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Gillan and Another, Regina (on the Application of) v Commissioner of the Police for the Metropolis and Another: Admn 31 Oct 2003

The applicants challenged by way of judicial review the way they had been stopped and searched under the Act. They attended a demonstration. The search revealed nothing suspicious. General authorisations for such searches had been issued under the Act. Held: The section should not be read so as to restrict the power to issue authorisations … Continue reading Gillan and Another, Regina (on the Application of) v Commissioner of the Police for the Metropolis and Another: Admn 31 Oct 2003

Gillan and Quinton, Regina (on the Application of) v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and Another: CA 29 Jul 2004

The appellants had challenged the lawfulness of being stopped and searched by police. The officers relied on an authorisation made under the 2000 Act. They had been on their way to attending an arms fair, intending to demonstrate. Held: The Act was to be interpreted without deference to the respondent, and because of the powers … Continue reading Gillan and Quinton, Regina (on the Application of) v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and Another: CA 29 Jul 2004

Gillan, Regina (on the Application of) v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and Another: HL 8 Mar 2006

The defendants said that the stop and search powers granted under the 2000 Act were too wide, and infringed their human rights. Each had been stopped when innocently attending demonstrations in London, and had been effectively detained for about twenty minutes or more before being allowed to continue. An authorisation had been granted by an … Continue reading Gillan, Regina (on the Application of) v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and Another: HL 8 Mar 2006

Gillan and Quinton v The United Kingdom: ECHR 12 Jan 2010

The claimants had been stopped by the police using powers in the 2000 Act. They were going to a demonstration outside an arms convention. There was no reason given for any suspicion that the searches were needed. Held: The powers given to the police were too wide, provided inadequate protection against abuse, and violated the … Continue reading Gillan and Quinton v The United Kingdom: ECHR 12 Jan 2010

Gk v Belgium: ECHR 21 May 2019

ECHR Judgment : Article 3 of Protocol No. 1 – Right to free elections-{general} : Second Section Citations: 58302/10, [2019] ECHR 369 Links: Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Human Rights Updated: 06 July 2022; Ref: scu.637676

Austin and Another v The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis: QBD 23 Mar 2005

The claimants had variously been attending a demonstration in London, or passing through. The police detained them in a cordon for several hours. They sought damages. No unlawful acts were alleged against them. Held: There was no deprivation of liberty during the initial period when the cordon was not absolute and people were free to … Continue reading Austin and Another v The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis: QBD 23 Mar 2005

Regina v Davis (Iain); Regina v Ellis, Regina v Gregory, Regina v Simms, Regina v Martin: CACD 19 May 2006

The several defendants complained at the use at their trials of evidence given anonymously. The perceived need for anonymity arose because, from intimidation, the witnesses would not be willing to give their evidence without it. Held: The anonymity ruling did not prevent proper investigation with the witnesses in open court of the essential elements of … Continue reading Regina v Davis (Iain); Regina v Ellis, Regina v Gregory, Regina v Simms, Regina v Martin: CACD 19 May 2006

Regina v Smith (Joe): CACD 20 Dec 2000

The defendant was arrested for burglary and a non-intimate sample taken without his consent. The DNA profile matched blood at the scene of the burglary, and this match was the bedrock of the prosecution case. Before the trial, prosecuting counsel applied ex parte to withhold disclosure of certain material. The defence were notified of the … Continue reading Regina v Smith (Joe): CACD 20 Dec 2000

Akyuz v Turkey: ECHR 7 May 2019

ECHR Judgment : Article 10 – Freedom of expression-{general} : Second Section Committee Citations: 63681/12, [2019] ECHR 328 Links: Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Human Rights Updated: 06 July 2022; Ref: scu.637659

Wilkinson v Kitzinger and Another: FD 12 Apr 2006

The petitioner intended to seek a declaration as to her marital status. She and the respondent had married in a civil ceremony in British Columbia in 2003. She sought a declaration of incompatibility with regard to section 11(3) of the 1973 Act so far as it failed to recognise same sex marriages. She now sought … Continue reading Wilkinson v Kitzinger and Another: FD 12 Apr 2006

Mursel Eren v Turkey: ECHR 7 Feb 2006

The annulment of a student’s examination results, which resulted in his being denied access to university, was held to violate A2P1. Citations: 60856/00, [2006] ECHR 119, (2007) 44 EHRR 28 Links: Worldlii, Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights A2P1 Jurisdiction: Human Rights Cited by: Cited – A v Essex County Council SC 14-Jul-2010 The … Continue reading Mursel Eren v Turkey: ECHR 7 Feb 2006

