Appellant’s application for a non-molestation injunction pursuant to s.42 of the Family Law Act 1996 – important point of principle or practice, namely the meaning of the term ‘associated person’ in of s. 62(3) of the Act. The Honourable Mr Justice Macdonald  EWHC 1351 (Fam),  WLR(D) 329,  1 WLR 5724 Bailii, WLRD … Continue reading M v D (Family Law Act 1996 : Meaning of ‘Associated Person’): FD 21 May 2021
Peter Jackson J  EWFC 48,  1 WLR 2743,  Fam Law 264,  2 FLR 1005 Bailii Family Law Act 1996 England and Wales Family Updated: 12 January 2022; Ref: scu.561194
The applicant was a Turkish national resident in Austria. While working there he had paid unemployment insurance contributions. At a stage when he was unemployed he applied for an advance on his pension in the form of emergency assistance. That was available under the material Austrian legislation, but one of the conditions was that the … Continue reading Gaygusuz v Austria: ECHR 16 Sep 1996
(Ontario – Superior Court of Justice) APPEAL – Grounds – Factual findings by trial judge – Deference to trial judge’s factual determinations and findings – Where trial judge has had chance to observe witnesses while testifying and to draw conclusions about credibility, appeal court should not interfere in those factual findings, especially in child custody … Continue reading Snetzko v Snetzko: 27 Jun 1996
A baby boy who was 18 months old, suffered from a life-threatening liver defect. His parents were health-care professionals experienced in the care of sick children. The unanimous medical view was that as soon as donor liver became available the baby should undergo surgery. The prospects of success were good whilst without transplantation the expectation … Continue reading In Re T (A Minor) (Wardship: Medical Treatment): CA 24 Oct 1996
The plaintiff, a woman and her husband, had passed on information in confidence to the police about the identity of a person implicated in the killing of a police officer, expressing her concern that she did not want the source of the information to be traced back to her. The information was recorded, naming the … Continue reading Swinney and Another v Chief Constable of Northumbria: CA 22 Mar 1996
(Grand Chamber) The subsequent use against a defendant in a prosecution, of evidence which had been obtained under compulsion in company insolvency procedures was a convention breach of Art 6. Although not specifically mentioned in Article 6 of the Convention the right to silence and the right not to incriminate oneself are generally recognised international … Continue reading Saunders v The United Kingdom: ECHR 17 Dec 1996
The court said that the representation of a litigant in person by a charging non-professional must be only exceptional. Lord Woolf MR, Waite, Waller LJJ Times 01-Jan-1997,  1 FLR 724,  EWCA Civ 1341,  Fam Law 403,  2 FCR 217 Bailii Courts and Legal Services Act 1990 17 18 28 England and … Continue reading D v S (Rights of Audience); In re and Application by Dr Pelling: CA 18 Dec 1996
The applicants, parents of more than 800 Francophone children, living in certain (mostly Dutch-speaking) parts of Belgium, complained that their children were denied access to an education in French. Held: In establishing a system or regime to comply with a Convention obligation, a State may include within the system elements that are not strictly required … Continue reading Relating to certain aspects of the laws on the use of languages in education in Belgium (Belgian Linguistics) No 2: ECHR 9 Feb 1967
Proper Reply Opportunity Required on Deportation (Grand Chamber) The claimant was an Indian citizen who had been granted indefinite leave to remain in this country but whose activities as a Sikh separatist brought him to the notice of the authorities both in India and here. The Home Secretary of the day decided that he should … Continue reading Chahal v The United Kingdom: ECHR 15 Nov 1996
Simple interest only on rate swap damages The bank had paid money to the local authority under a contract which turned out to be ultra vires and void. The question was whether, in addition to ordering the repayment of the money to the bank on unjust enrichment principles, the court could also award compound interest. … Continue reading Westdeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale v Islington London Borough Council: HL 22 May 1996
On an application for a care order the judge found there was a real possibility that sexual abuse had occurred but the evidence was not sufficient to prove the allegations to the requisite standard. The threshold criteria were met on another ground. The children had suffered emotional harm at the hands of the mother and … Continue reading In re M and R (Child abuse: Expert Evidence): CA 21 May 1996
The patient suffered from irreversible damage to the cerebral cortex and fell into a persistent vegetative state in 1992. Permanently insensate, she remained alive only because feeding and hydration were provided to her artificially and because of . .
The burden of proof which falls on a disappointed beneficiary who seeks rectification of the will, saying that the will did not give effect to a testator’s intentions, is an exacting one.
