A covenant prevented new building other than for a garage. The owner proposed a three-car garage extension, but with a play-room above, for the applicant’s own use. The relevant property of the objector was not her own house, but consisted of a . .
Despite its entanglement with a right of entry intended to procure its payment, a separate personal obligation to pay instalments of the sum agreed as the premium for a lease remained merely a personal obligation and that a call for the payment by instalments was not a claim or demand in, to, or on the … Continue reading Hill v Booth: CA 1930
The court reviewed the conflicting authorities with regard to the creation of trusts and held that the overwhelming preponderance of authority was that, in the absence of any claim for rectification or rescission, provisions in a conveyance declaring that the plaintiff and the defendant were to hold the proceeds of sale of the property ‘upon … Continue reading Goodman v Gallant: CA 30 Oct 1985
Police Obligations to Witnesses is Limited A prosecution witness was murdered by the accused shortly before his trial. The parents of the deceased alleged that the failure of the police to protect their son was a breach of article 2. Held: The House was asked ‘If the police are alerted to a threat that D … Continue reading Hertfordshire Police v Van Colle; Smith v Chief Constable of Sussex Police: HL 30 Jul 2008
The parties entered into a written contract for the sale of land which, in error, provided for completion on a Sunday. The parties varied the date to the Friday but did not execute a new contract which would comply with section 2(1) of the 1989 Act. Time was not initially of the essence of the … Continue reading McCausland and Another v Duncan Lawrie Ltd and Another: CA 18 Jun 1996
A colliery manager asked for police protection for his colliery during a strike. He wanted police officers to be billeted on the premises. The senior police officer for the area was willing to provide protection by a mobile force, but he refused to . .
The landlord served a section 146 notice and the tenant served a counternotice under the 1938 Act. The landlord sought leave to forfeit the lease.
Held: Leave was given under ground (e) to forfeit the lease of a public house which had closed . .
The land-owners applied for a variation of a restrictive covenant to allow them to put a second house on their plot. They had bought out the right of the original builder, but a neighbour also had the benefit of the covenant. They now appealed the . .
Restrictive Covenants – Discharge – Proposed Use of Field As A Farm Strip for Private Aircraft in close proximity to Sandown Airport – planning permission for construction of agricultural barn – whether to be used to hangar applicant’s aircraft – . .
Beneficial equitable interests in land were overreached by a mortgage despite no the fact that no capital was actually advanced under the charge. . .
LT RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – dwellinghouse – restrictions preventing erection of more than one dwellinghouse or bungalow – application to modify to permit two or three dwellinghouses – whether . .
The court considered the construction of a restrictive covenant after the disappearance of the covenantee. The covenant required no additional building without the consent of the covenantee, such consent not to be unreasonably withheld. The term . .
The tenant had a lease of business premises. The premises were damaged in a terrorist attack, and the landlord served a notice terminating the lease. The lease gave the right to the landlord to determine the lease if the property was incapable of . .
RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS – modification – 1980s office building let on long lease – covenants restricting use to offices only and controlling terms of underletting – modification sought to permit conversion to residential use and letting on assured . .
LT RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – building scheme – proposed bungalow – reasonable user – public interest – whether practical benefits secured – substantiality – effect of scheme – application refused – . .
The applicant challenged the exercise of a power of sale under a mortgage, saying that the mortgagee’s purposes included purposes not those under the mortgage. The parties had been involved in an attempted development of a penthouse.
Held: The . .
Tenants occupied land next to land which was to be developed after compulsory acquisition. The tenants and the landlords asserted a right of light over the land, and sought an injunction to prevent the development. The developer denied that any . .
Appeal from refusal to vary restrictive covenant. . .
House owners had used vehicular access across a common to get to their houses for many years. The commons owner required them to purchase the right, and they replied that they had acquired the right by lost modern grant and/or by prescription.
A court order can properly be recalled to correct an error before it had been perfected. This appeal was rejected also as attempt to re-litigate the interpretation of a section in the appeal judgement. . .
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – no objections – restriction prohibiting alterations etc without vendor’s approval of plans – whether obsolete – modification sought prohibiting alterations etc not in . .
