The applicant for asylum had been involved in an airport bomb attack killing 10 people. Asylum had been refused on the basis that this was a non-political crime. Though the organisation had political objectives, those were only indirectly associated with the bomb attach which was disproportionate to those aims. Held: The involvement by the applicant … Continue reading T v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 22 May 1996
Random violence without a causal connection with any political purpose was not a political crime. Judges: Lord Lloyd of Berwick Citations: Independent 04-Nov-1994, Times 09-Nov-1994 Statutes: Geneva Convention 1951 33(1) Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited by: Appeal from – T v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL 22-May-1996 The applicant for asylum had … Continue reading T v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 9 Nov 1994
Two Somali nationals were refused asylum and sought to challenge a decision rejecting their claim that to be sent to Spain would be contrary to the United Kingdom’s obligations under the Geneva Convention of 1951. Held: Adjudicators are experts in their field and are provided with a great deal of background information in relation to … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department Ex Parte Abdi, Same v Same, Ex Parte Gawe: HL 15 Feb 1996
The Home Secretary has no duty to show the factual evidence he had relied upon as to the safety of a deportee’s destination country.
The Home Secretary need not state all information on which his certificate was based. The court recognised the . .
The claimants sought to maintain their claims for asylum. They had fled persecution, but before their claims for asylum were determined conditions in their home country changed so that they could no longer be said to have a well founded fear of persecution. Held: The decision on the grant required the fear to remain well … Continue reading Hoxha and Another v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 10 Mar 2005
A scheme had been introduced to arrange pre-entry clearance for visitors to the United Kingdom by posting of immigration officers in the Czech Republic. The claimants argued that the system was discriminatory, because Roma visitors were now subjected to a much more rigorous examination than others, and also that the arrangement put the respondent in … Continue reading European Roma Rights Centre and others v Immigration Officer at Prague Airport and Another: CA 20 May 2003
Three applicants had lied on entry to secure admission, stayed for a considerable time, and had been treated as illegal immigrants under section 33(1). The fourth’s claim that upon being returned he would been killed, had been rejected without investigation. Held: A claim to refugee status was not an exception to the ban on appeals … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Bugdaycay: HL 19 Feb 1986
Hudoc Judgment (Merits and just satisfaction) Preliminary objection rejected (victim); Violation of Art. 5-1; Non-pecuniary damage – finding of violation sufficient; Costs and expenses partial award – domestic proceedings; Costs and expenses partial award – Convention proceedings‘In order to determine whether someone has been ‘deprived of his liberty’ within the meaning of Article 5, the … Continue reading Amuur v France: ECHR 25 Jun 1996
The applicant had sought asylum. Her case had been refused, according to the law as stated at that time, but the decision then binding on the adjudicator (Shah), had been reversed in the House of Lords. It had now been held that the women of a country could be seen, at law, as a persecuted … Continue reading Regina (Ivanauskiene) v A Special Adjudicator: CA 31 Jul 2001
The court emphasised the fundamental importance of asylum decisions: ‘asylum decisions are of such moment that only the highest standards of fairness will suffice.’ Judges: Bingham LJ Citations:  Imm AR 402 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited by: Cited – Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department Ex Parte Abdi, Same v Same, … Continue reading Regina v Home Secretary, Ex parte Thirukumar: CA 1989
Both applicants, Islam and Shah, citizens of Pakistan, but otherwise unconnected with each other, had suffered violence in Pakistan after being falsely accused them of adultery. Both applicants arrived in the UK and were granted leave to enter as visitors for six months. Both applicants subsequently applied for asylum on the ground that having been … Continue reading Regina v Immigration Appeal Tribunal and Another ex parte Shah: HL 25 Mar 1999
When considering the fear of prosecution in an applicant for asylum, the degree of persecution expected from individuals outside the government was to be assessed in the context also of the attitude of the government of the country to such persecution, and the level of protection it was prepared to offer. The failure of state … Continue reading Horvath v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 7 Jul 2000
The Home Secretary is able to collect information about the policies of other countries from many sources. Citations:  Imm AR 169 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited by: Cited – Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department Ex Parte Abdi, Same v Same, Ex Parte Gawe HL 15-Feb-1996 Two Somali nationals were refused … Continue reading Dursun v Secretary of State for the Home Department: 1993
A Special Adjudicator is not limited to checking whether the Secretary of State has some material on which he might give such a certificate. He must make an independent judgment and consider de novo whether he is satisfied that the country was a safe country: ‘the discipline which this system imposes upon the Secretary of … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department, Ex parte Mehari: QBD 1994
