the search for an animal with a view to flushing it from cover. As to the exemptions, the operation of the 1980 Act and . .
References: (1861) 1 B & S 311,  EngR 626, (1861) 121 ER 730 Links: Commonlii Coram: Cockburn CJ A defendant seeking to avoid answering questions so as not to incriminate himself is to be given some understanding and latitude in respecting his own interpretation. The beneficiary of a pardon could be called upon to … Continue reading Regina v Boyes; 27 May 1861
1267 – 1278 – 1285 – 1297 – 1361 – 1449 – 1491 – 1533 – 1677 – 1688 – 1689 – 1700 – 1706 – 1710 – 1730 – 1737 – 1738 – 1751 – 1774 – 1792 – 1793 – 1804 – 1814 – 1819 – 1824 – 1828 – 1831 – 1832 … Continue reading Acts
This was an appeal by way of case stated. The appellants were alleged to have offered timeshare contracts without notification of cancellation rights. A director claimed he was unfit to attend, but the trial proceeded in his absence. He had, the day before, attended a conference with counsel. Held: Given the medical evidence before them, … Continue reading Ronald and John Popely and Another v D G Scott (Kent County Council): Admn 21 Dec 2000
Citations:  EWHC 73 (Admin) Links: Bailii Statutes:
Lord Bingham set out guidance in respect of costs awarded by magistrates pursuant to section 64(1) of the 1980 Act, saying: ‘I would accordingly hold that the proper approach to questions of this kind can for convenience be summarised in three propositions: 1. Section 64(1) confers a discretion upon a magistrates’ court to make such … Continue reading City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council v Booth: Admn 10 May 2000
The defendant sought to appeal against a decision of the High Court on a case stated by the Magistrates. Held: A decision by the High Court on an appeal by way of case stated from the Magistrates was final, and no further appeal lay to the Court of Appeal. The Order did not avoid the … Continue reading Westminster City Council v O’Reilly and others: CA 1 Jul 2003
Appeal by way of case stated pursuant to section 111 of the Magistrates Courts Act 1980 against the refusal of the DJ at Oxford Magistrates Court, to stay the prosecution against them as an abuse of process. Judges: Lady Justice Whipple And Mrs Justice Collins Rice Citations:  EWHC 425 (Admin) Links: Bailii Jurisdiction: England … Continue reading Pugsley and Another v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 2 Mar 2022
The defendant had been charged with a simple offence under the Public Order Act and also with the racially aggravated offence. The magistrates refused to hear them together. Held: This was wrong. Keene LJ said: ‘For the prosecutor, Mr Moran contends that the justices are not required by section 9 of the Magistrates’ Courts Act … Continue reading Crown Prosecution Service, Regina (on the Application of) v Blaydon Youth Court: Admn 6 Oct 2004
Justices validly required security for costs from legally aided applicant to state case. Citations: Times 02-Dec-1996 Statutes: Magistrates Courts Act 1980 114 Litigation Practice Updated: 09 April 2022; Ref: scu.86488
A woman protester repeatedly climbed over the perimeter fencing into a military base. Held: The defendant had a choice between agreeing to be bound over and going to prison. Her refusal to agree to be bound over had an immediate and obvious penal consequence without any intervening stage. The threat of imprisonment was no doubt … Continue reading Percy v Director of Public Prosecutions: QBD 13 Dec 1994
The defendant’s behaviour complained of must be at least unreasonable if not unlawful to found a binding over for breach of the peace. Simon Brown LJ said: ‘the court would surely not find a s.115 complaint proved if any violence likely to have been provoked on the part of others would be not merely unlawful … Continue reading Nicol and Another v Director of Public Prosecutions: QBD 22 Nov 1995
One reason only is needed for commitment of person over 21. The situation is different where the defendant is under 21. Citations: Times 03-Jan-1997 Statutes: Magistrates Courts Act 1980 82(6) Jurisdiction: England and Wales Criminal Practice Updated: 07 April 2022; Ref: scu.88117
The claimant had been imprisoned, but his conviction was later overturned. He had been a victim of a gross abuse of executive power. The British authorities had acted in breach of international law and had been guilty of ‘a blatant and extremely serious failure to adhere to the rule of law with regard to the … Continue reading Mullen, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 29 Apr 2004
The defendant appealed against an unsuccessful application to exclude evidence where it was claimed there had been incitement by an agent provocateur. Held: The appeal failed. There is no defence of entrapment in English law. All evidence which is relevant is prima facie admissible in a criminal trial, although the trial judge has a discretion … Continue reading Regina v Sang: HL 25 Jul 1979
Appeals were brought complaining as to the apparent reversal of the burden of proof in road traffic cases and in cases under the Terrorism Acts. Was a legal or an evidential burden placed on a defendant? Held: Lord Bingham of Cornhill said: ‘The overriding concern is that a trial should be fair, and the presumption … Continue reading Sheldrake v Director of Public Prosecutions; Attorney General’s Reference No 4 of 2002: HL 14 Oct 2004
The complaint had been laid before Magistrates before the expiration of the time limit, but was only considered and the summons issued after the time limit. The House also considered the power of delegation where a justice of the peace or the clerk did not personally receive or consider the information in question. Held: The … Continue reading Regina v Manchester Stipendiary Magistrate, ex parte Hill and others: HL 1993
Thomas LJ said: ‘When the magistrates were faced with the application for an amendment, the law was clear and remains clear. The principles are set out in Section 123 and 127 of the Magistrates’ Court Act  and in the single decision of this court to which it is necessary to refer, R v Scunthorpe … Continue reading Williams v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 24 Jul 2009