Ali v Head Teacher and Governors of Lord Grey School: HL 22 Mar 2006

The claimant had been accused with others of arson to school property. He was suspended for the maximum forty five day period. The school then invited the family to discuss arrangements to return to the school, but the family did not attend. After the expiry of the forty five days, the criminal proceedings were discontinued. … Continue reading Ali v Head Teacher and Governors of Lord Grey School: HL 22 Mar 2006

Van Colle v Hertfordshire Police: QBD 10 Mar 2006

The claimants claimed for the estate of their murdered son. He had been waiting to give evidence in a criminal trial, and had asked the police for support having received threats. Other witnesses had also suffered intimidation including acts of arson to cars and premises. The police officer had been disciplined for failing to respond … Continue reading Van Colle v Hertfordshire Police: QBD 10 Mar 2006

Revenue and Customs v IDT Card Services Ireland Ltd: CA 27 Jan 2006

Under the Marleasing principle, or principle of conforming interpretation, the domestic court of a member state must interpret its national law so far as possible in the light of the wording and purpose of the Directive in question. However this duty is limited and runs ‘so far as is possible’; any reading down must ‘go … Continue reading Revenue and Customs v IDT Card Services Ireland Ltd: CA 27 Jan 2006

Frame v Grampian University Hospitals NHS Trust: HCJ 14 Feb 2004

The defendant NHS trust objected as to the leading of certain evidence by the prosecutor, saying it infringed the right to a fair trial. Held: As a governmental body rather the Trust could not have human rights capable of being infringed, it did not qualify as a victim under the Act. The French version of … Continue reading Frame v Grampian University Hospitals NHS Trust: HCJ 14 Feb 2004

Zao Informatsionnoye Agentstvo Rosbalt v Russia: ECHR 24 May 2022

ECHR Judgment : Article 10 – Freedom of expression-{general} : Third Section Committee ECHR Judgment : Article 10 – Freedom of expression-{general} : Third Section Committee Citations: 16503/14, [2022] ECHR 392, [2022] ECHR 400 Links: Bailii, Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Human Rights Updated: 05 July 2022; Ref: scu.678143

Regina v Xhabri: CACD 7 Dec 2005

The complainant alleged that the defendant had forced her into prostitution under duress. Hearsay evidence had been admitted from members of the complainant’s family as to what she had told them. They were not available to give evidence at the trial. Held: The defendant had no objected to evidence from the complainant as to the … Continue reading Regina v Xhabri: CACD 7 Dec 2005

Hammond, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 1 Dec 2005

The claimants had been convicted of murder, but their tariffs had not yet been set when the 2003 Act came into effect. They said that the procedure under which their sentence tarriffs were set were not compliant with their human rights in that the tarriff was set by reference back to a judge without a … Continue reading Hammond, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 1 Dec 2005

Maurice v France: ECHR 6 Oct 2005

ECHR Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction) – Violation of P1-1; No separate issue under Art.14 in conjunction with P1-1; No separate issue under Art. 6-1; No violation of Art. 13; No violation of Art. 8; Costs and expenses partial award – Convention and domestic proceedings; Just satisfaction reserved. Citations: 11810/03, [2005] ECHR 683 Links: Worldlii, … Continue reading Maurice v France: ECHR 6 Oct 2005

Shannon v The United Kingdom: ECHR 4 Oct 2005

ECHR Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction) – Violation of Art. 6-1; Pecuniary and non-pecuniary damage – financial award; Costs and expenses partial award – Convention proceedings.The defendant had already been charged with offences when he was called for interview and obliged to answer questions from a financial investigator. His answers would have been admissible at … Continue reading Shannon v The United Kingdom: ECHR 4 Oct 2005

Slimani v France: ECHR 27 Jul 2004

A Tunisian was committed to a psychiatric hospital on several occasions. He died while detained in a detention centre awaiting deportation. The applicant complained that there had been a violation of article 2 on two grounds: the detention centre had not been equipped with the necessary medical facilities, and the doctors had failed to administer … Continue reading Slimani v France: ECHR 27 Jul 2004

Zdanoka v Latvia: ECHR 17 Jun 2004

Citations: 58278/00, [2004] ECHR 268 Links: Worldlii, Bailii, Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Cited by: See Also – Zdanoka v Latvia ECHR 16-Mar-2006 (Grand Chamber) The applicant alleged that her disqualification from standing for election to the Latvian Parliament and to municipal elections infringed her rights as guaranteed by Article 3 of Protocol … Continue reading Zdanoka v Latvia: ECHR 17 Jun 2004

Thames Water Utilities Limited v Marcic: CA 7 Feb 2002

The claimant owned land over which sewage and other water had spilled from the appellant’s sewage works. His claim having been dismissed under Rylands v Fletcher, and there being no statutory means of obtaining compensation, the judge was asked to say that his human rights had been infringed insofar as his right to peaceful enjoyment … Continue reading Thames Water Utilities Limited v Marcic: CA 7 Feb 2002