The Court considered the effect of a note or memorandum evidencing the sale of a property where it was described as ‘6,8 and 41, Boundary Street, Shoreditch (freehold).’ It was sought to connect the signature on a purchaser’s deposit cheque with an . .
The court considered a proviso for re-entry that: ‘forfeiture on the bankruptcy of the lessee is considered as a case of breach of condition.’
Held: It was clearly a condition rather than a mere covenant of the original protected tenancy that . .
Damage caused to a house may result in an award of the diminution of the value of the house only. . .
The landlord claimed possession of a dwelling house let on a weekly tenancy, saying the tenant had been convicted of using the premises for an unlawful purpose. The tenant had been convicted of handling stolen goods by receiving them at the . .
A ‘subject to contract’ document might be evidence of an antecedent or oral contract and satisfy section 40 of the Law of Property Act 1925 if the stipulation was later waived. A memorandum or note must, if it is to be effective, not only state the . .
The lease provided for re-entry for breach of covenant. The landlord served a notice requiring repairs and payment of compensation on both the tenant and the mortgagee. The mortgagees served a counter-notice, and the landlord proceeded against the . .
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – modification – building scheme – land originally designated a close to which all residents would have access – prohibition on building and uses other than garden or recreation ground . .
To defeat a defence of adverse possession, the plaintiff must succeed in an action which itself had been commenced within the twelve year period. A squatter does not succeed to the title that he has disturbed: by sufficiently long adverse possession . .
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The court discussed the duty of trustees to sell in the absence of unanimity: ‘The trust for sale will prevail, unless all three trustees agree in exercising the power to postpone.’ . .
Mrs Moss inherited the former matrimonial home. Her daughter (L) suggested that she transfer it into their joint names to ease its transfer on her mother’s death. It was agreed the house would never be sold during Mrs Moss’s lifetime. L borrowed . .
A property had been bought in the husband’s name. The wife made financial contributions to repayment of the charge, and thereby acquired an interest in it. The property was later charged by the paper owner to the claimant, who sought possession . .
The claimant had an equitable charge over the property, and sought a possession order after failures to keep up repayments. The order was sought under the Act, and the claimants asserted that the conditions for the grant of possession were . .
The wife was co-owner of the family home. Her husband owed money to the bank. He separated from his wife and left the matrimonial home moving to another house owned by the wife. The bank obtained a charging order absolute against the husband’s . .
The test under the section was whether it was inequitable to make the order for sale where one of the joint beneficiaries, who in that case were ex-husband and wife, wished to realise their investment in the property.
Held: Referring to the . .
A property adjustment order cannot be made against a bankrupt former spouse because the property of the bankrupt vests in the trustee in bankruptcy against whom an order under section 24 cannot be made. It was highly unlikely that postponement of . .
A husband held the matrimonial home on trust for sale for himself and his wife in equal shares. The couple lived in the house. The husband and another man were in business with through a limited company, and guaranteed the its debts to the . .
The husband had forged his wife’s signature on the loan application and on the charge of the house held by himself and his wife as joint tenants. He had left the country, and the plaintiff sought to enforce the charge, and ex parte obtained an order . .
Trustees in bankruptcy of bankrupt husbands successfully appealed for the removal of provisos delaying the operation of orders for sale made under s30 in respect of each husband’s matrimonial home for the benefit of that husband’s wife who had been . .
A husband resisted his former wife’s claim under the section against his brother, her brother-in-law. He asserted, with a view to deceiving both his wife and the Court, that his brother, who held the fee of a house, did not hold any share . .
The LAB was entitled to register the statutory charge over property which had been defended under a legal aid certificate against an application under the section. . .