Where a conscientious civil servant was threatened by insurgents who sought to persuade her to use her position to their advantage, but that civil servants could not expected to receive the protection of her estate from such insurgents, the Convention would give her protection as a refugee for asylum. The position of government employees in … Continue reading Noune v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 20 Dec 2000
Mr Musisi sought entry to the United Kingdom as a visitor from Kenya. When that application looked as though it might fail, he claimed political asylum as a refugee from Uganda. His application for asylum was refused on the basis that he had come from a safe third country, Kenya. This decision was challenged on … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Musisi: HL 1987
US Board of Immigration Appeals – Held: ‘We find the well-established doctrine of ejusdem generis, meaning literally, ‘of the same kind,’ to be most helpful in construing the phrase ‘membership in a particular social group.’ That doctrine holds that general words used in an enumeration with specific words should be construed in a manner consistent … Continue reading In re Acosta: 1985
ECJ Reference for a preliminary ruling – Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, signed in Geneva on 28 July 1951 – Articles 23 and 26 – Area of freedom, security and justice – Directive 2011/95/EU – Rules relating to the content of international protection – Subsidiary protection status – Article 29 – Social welfare … Continue reading Alo (Judgment): ECJ 1 Mar 2016
ECJ Reference for a preliminary ruling – Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 relating to the Status of Refugees – Article 31 – Third country national who has entered the territory of a Member State after passing through another Member State – Use of the services of human traffickers – Unauthorised entry and stay – … Continue reading Qurbani: ECJ 17 Jul 2014
ECJ Directive 2004/83/EC – Minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refugees – Stateless person of Palestinian origin who has not sought protection or assistance from the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) – Application for refugee status – … Continue reading Bolbol (Area Of Freedom, Security And Justice): ECJ 17 Jun 2010
1. The Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 provides greater protection than the minimum standards imposed by a literal interpretation) of Article 10(1)(d) of the Qualification Directive (Particular Social Group). Article 10 (d) should be interpreted by replacing the word ‘and’ between Article 10(1)(d)(i) and (ii) with the word ‘or’, creating an … Continue reading DH (Particular Social Group: Mental Health) Afghanistan: UTIAC 3 Jun 2020
The plaintiff sought damages for false imprisonment. The Secretary of State had refused to disclose certain documents. The question was as to the need for the defendant to justify the use of his powers by disclosing the documents. Held: The legislation must be interpreted to give effect to Parliament’s intention, even if that meant adding … Continue reading Liversidge v Sir John Anderson: HL 3 Nov 1941
The Court was asked what rules apply to family members seeking entry to the United Kingdom, where the sponsor was given asylum and then obtained British citizenship. The ECO had said that the ordinary family members rules applied, where the claimants said that the joint relative rules applied, under which they would not be required … Continue reading ZN (Afghanistan) and Others v Entry Clearance Officer (Karachi): SC 12 May 2010
A fear of persecution which was justified only historically, was insufficient to justify an asylum claim. The applicant must show justification for contemporary fears. The applicant had been granted exceptional leave to remain in the UK, but wanted full refugee status because of the additional rights that would bring. In each case an applicant had … Continue reading Adan v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 6 Apr 1998
The Tribunal had confirmed the appellant’s refugee status, but the respondent had ordered nevertheless that she be returned. The judge’s order setting aside that decision had been overturned in the Court of Appeal. Held: The claimant’s appeal failed. The Convention set two standards of protection for refugees. Article 33 prevented the return of anyone to … Continue reading ST Eritrea, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department: SC 21 Mar 2012
The asylum seeker was accused of complicity in war crimes in Sri Lanka. He had worked as an intelligence officer but his cover had been broken and he fled to the UK. It was said that he was excluded from protection as an asylum seeker. Held: The Home Secretary’s appeal failed. Article 28 is to … Continue reading JS (Sri Lanka), Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for The Home Department: SC 17 Mar 2010
The House of Lords were concerned with the correct test to be applied in determining whether asylum seekers are entitled to the status of refugee. That in turn gave rise to an issue, turning upon the proper interpretation of Article 1.A(2) of the Convention. Held: When deciding whether an asylum applicant’s fear of persecution was … Continue reading Regina v Home Secretary, ex parte Sivakumaran: HL 16 Dec 1987
The court considered the claimants appeal against refusal of asylum and for his return to Palestine, against the case of MA which decided that denial of return to a stateless person to his country of former habitual residence did not of itself give . .