Varhan v Turkey: ECHR 25 Sep 2018

ECHR Judgment : Article 10 – Freedom of expression-{general} : Second Section Committee Citations: 2433/12, [2018] ECHR 758 Links: Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Human Rights Updated: 03 July 2022; Ref: scu.628758

Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis v DSD and Another: SC 21 Feb 2018

Two claimants had each been sexually assaulted by a later notorious, multiple rapist. Each had made complaints to police about their assaults but said that no effective steps had been taken to investigate the serious complaints. Held: The Commissioner’s appeal failed: To provide an effective deterrent, laws which prohibit conduct constituting a breach of article … Continue reading Commissioner of Police of The Metropolis v DSD and Another: SC 21 Feb 2018

Wildman, Regina (on the Application of) v The Office of Communications: Admn 25 Jul 2005

The claimant sought judicial review of an order quashing the decision of the Office of Communications to refuse a radio licence. Held: The court should be very cautious before quashing a decision as to the allocation of broadcasting licences. It was OfCom to which the responsibility for making such a decision had been given. Its … Continue reading Wildman, Regina (on the Application of) v The Office of Communications: Admn 25 Jul 2005

Copsey v WWB Devon Clays Ltd: CA 25 Jul 2005

The claimant said that his employer had failed to respect his right to express his beliefs by obliging him, though a Christian, to work on Sundays. Held: The appeal failed. ‘The Commission’s position on Article 9, as I understand it, is that, so far as working hours are concerned, an employer is entitled to keep … Continue reading Copsey v WWB Devon Clays Ltd: CA 25 Jul 2005

Uner v The Netherlands: ECHR 5 Jul 2005

Where a court considered the expulsion of a non-national who was long settled but had been convicted of criminal offences, the interest and well-being of any child of the family must be considered. Citations: 46410/99, [2005] ECHR 464, (2006) 45 EHRR 421 Links: Worldlii, Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights 8 Jurisdiction: Human Rights … Continue reading Uner v The Netherlands: ECHR 5 Jul 2005

Giuseppina And Orestina Procaccini v Italy: ECHR 10 Nov 2004

ECHR (French Text) Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction) – Preliminary objection rejected (non-exhaustion of domestic remedies); Violation of Art. 6-1; Non-pecuniary damage – financial award; Costs and expenses partial award – Convention proceedings. Citations: 65075/01, [2004] ECHR 615 Links: Worldlii, Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Cited by: Cited – Giuseppina And Orestina Procaccini … Continue reading Giuseppina And Orestina Procaccini v Italy: ECHR 10 Nov 2004

Sciacca v Italy: ECHR 11 Jan 2005

The court was asked whether the applicant’s rights under Article 8 had been infringed by the release to the press of an identity photograph taken of her by the Italian Revenue Police while she was under arrest and investigation for various criminal offences. It was a ‘vertical’ application of Article 8. Revenue police compiled a … Continue reading Sciacca v Italy: ECHR 11 Jan 2005

Sukhorubchenko v Russia: ECHR 10 Feb 2005

ECHR Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction) – Violation of Art. 6-1 with regard to access to a court; Not necessary to examine Art. 6-1 with regard to the length of the proceedings; Not necessary to examine Art. 13; No violation of P1-1; Pecuniary damage – claim rejected; Non-pecuniary damage – financial award. Citations: 69315/01, [2005] … Continue reading Sukhorubchenko v Russia: ECHR 10 Feb 2005

Isayeva, Yusupova And Bazayeva v Russia: ECHR 24 Feb 2005

ECHR Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction). The court considered the duties of a signatory state under article 2 when taking substantial military actions against insurgents. Citations: 57949/00, [2005] ECHR 129, 57947/00, 57948/00, (2005) 41 EHRR 39 Links: Worldlii, Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights 2 Jurisdiction: Human Rights Cited by: Cited – Smith, Regina … Continue reading Isayeva, Yusupova And Bazayeva v Russia: ECHR 24 Feb 2005

Sisojeva And Others v Latvia: ECHR 16 Jun 2005

ECHR Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction) – Violation of Art. 8; No violation of Art. 34; Non-pecuniary damage – financial award; Costs and expenses – claim rejected. Citations: 60654/00, [2005] ECHR 405, [2005] ECHR 923 Links: Worldlii, Bailii, Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Cited by: Cited – AXA General Insurance … Continue reading Sisojeva And Others v Latvia: ECHR 16 Jun 2005

Blackstock v The United Kingdom: ECHR 21 Jun 2005

ECHR Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction) – Violation of Art. 5-4; Violation of Art. 5-5; Non-pecuniary damage – financial award; Costs and expenses partial award – Convention proceedings.The claimant was a prisoner serving a life sentence. He complained that the delays in considering the move towards his being detained in more open conditions, and the … Continue reading Blackstock v The United Kingdom: ECHR 21 Jun 2005