Chadwick J said: ‘Although the standard of proof . .
A Tunisian national lived in France. In his youth. He was deported after being convicted of a number of serious criminal offences. He returned illegally and formed a relationship with a French national whose child he acknowledged to be his. He . .
Conflict of laws – ‘It is sufficient to say that the party relying upon art. 3 must demonstrate with reasonable certainty that the parties have chosen a particular law as the governing or applicable law. ‘ . .
The plaintiff claimed damages for acute stress after failing to rescue his two daughters in an accident caused by the defendant. After the accident, he became involved in family proceedings concerning custody of other children. Medical reports used . .
The family sought approval of a proposed variation of the will to make best advantage of tax allowances. Because the beneficial interests of children would be affected, the court’s approval was necessary. The judge had refused to approve the . .
The parties had gone through a form of marriage, but the purported husband was many years later revealed to be a female to male transsexual. The marriage had been annulled. There was now an application for ancillary relief.
Held: Ancillary . .
The applicant sought to have his application for a residence order heard in open court: ‘Article 6 (1) provides for the public hearing and the public pronouncement of judgment of cases, but with the proviso of exclusion of the press and the public . .
A strictly mathematical approach to calculating ancillary relief can be inappropriate in large sum cases. The statutory jurisdiction has to provide for all applications for ancillary financial relief, from the poverty stricken to the . .
An appointment under a trust created before 1970 but made after was deemed to have been before the change in age from 21 to 18. . .
On an applicatin for ancillary relief on divorce, the sherriff thought that the spouses could share equally in the increase in the value of the matrimonial property after the date when they separated. That could not be done under the rules laid down . .
The defendant had been driving the plaintiff’s daughters, but negligently caused an accident from which they died. The plaintiff was called to the accident, and claimed to have suffered post traumatic stress. The defendant said that the effect was . .
The bond between natural parents and their children is a strong indicator of the existence of family life: ‘from the moment of the child’s birth and by the very fact of it, there exists between him and his parents a bond amounting to ‘family life’, . .
The parents were suspected of causing the child non-accidental injury. The court wanted a residential assessment of the family, but the local authority refused, saying it would be too expensive, and would expose the child to continuing risk. The . .
The applicant had been refused accomodation as homeless after disclosing the ownership of a family home in Uganda. He had lived and worked in the UK for 15 years. The authority did not accept that it had later been repossessed. The council now . .
Millett LJ discussed the assertion of a vendor’s lien where a third party would be adversely affected: ‘A party with an equitable charge can be taken to agree to the postponement of his property against any party who was allowed to his knowledge to . .
The court considered a fear of persecution as founding a claim for asylum where a family member attracts the adverse attention of the authorities, whether for non-Convention reasons or reasons unknown, and persecutory treatment is then directed to . .
ECJ By making the grant of tideover allowances to young people seeking their first employment subject to the requirement of having completed their secondary education in an establishment subsidized or approved by . .
The bank sought to enforce a guarantee against the estate of the deceased guarantor. The executors alleged undue influence. The bank appealed.
Held: Where the other contracting party had had actual knowledge of the undue influence or . .
Destitute asylum seekers who were not entitled to welfare benefits could be in need of care and attention within the meaning of section 21 of the 1948 Act although they were no longer entitled to housing assistance or other social security benefits . .
The right of a prisoner to provide a recorded message for a radio station could properly be curtailed. . .
A full restriction on the use of material emanating from a prison visit was unlawful as an interference with the right of free speech of the prisoner: ‘The blanket prohibition on making use of material obtained in a visit is not, on the evidence . .
The complaint was that the mandatory child support payments meant that the father could not visit his children as often as he was entitled under the court’s order to do. The complaint of a direct breach of article 8 failed because he could not show . .
There was no jurisdiction under section 38(6) to order residential assessment of a family involved in care proceedings. The words ‘other assessment of the child’ had to be construed as ejusdem generis with the words ‘medical or psychiatric . .
Wall J commented on the diffculties arising where an allegation of child abuse remained unresolved on the evidence: ‘It has also had the effect, in the instant case, of producing the worst of all worlds. The father remains under a cloud. Abuse is . .
‘The fact, if it be so, that evidence so obtained may be used in other proceedings and indeed may be central in those proceedings is no reason for refusing to allow it to be requested’ Lord Fraser said: ‘in judging the nature of the letters rogatory . .