The applicant had claimed asylum on entry and was temporarily admitted. Though his claim for asylum was later refused, those admitted in this way were granted indefinite leave to remain. He had claimed and received benefits at first, but then these . .
The appellants had been refused refugee status on the ground that they were suspected of having been guilty of terrorist acts. They said that the definition of terrorism applied within the UK was wider than that in the Convention which contained the . .
The Convention gave protection to an asylum seeker fearing persecution by non-state agents in his country of origin where that government was unable or unwilling to provide protection. France and Germany did not recognise this right, and therefore . .
Extra Division, Inner House – The applicant sought leave to appeal against a decision of the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal rejecting his appeals. The latter decision dismissed the applicant’s appeal against a decision of the respondent, the Home . .
Whether the respondent has a well-founded fear of being persecuted ‘for reasons of membership of a particular social group’: ‘The basis of the claim for asylum was that he was being persecuted by criminals while working as a security officer in a . .
The defendant appealed against his conviction in a case concerning the use of a false passport. The central issue was whether the appellant had a defence based upon the proposition that he was a refugee entitled to asylum in this country. He had . .
A wife, afraid with cause of being stoned to death for adultery if she returned home, was part of ‘a particular social group’ within the Convention, and was entitled to claim asylum. Commenting on the unique complexity of such cases: ‘Its . .
Even the justified fears of being stoned to death for adultery did not create a particular separate group from which protection from persecution could be claimed in support of an application for asylum. A ‘social group’ for refugee applicants, had . .
The court discussed the task of a Special Adjudicator: ‘Clearly the Special Adjudicator is not bound by the Home Secretary’s certificate. In other words, he does not merely wield a rubber stamp. He must consider whether, on the material before the . .
‘This case concerns the 1951 Geneva Convention on Refugees (‘the Refugee Convention’) and the protection against refoulement afforded to foreign criminals subject to deportation orders, who have previously been granted refugee status linked to the . .
The Secretary of State appealed against an order requiring him to recognise the respondent as a refugee and to grant permissions accordingly. His ddecision to order her return had been contrary to a finding of the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal. . .
The applicant appealed against rejection of his asylum claim on the basis of his alleged involvement in acts of terrorism. He had been set to face trial but the charges were dropped for insufficient evidence.
Held: Sedley LJ considered the . .
The Court asked: ‘1(a) Is a person who is outside his country of origin and recognised as a refugee, and who has subsequent to that recognition taken on the nationality of the host country, still a refugee within the meaning of the 1951 Geneva . .
(Australia) A claim to refugee status was made by a husband and wife who had come from China to Australia. They said that they feared sterilization under the ‘one child policy’ of China if they were returned.
Held: There is a general principle . .
The claimant appealed against rejection of his claim for asylum and protection on human rights grounds. He said that if returned to Afghanistan he would face a real risk of serious harm. . .
1267 – 1278 – 1285 – 1297 – 1361 – 1449 – 1491 – 1533 – 1677 – 1688 – 1689 – 1700 – 1706 – 1710 – 1730 – 1737 – 1738 – 1751 – 1774 – 1792 – 1793 – 1804 – 1814 – 1819 – 1824 – 1828 – 1831 – 1832 … Continue reading Acts