LAND REGISTRATION – EASEMENTS AND PROFITS – the rule in Wheeldon v Burrows – section 62, Law of Property Act 1925 and whether contrary intention must be expressed in the conveyance  UKUT 307 (LC) Bailii England and Wales Registered Land Updated: 13 January 2022; Ref: scu.670632
The rules of a pensions scheme were altered. It was required that any such alteration be in writing, but the trustees had not signed the document creating the amendment. Held: The words ‘writing under hand’ clearly required a signature, and the amendment was ineffective. No estoppel arose as against the members: ‘An avoidance of pedantry, … Continue reading Trustee Solutions Ltd and others v Dubery and Another: ChD 21 Jun 2006
LRA A lease created by the owner of a rentcharge pursuant to section 121 of the Law of Property Act 1925 is not registrable as a lease at HM Land Registry but is a mortgage which can only be protected on the register by a notice at least where the rentcharge is to end in … Continue reading Roberts and Others v Keegan (Rentcharges : Nature and Extent): LRA 1 Oct 2014
The claimant sought a declaration that restrictive covenants imposed in 1896 affecting its land were no longer effective. Held: The declaration was granted. Under the 1881 Act (as opposed to the 1925 Act) covenants were not automatically attached to the land. Here there was no implied or explicit annexation of the covenants. The covenants were … Continue reading Seymour Road (Southampton) Ltd v Williams and Others: ChD 29 Jan 2010
Application was made to vary a restrictive covenant: ‘ . . how the character of the area and the amenities would be affected by the modification of the restriction is not in my view to be judged by envisaging the worst that could be done without breaching the restriction and comparing it with what the … Continue reading Fairclough Homes Ltd, Re: LT 8 Jun 2004
A greenhouse was not an ‘erection’ within section 62(1). Megaw LJ noted that it was customary to move the greenhouse every few years, Megaw LJ  CLY 3040 Law of Property Act 1925 62(1) England and Wales Cited by: Cited – Elitestone Ltd v Morris and Another HL 1-May-1997 The plaintiff acquired land on which … Continue reading H E Dibble v Moore: CA 1969
The lease contained a break clause. The parties disputed whether the benefit of the clause was personal to the orginal lessee, or whether it touched and concerned the land, and therefore the benefit of it passed with the land. Held: The defendant was entitled to exercise and did validly exercise the break clause. The purpose … Continue reading Harbour Estates Limited v HSBC Bank Plc: ChD 15 Jul 2004
The claimant sought a declaration that he had acquired an easement over land by driving over it, over several years. The land owner denied the easement, saying that section 193 made the claimant’s activity a crime, and that, following Hanning, criminal activity could not be used to found a claim of adverse possession. The claimant … Continue reading Bakewell Management Ltd v Brandwood and Others: ChD 21 Mar 2002
Briggs LJ  EWCA Civ 183,  PNLR 420 Bailii Trustee Act 1925 61 England and Wales Citing: Appeal from – Santander UK Plc v RA Legal Solicitors (A Firm) QBD 23-May-2013 The claimant bank said that it had been the subject of a mortgage fraud, and that the defendant solicitors had acted for the … Continue reading Santander UK Plc v RA Legal Solicitors: CA 24 Feb 2014
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – 1864 and 1881 restrictive covenants – use as private dwellinghouse only and imposition of building lines – uncontested breach as a doctor’s surgery – no breach of building lines – application to discharge 1864 covenant under ground (a) allowed in part – application to discharge remainder of 1864 covenant under ground … Continue reading Morningside (Leicester) Ltd Re 169 Narborough Road: UTLC 17 Feb 2014
A subtenant’s lease is not protected under the Agricultural Holdings Act where the head lease is terminated by the landlord, but if the head tenant determines his own tenancy the sub-tenancy is protected and will be promoted in his stead: ‘the law will not allow a man, by an act done between him and another, … Continue reading Brown v Wilson: 1949
Same Sex Paartner to Inherit as Family Member The claimant had lived with the original tenant in a stable and long standing homosexual relationship at the deceased’s flat. After the tenant’s death he sought a statutory tenancy as a spouse of the deceased. The Act had been extended to include as a spouse someone living … Continue reading Fitzpatrick v Sterling Housing Association Ltd: HL 28 Oct 1999
The claimant was injured at work as a consequence of the defender’s negligence. His injuries became more severe, and he came to suffer a disabling depression. Held: the Inner House had been wrong to characterise the Outer House decision as incorrect. Since the pursuer suffered physical injuries the starting point is that he was a … Continue reading Simmons v British Steel plc: HL 29 Apr 2004
No damages for Psychiatric Harm Alone The House considered claims by police officers who had suffered psychiatric injury after tending the victims of the Hillsborough tragedy. Held: The general rules restricting the recovery of damages for pure psychiatric harm applied to the plaintiffs’ claims as employees. An employer has a duty to protect his employees … Continue reading White, Frost and others v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire and others: HL 3 Dec 1998