The applicants had been made subject of anti-social behaviour orders. They challenged the basis upon which the orders had been made. Held: The orders had no identifiable consequences which would make the process a criminal one. Civil standards of evidence therefore applied, and hearsay evidence was admissible. Nevertheless, the test as to whether it was … Continue reading Clingham (formerly C (a minor)) v Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea; Regina v Crown Court at Manchester Ex parte McCann and Others: HL 17 Oct 2002
Defendant must plea to charge, and not counsel The defendants had, through their barrister, entered pleas of guilty, but the crown court had declared the convictions invalid because this had to have been done by the defendants personally, and remitted the cases and the confiscation proceedings to the Magistrates. The prosecutor Council now sought to … Continue reading Westminster City Council v Owadally and Another: Admn 17 May 2017
Common Law – Public Nuisance – Extent The House considered the elements of the common law offence of public nuisance. One defendant faced accusations of having sent racially offensive materials to individuals. The second was accused of sending an envelope including salt to a friend as a joke. The envelope had leaked causing a terrorist … Continue reading Regina v Rimmington; Regina v Goldstein: HL 21 Jul 2005
The claimant had received two injuries resulting in his total blindness. He sought an order of certiorari against the respondent who had found only a 20% disability. The tribunal responded that its decision, under the Act was final. Held: In its decision the tribunal had made reference to the expert medical report and thereby had … Continue reading Regina v Medical Appeal Tribunal ex parte Gilmore; Re Gilmore’s Application: CA 25 Feb 1957
The pursuer sought damages after her husband’s death from lung cancer. She said that the defenders were negligent in having continued to sell him cigarettes knowing that they would cause this. Held: The action failed. The plaintiff had not proved that the smoking of cigarettes was the cause of the lung cancer, and it was … Continue reading McTear v Imperial Tobacco Ltd: OHCS 31 May 2005
The claimant said that she had been detained in excess of the period allowed under the 1987 Regulations, and that that detention was unlawful. She now appealed against the striking out of her claim. Held: Her action failed. The availablility of a remedy by way of judicial review for a breach of statutory duty is … Continue reading Olutu v Home Office: CA 29 Nov 1996
The defendant was given bail supported by sureties for his attendance. The appellant signed for andpound;1m for his attendance. There was a preparatory hearing at a new court building without cells or a dock. The defendant was present. The surety . .
Appeal by case stated against bail refusal. . .
The claimant having been released on licence from a prison sentence refused to comply with the conditions of his licence on the ground that he was entitled to be released unconditionally. He was returned to prison. The Divisional Court dismissed his . .
Following his conviction for false accounting, a confiscation order was made against the defendant. After agreeing various adjournments the prosecutor said that the magistrates court had no power to allow such an adjournment under section 75(2) of . .
The defendant appealed against her conviction for racially aggravated criminal damage. The court considered whether it was possible to leave the matter for the jury without an additional count on the indictment, and whether a low value charge was . .
World-wide freezing orders had been made under the 1982 Act. The defendants were members of a Turkish family with substantial business interests in the telecommunications industry. In breach of orders made in the US some defendants had sought to . .
The defendant appealed against an order for costs made against her after service and enforcement of an abatement notice with respect to an audible intruder alarm at her premises. She had first lodged an appeal to the Crown Court, but argued that . .
The applicants sought judicial review of the Immigration Appeal Tribunal’s refusal of leave to appeal. The court had to decide whether such a right survived section 101 of the 2001 Act.
Held: The right to have a judicial review could only be . .
The appellants appealed a bind-over for a finding that each appellant had been guilty of conduct whereby a breach of the peace was likely to be occasioned. The appellants, concerned about cruelty to animals, had obstructed an angling competition by . .
A serving prisoner was stabbed to death in his cell. The appellant admitted that he had punched the victim twice but maintained that another man had stabbed him, which explained the incriminating presence of the victim’s blood in the vicinity of the . .
The applicant sought judicial review of the refusal of the magistrates to state a case for him to appeal to the High Court. He had been convicted of failing to provide a specimen of breath for analysis. The magistrates considered the request . .
The defendant was charged with driving with excess alcohol and being in charge of a vehicle with excess alcohol. It was clear that on the facts the former charge included the latter. The magistrates found the facts proved but convicted only on the . .
The police applied to the court for a closure order in respect of premises they said were being used for the sale of Class A drugs. The tenant sought an adjournment, which was granted as were two later applications. On the last hearing, the police . .
The defendant appealed against his conviction, saying that his counsel and solicitors had withdrawn at the last moment on the grounds of professional embarrassment, the defendant having altered his instructions. New lawyers were unwilling to assist . .
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