The direction deals with the circumstances in which the officer who makes an arrest in family proceedings for the breach of a non-molestation or similar order should be asked to attend court personally on the hearing regarding that breach. Unless . .
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Our law-index is a substantial selection from our database. Cases here are restricted in number by date and lack the additional facilities formerly available within lawindexpro. Please do enjoy this free version of the lawindex. Case law does not ‘belong’ to lawyers. Judgments are made up of words which can be read and understood (if … Continue reading law index
Application under Part 4A of the Family Law Act 1996 for forced marriage protection orders. . .
Application made by the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis for a forced marriage protection order pursuant to Part 4A of the Family Law Act 1996 . .
Appellant’s appeal against an occupation order under section 33 Family Law act 1996 Mr Justice Williams  EWHC 812 (Fam) Bailii Family Law act 1996 33 England and Wales Family Updated: 14 January 2022; Ref: scu.663790
The court was asked whether a police force can apply for committal for alleged breach of a forced marriage protection order made under Part 4A of the Family Law Act 1996 when the police were not the applicants who had obtained the relevant order. Held: That the police force could not; it lacked standing to … Continue reading Bedfordshire Police Constabulary v RU and Another: FD 26 Jul 2013
LRA Family Law Act 1996 – home rights notice – meaning and effect of ‘intention’ in statute – Applicant’s evidence – property never occupied as a matrimonial home – whether husband ever had entitlement to occupy by virtue of a beneficial estate or interest or application – application opposed by Applicant’s husband’s trustee in bankruptcy … Continue reading Ellis-Carr v Levy (Home Rights : Requirements To Establish Interest): LRA 19 Nov 2013
The Solicitor General sought the committal of the respondent for alleged contempt of court. There had been repeated litigation between the respondent and her former husband as to whether the children should live in Spain with the father or in Wales with the mother. An order, with penal notice attached requiring the respondent to return … Continue reading Jones, Re (Alleged Contempt of Court): FD 21 Aug 2013
The married couple owned a property as tenants in common. The husband had moved out and, anticipating divorce proceedings, sought an order for the sale of the house citing his inability to sustain the very considerable mortgage payments. The wife said that it was inappropriate to use the 1996 Act when divorce proceedings were anticipated. … Continue reading Miller Smith v Miller Smith: CA 2 Dec 2009
The parties, from Germany and France married and lived at first in England. They had signed a pre-nuptial agreement in Germany which would have been valid in either country of origin. H now appealed against a judgment which bound him to it, restricting his ancillary relief. Held: H’s appeal failed (Lady Hale dissenting). Separation agreements … Continue reading Radmacher (Formerly Granatino) v Granatino: SC 20 Oct 2010
The mother appealed against a sentence of eight months imprisonment imposed for contempt of court in having broken an order intended to protect the child against being removed to Nigeria with a view to forcing him into a marriage. On complaint of a breach, she had undertaken to write letters which would secure his return. … Continue reading Erhire v E O-I (by his next friend): CA 24 Mar 2011
The wife had registered her right of occupation under the 1996 Act, but the husband sold the house subject to the registered right, and the purchaser had charged the property. She now sought an order restricting the use of the proceeds of sale, and challenged the new mortgage. Held: The wife’s appeal failed. The subsection … Continue reading Ansari v Ansari and others: CA 19 Dec 2008
The court was asked whether it had jurisdiction to hear applications with regard to a child removed from Scotland. The father lived in Scotland, and the mother and child in England. The child had been habitually resident in Scotland and removed to . .
A court asked to sentence for contempt of court is not sentencing for the criminal equivalent of what the contemnor has done, and ‘Great care must be taken, if there are concurrent criminal or civil proceedings, to ensure that sentences in two or . .
The respondent had been sentenced to two months imprisonment for breaches of orders under the Act. The wife appealed, seeking to increase the sentence. The maximum sentence was two years.
Held: The court had to consider such cases in the light . .
Parties challenged the rule allowing the respondent to deny the right to enter or remain here to non EU citizens marrying a person settled and present here where either party was under the age of 21. The aim of the rule was to deter forced . .
Consequential order made on Forced Marriage injunction application. . .
The court considered an application for a forced marriage protection order.
Held: Singer J said that the court’s inherent jurisdiction is ‘sufficiently flexible . . to evolve in accordance with social needs and social values.’ . .
The ability for a court to order the transfer of a secure tenancy between partners under the Act depended upon the court first making an occupation order in favour of the party from whom the tenancy was to be transferred, but the order could be made . .