The defendants sought to set aside orders allowing the claimants to serve proceedings alleging repudiation of a charterparty in turn allowing a claim against the defendants under a guarantee. The defendant said the guarantee was unenforceable under the 1677 Act not being in writing and signed. Held: There was no limit to the number of … Continue reading Golden Ocean Group Ltd v Salgaocar Mining Industries Pvt Ltd and Another: ComC 21 Jan 2011
The issue was the proper construction and effect of condition 6.8 of the Standard Conditions of Sale, 2nd edition, in relation to the giving of a notice to complete a contract for the sale of land. Held: The condition provided exclusively for the circumstances in which a notice to complete could be given in respect … Continue reading Country and Metropolitan Homes Surrey Ltd v Topclaim Ltd: 1996
The house had been bought during the marriage but in the husband’s sole name. The plaintiff’s charge secured the husband’s overdraft. The bank issued possession proceedings. Mr Rosset had left, but Mrs Rosset claimed, as against the bank an interest in it as the matrimonial home. She said there had been a common understanding or … Continue reading Lloyds Bank plc v Rosset: HL 29 Mar 1990
The applicant had held a joint tenancy of the respondent. His partner gave notice and left, and the property was taken into possession. The claimant claimed restoration of his tenancy saying the order did not respect his right to a private life and home. Held: Article 8 does not, in terms, give a right to … Continue reading London Borough of Harrow v Qazi: HL 31 Jul 2003
“Subject to Contract” not to be diluted ‘subject to contract’ proposals remain in negotiation until a formal contract is executed. Lord Denning MR said: ‘for over a hundred years, the courts have held that the effect of the words ‘subject to contract’ is that the matter remains in negotiation until a formal contract is executed’ … Continue reading Tiverton Estates Ltd v Wearwell Ltd: CA 1975
Nature of Joint and Mutual Wills The court was asked as to the validity and effect of a single joint will. Held: Lord Camden considered the nature of joint or mutual wills. Lord Camden LC said: ‘The parties by mutual will do each of them devise, upon the engagement of the other, that he will … Continue reading Dufour v Pereira: 1769
Ex turpi causa explained The parties had disputed the validity a patent and the production of infringing preparations. The english patent had failed and damages were to be awarded, but a Canadian patent remained the defendant now challenged the calculation of damages for what it said would have been an infringing trade, and pleaded ex … Continue reading Les Laboratoires Servier and Another v Apotex Inc and Others: SC 29 Oct 2014
Adopted grandchildren entitled to succession The court was asked whether the adopted children whose adopting father, the son of the testator, were grandchildren of the testator for the purposes of his will. Held: The claim succeeded. The defendants, the other beneficiaries were not entitled to inherit the part of their father’s estate that derived from … Continue reading Hand and Another v George: ChD 17 Mar 2017
Wife in Occupation had Overriding Interest The wife had made a substantial financial contribution to the purchase price of the house which was registered only in her husband’s name, and charged to the bank. The bank sought possession. The wife resisted saying that she had an overriding interest. Held: Her equitable interest was not only … Continue reading Williams and Glyn’s Bank Ltd v Boland: HL 19 Jun 1980
Presumption of dedication dates back. The claimant tripped over a tree root raising a path in the park. The court was now asked whether the pathway through a public park, but which was not a public right of way, was maintainable at public expense as a highway governed by the 1980 Act. Held: As to … Continue reading Barlow v Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council: CA 1 Jun 2020
UTLC RESTRICTIVE COVENANT – discharge or modification – former hospital – covenant relating to small part of hospital building and other land prohibiting erection of any buildings within 20 feet of adjoining footpath – application to discharge or to modify to permit erection of two flats as part of proposed refurbishment of entire hospital to … Continue reading Sheikh and Another Re: Part of Former Fletcher Hospital: UTLC 14 Apr 2011
The court considered the creation by section 62 of the 1925 Act automatically of easements when land was divided. The claimants owned land bounded on either side by properties beloinging to the respondents. The properties had once been in common ownership. They asserted the existence of a bridleway easement along a track to the public … Continue reading Campbell and Another v Banks and Others: CA 1 Feb 2011
The respondent appealed against a finding that the provision which made a loan agreement completely invalid for lack of compliance with the 1974 Act was itself invalid under the Human Rights Act since it deprived the respondent of its property rights. It was also argued that it was not possible to make a declaration of … Continue reading Wilson v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry; Wilson v First County Trust Ltd (No 2): HL 10 Jul 2003