The appellant challenged findings that he had broken a non-molestation order. He said that the order had been obtained by means whch were procedurally defective. The original order had been made without notice, and with a power of arrest attached. . .
Appeal against committal order. . .
Appeal from conviction of breach of non-molestation order – burden of proof. . .
Power to attach power of arrest when claimant under 18. . .
The claimant sought to assert her interest in a house purchased by a company in debt to the respondent for whom she had worked and with whom she had had a relationship. The company was insolvent. She claimed he had promised her a house, and that it . .
Save in cases involving children and ancillary and other situations requiring it, cases in the family division were not inherently private. The appellant failed to obtain an order that details of an action under the section should not be disclosed . .
The court considered the proper order for a transfer of a property held under a joint tenancy following a divorce.
Held: The court must have regard to all the circumstances of the case, and the judge had to make a fair and balanced decision. . .
The publication of allegations of previous misconduct was not capable of constituting molestation justifying a court order. . .
The appellant had broken two court orders, and appealed a sentence of two months imprisonment. He had been held on remand for 28 days before the court hearing.
Held: The judge should have given allowance for the time spent in custody already. . .
There was no power to enforce an order made under the Act, when making an occupation order, which included orders for the payment of rent, and other outgoings. Such orders did not come within the exceptions under the Debtors Act, nor under the . .
When attaching a power of arrest on a non-molestation order the court should consider attaching it only to that element which restricts violence or proximity rather than to any part relating to harassment. When considering sentence for a breach, the . .
The issue of whether a respondent to a non-molestation order application was an associated person, was to be construed purposively. The system was designed to afford a swift and accessible procedure. There had been present three of the admirable . .
The defendant appealed against his conviction for breach of a non-molestation order. He said that the prosecutor should have had the burden of proving that he had no lawful excuse for the acts complained of. He was said to have gone to the . .
The respondent was a minor who had been violent within the family. He had been ordered to leave the family home, and a power of arrest had been attached. He argued that this could not apply because he was a minor. The fact that he could not be . .
Appeal from refusal of the Judge to discharge a non-molestation order . .
Prosecutor’s appeal from dismissal of allegation of breach of non-molestation order. . .
These proceedings raise, for the first time in the courts of the United Kingdom, the question how the concepts of sufficiency and infringement are to be applied to a patent relating to a specified medical use of a known pharmaceutical compound. Four issues arose: (i) the construction of the claims (in particular, Claim 3 as … Continue reading Warner-Lambert Company Llc v Generics (UK) Ltd (T/A Mylan) and Another: SC 14 Nov 2018
Application for sale of home in London. The husband disputed that he was domiciled iin England and not in Poland. Bodey J  EWHC 2101 (Fam),  Fam Law 454,  4 WLR 22,  WLR(D) 26 Bailii, WLRD Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996 England and Wales Family Updated: 22 January … Continue reading G v G: FD 6 Jul 2015
PI Damages not Reduced for Own Pension The plaintiff policeman was disabled by the negligence of the defendant and received a disablement pension. Part had been contributed by himself and part by his employer. Held: The plaintiff’s appeal succeeded. Damages for personal injury were not to be reduced by deducting the full net value of … Continue reading Parry v Cleaver: HL 5 Feb 1969
Abuse of Process and Re-litigation The court set down the principles to be applied in abuse of process cases, where a matter was raised again which should have been dealt with in earlier proceedings. Sir James Wigram VC said: ‘In trying this question I believe I state the rule of the Court correctly when I … Continue reading Henderson v Henderson: 20 Jul 1843
No collateral attack on Jury findigs. An attempt was made to open up in a civil action, allegations of assaults by the police prior to the making of confessions which had been disposed of in a voir dire in the course of a criminal trial. The plaintiffs had imprisoned having spent many years after conviction … Continue reading Hunter v Chief Constable of the West Midlands Police: HL 19 Nov 1981
There was a dispute about the legitimacy of an heir to the title. New evidence had been discovered after the trial. Held: The House considered whether a new trial of an action might be ordered after discovery of new evidence: ‘The law knows, and we all know, that sometimes fresh material may be found, which … Continue reading The Ampthill Peerage Case: HL 1977
Shareholder May Sue for Additional Personal Losses A company brought a claim of negligence against its solicitors, and, after that claim was settled, the company’s owner brought a separate claim in respect of the same subject-matter. Held: It need not be an abuse of the court for a shareholder to seek damages against advisers to … Continue reading Johnson v Gore Wood and Co: HL 14 Dec 2000
Three prisoners raised questions as to the circumstances in which the Parole Board is required to hold an oral hearing before making an adverse decision. One of the appeals (Osborn) concerned a determinate sentence prisoner who was released on licence but then recalled to custody. The other appeals (Booth and Reilly) were indeterminate sentence prisoners … Continue reading Osborn v The Parole Board: SC 9 Oct 2013
The claimants had been brought here illegally to act as servants for the defendants. They were taken advantage of and abused. They made several claims, but now appealed against rejection of their claims for discrimination. The court was asked whether discrimination because of, or on grounds of, immigration status amounts to discrimination because of, or … Continue reading Taiwo and Another v Olaigbe and Others: SC 22 Jun 2016
Wrong assumptions made by police officers in the killing of terrorists amounted to a human rights breach, despite the existence of danger to the public of an imminent attack. Article 2(1) is ‘one of the most fundamental provisions in the Convention’. It would have been incumbent on the state to conduct a ‘thorough, impartial and … Continue reading McCann and Others v The United Kingdom: ECHR 6 Oct 1995
(Northern Ireland) The deceased solicitor was murdered in his home in 1989, allegedly by loyalists. They had never been identified, though collusion between security forces and a loyalist paramilitary was established. The ECHR and a judge led inquiry had said that a proper investigation was required. A promised inquiry under the 2005 Act was objected … Continue reading Finucane, Re Application for Judicial Review: SC 27 Feb 2019
The applicants had had their requests for asylum refused. They complained that if they were removed from the UK, their article 3 rights would be infringed. If they were returned to Pakistan or Vietnam they would be persecuted for their religious faiths. Held: A distinction was to be made between domestic cases involving actions within … Continue reading Regina v Special Adjudicator ex parte Ullah; Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 17 Jun 2004
Wives had charged the family homes to secure their husband’s business borrowings, and now resisted possession orders, claiming undue influence. Held: Undue influence is an equitable protection created to undo the effect of excess influence of one person over the will of another, though it should not always be presumed to arise from the existence … Continue reading Royal Bank of Scotland v Etridge (No 2); Barclays Bank plc v Harris; Midland Bank plc v Wallace, etc: HL 11 Oct 2001
Transgender Male to Female not to marry as Female The parties had gone through a form of marriage, but Mrs B had previously undergone gender re-assignment surgery. Section 11(c) of the 1973 Act required a marriage to be between a male and a female. It was argued that the section was incompatible with the claimant’s … Continue reading Bellinger v Bellinger: HL 10 Apr 2003
There had been a purported marriage in 1963 between a man and a male to female trans-sexual. Held: Because marriage is essentially a union between a man and a woman, the relationship depended on sex, and not on gender. The law should adopt the chromosomal, gonadal and genital tests. If all three are congruent, that … Continue reading Corbett v Corbett (otherwise Ashley): FD 1 Feb 1970
Transgender Male may not marry as Female Despite gender re-assignment, a person born and registered a male, remained biologically a male, and so was not a woman for the purposes of the law of marriage. The birth registration in this case had been correct. The words ‘male and female’ in the section had not previously … Continue reading Bellinger v Bellinger: CA 17 Jul 2001
The claimant had obtained a privacy injunction, but the name of the claimant had nevertheless been widey distributed on the Internet. The defendant newspaper now sought to vary the terms. The second defendant did not oppose the injunction. Additionally the claimant said that given that the defendant claimed to have clean hands in the matter, … Continue reading CTB v News Group Newspapers Ltd and Thomas (2): QBD 23 May 2011
The claimant was injured in a car accident in France. The defendant insurer said that the quantification of damages was to be according to French law and the calculation of interest also. The claimant said that English law applied. Held: The assessment of damages is a procedural matter, and is governed by the law of … Continue reading Knight v Axa Assurances: QBD 24 Jul 2009
The defendant published a film showing the claimant involved in sex acts with prostitutes. It characterised them as ‘Nazi’ style. He was the son of a fascist leader, and a chairman of an international sporting body. He denied any nazi element, and claimed in breach of confidence. Held: ‘The law [of confidence] now affords protection … Continue reading Mosley v News Group Newspapers Ltd: QBD 24 Jul 2008
The claimant had been expelled from school unlawfully, and now sought damages for the breach of his right to an education. Held: The claimant had received and had refused appropriate offers of alternate schools. The duty was imposed generally on the state, not on any particular school. If the unavailablity of education was the fault … Continue reading Ali v Head and Governors of Lord Grey School: QBD 27 Jun 2003