The parties disputed ownership of a strip of land between a garden and a farm. The land was registered. There was a hedge and a ditch along the disputed boundary, it had been conceded in the Court of Appeal that a conveyance of land on the hedge side of the ditch transferred land only up … Continue reading Alan Wibberley Building Ltd v Insley: HL 24 Mar 1999
Only Limited Ownership of pond fish BDS owned land with closed fishing ponds. They sold the land to the respondents, but then claimed that the fish, of substantial value, were not included in the contract. The court as asked whether the captive fish were animals ferae naturae or animals domitae naturae. Held: The appeal was … Continue reading Borwick Development Solutions Ltd v Clear Water Fisheries Ltd: CA 1 May 2020
Houses were built next to a common. Over many years the owners had driven over the common. The landowners appealed a decision that they could not acquire a right of way by prescription over the common because such use had been unlawful as a criminal offence under section 193 of the Law of Property Act … Continue reading Bakewell Management Limited v Brandwood and others: HL 1 Apr 2004
The claimant, in a representative action complained that the works involved in the erection of the Canary Wharf tower constituted a nuisance in that the works created substantial clouds of dust and the building blocked her TV signals, so as to limit her enjoyment of her land. Held: The interference with TV reception by an … Continue reading Hunter and Others v Canary Wharf Ltd: HL 25 Apr 1997
Notice of dismissal begins when received by worker The court was asked: ‘If an employee is dismissed on written notice posted to his home address, when does the notice period begin to run? Is it when the letter would have been delivered in the ordinary course of post? Or when it was in fact delivered … Continue reading Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust v Haywood: SC 25 Apr 2018
Appropriation was not in sufficient form The claimants had challenged an order supporting the decision of the Council to use their allotments for a new primary school, saying that the land had be appropriated as allotment land, and that therefore the consent of the minister was needed. Held: The appeal failed. The use of the … Continue reading Adamson, Regina (on The Application of) v Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Council: CA 18 Feb 2020
Land was bought for development, but the purchaser later discovered a sewage pipe which very substantially limited its development potential. The existence of the pipe had not been disclosed on the sale, being unknown to the seller. Held: Under the National Conditions of Sale, it is the purchaser who takes the risk of there being … Continue reading William Sindall Plc v Cambridgeshire County Council: CA 21 May 1993
The claimant sought to recover the costs of damage to their centre following a riot, saying that under the 1886 Act, they were liable. It appealed against a ruling that they were unable to claim as a public authority, saying that the 1886 Act was not limited in the way suggested. Held: Though privately operated, … Continue reading Yarl’s Wood Immigration Ltd and Others v Bedfordshire Police Authority: CA 23 Oct 2009
The parties were not married, but had brought together their resources to purchase a home in the name of one of them. Nothing had been said about the respective shares on which the property was to be held. Held: The shares were to be assessed as at the time of the sale, not the time … Continue reading Oxley v Hiscock: CA 6 May 2004
The parties signed a memorandum of agreement to let a strip of land from 1930 until determined as provided, but the only provision was that the lease would continue until the land was needed for road widening and two months’ notice was given. The land was never used for road widening and notice to terminate … Continue reading Prudential Assurance Co Ltd v London Residuary Body and Others: HL 16 Jul 1992
The claimants had taken up occupation of a farm under an informal arrangement which they now said amounted to a tenancy for ther lives. The freeholder’s, personal representatives of the original grantors, appealed against a declaration accordingly. The respondents said that they had spent over andpound;30,000 in repairs because of the agreement. Held: The appeal … Continue reading Hardy and Another v Haselden and Others: CA 29 Nov 2011
Limits to Police Exemption from Liability The claimant, an elderly lady was bowled over and injured when police were chasing a suspect through the streets. As they arrested him they fell over on top of her. She appealed against refusal of her claim in negligence. Held: Her appeal succeeded. It is normally only in a … Continue reading Robinson v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police: SC 8 Feb 2018
Rectification or Setting Aside of Documents – Rentcharges – grant of lease over rentcharge to trustees to enforce payments due under a rentcharge – equitable status of lease pending registration – proof of title to rentcharge – proof of sums due and . .
The claimant sought a declaration that certain easements had been included by implication in a conveyance of part of land to him.
Held: Since the easements were capable of subsisting at law, and existed as quasi-easements at the time, and did . .
The defendant blocked the line of a sewer. The claimant alleged that it had an easement and sought the cost of building the alternative pipe. The question to be answered was ‘Where an easement is granted by implication on the sale of a property, . .
The claimants asserted negligence in the defendant in failing to provide an adequate response to an emergency call, leading, they said to the death of their daughter at the hands of her violent partner. They claimed also under the 1998 Act. The . .
Various leases of properties had been granted. Legal and General occupied the property under an arrangement under which they paid no rent. The landlord sought possession, saying that the agreements were licences not tenancies because of the absence . .
A property was held in the joint names of a former husband and wife. To obtain a loan for the husband, a legal charge over the property was executed by the husband, but he had another woman execute for the wife, pretending to be her. The chargee . .
Purchasers of a property intended to finance the purchase from monies deposited in a bank in Nigeria. Due to a change in exchange control regulations, the money was received some six weeks late, and after a notice to complete had expired and the . .
Admissibility . .
The claimants had been the registered proprietors of land, they lost it through the adverse possession of former tenants holding over. They claimed that the law had dispossessed them of their lawful rights.
Held: The cumulative effect of the . .
The court was asked whether services provided by the police at Sheffield United Football Club for the club’s home fixtures were ‘special police services’ so that, if they were provided at the club’s request, the police could charge for them. Up . .
RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS – DISCHARGE – three houses built on part of golf course – 30- year covenants restricting residential development without consent – objector having no retained land – price for consent not a practical benefit – no loss or . .
The deadline for giving notice of a rent review to the tenant was 30 June. The notice was posted recorded delivery on 28 June, but it was not received and signed for until 1 July. The issue was whether it was deemed, under section 196(4) of the 1925 . .
Several transactions had taken place with regard to a lease of a roof void, which was to be developed for penthouses. The lease had been charged to secure funding. The development did not proceed to schedule, and a s146 notice was served. It was . .
The claimant had paid money for a property, but the seller was a fraudster and no money or title was recovered. The claimant sued both his conveyancers and the solicitors who had acted for the fraudster, in each case innocently. The defendants each . .
The plaintiffs had paid deposits for apartments which were to be built. After the developer became insolvent the plaintiffs sought recovery of the deposits, saying they had a lien which preceded the claims of chargees.
Held: The one appeal . .
The claimants asserted that they had the benefit of restrictive covenants under a building scheme to prevent the defendants erecting more houses in their neighbouring garden. The defendants pointed to alleged breaches of the same scheme by the . .
The court was asked to pierce the veil of incorporation of a company in the course of ancillary relief proceedings in a divorce. H had failed to co-operate with the court.
After a comprehensive review of all the authorities, Munby J said: ‘The . .
The parties, a married couple disputed the shares in which the matrimonial home, formerly held by them as joint tenants would be held after severance o that joint tenancy.
Held: The wife was entitled to a half share in the property.
In about 1930 a house, no 16, one of two adjacent houses in common ownership was rebuilt. One wall was built close against the adjacent no. 14. Thirty years later no. 14 was demolished by its later owner, the Defendant, leaving the adjoining wall of . .