Kugathas v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 21 Jan 2003

Sedley LJ considered the circumstances where the Secretary of state should take into account the defendant’s article 8 human rights when considering deportation after serving a sentence of imprisonment: ‘Generally, the protection of family life under Article 8 involves cohabiting dependants, such as parents and their dependant minor children. Whether it extends to other relationships … Continue reading Kugathas v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 21 Jan 2003

Hammond v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 13 Jan 2004

The defendant, who had since died, had been convicted of a public order offence in that standing in a street he had displayed a range of placards opposing homosexuality. He appealed saying that the finding was an unwarranted infringement of his article 9 and article 10 rights, and that the words used were not in … Continue reading Hammond v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 13 Jan 2004

Stephen Jordan (No 2) v The United Kingdom: ECHR 10 Dec 2002

The applicant was a soldier who had been court marshalled for misuse of travel warrants. He wished to use in his defence his recent epilepsy. There was some delay while medical reports were obtained, and subsequently when the new legal system was brought in and again for the issue of a new legal aid order. … Continue reading Stephen Jordan (No 2) v The United Kingdom: ECHR 10 Dec 2002

Gallagher v Gallagher (No 1) (Reporting Restrictions): FC 13 Jun 2022

Private Hearings are Not in Secret H sought an order restricting reporting of the divorce financial remedy proceedings, or an anonymity order. Held: The application was refused save as to identification of the children, and certain tax matters. The hearing was listed as in Private restricted only that certain people only were entitled to attend, … Continue reading Gallagher v Gallagher (No 1) (Reporting Restrictions): FC 13 Jun 2022

Regina (Chester) v Secretary of State for Justice and Another: QBD 28 Oct 2009

The claimant a prisoner detained after the expiry of his lfe sentence tariff as dangerous, sought a declaration that the refusal to allow him to register as a voter in prison infringed his human rights. Held: Such a claim had already succeeded in Scotland, and before the ECHR, and the government was considering how it … Continue reading Regina (Chester) v Secretary of State for Justice and Another: QBD 28 Oct 2009

Fornah v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 9 Jun 2005

The applicant sought refugee status, saying that if returned home to Sierra Leone, she would as a young woman be liable to be circumcised against her will. Held: Female sexual mutilation ‘is an evil practice internationally condemned and in clear violation of Article 3 of the European Convention of Human Rights (‘ECHR’). As a practice, … Continue reading Fornah v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 9 Jun 2005

Holland v Her Majesty’s Advocate (Devolution): PC 11 May 2005

The defendant appealed his convictions for robbery. He had been subject to a dock identification, and he complained that the prosecution had failed in its duties of disclosure. Held: The combination of several failings meant that the defendant had not received a fair trial, and the appeal was allowed. The practice of dock identification was … Continue reading Holland v Her Majesty’s Advocate (Devolution): PC 11 May 2005

Sinclair v Her Majesty’s Advocate: PC 11 May 2005

(Devolution) The defendant complained that the prosecutor had failed to disclose all the witness statements taken, which hid inconsistencies in their versions of events. Held: The appeal was allowed. It was fundamental to a fair trial that the parties have equality of arms, but in a criminal trial the rights were entirely in the defendant. … Continue reading Sinclair v Her Majesty’s Advocate: PC 11 May 2005

Regina v Muhamad: CACD 19 Jul 2002

The appellant had been convicted of an offence under the section in that as a bankrupt, he ‘in the two years before the petition, materially contributed to, or increased the extent of, his insolvency by gambling or by rash and hazardous speculations’. The actus reus – the bankruptcy petition and the bankruptcy to which it … Continue reading Regina v Muhamad: CACD 19 Jul 2002

Yesiller Ve Sol Gelecek Partisi v Turkey: ECHR 10 May 2022

ECHR Judgment : No Article 11 – Freedom of assembly and association : Second Section Citations: 41955/14, [2022] ECHR 360 Links: Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Human Rights Updated: 30 June 2022; Ref: scu.677888

Visser v The Netherlands: ECHR 14 Feb 2002

The applicant alleged that in criminal proceedings against him, there was used in evidence a statement from an anonymous witness, and his defence rights had been unacceptably restricted in breach of Article 6. The police said that witnesses were frightened of reprisals. On appeal, the court allowed as evidence a written summary from the police. … Continue reading Visser v The Netherlands: ECHR 14 Feb 2002

Berry Trade Ltd and Another v Moussavi and Others: CA 21 Mar 2002

The respondent had, it was alleged, had breached worldwide asset freezing orders, and was liable to be committed to prison. Legal Aid was refused by the Legal Services Commission. After several adjournments, the other party offered to pay for solicitor and counsel of his choice. He refused. Held: An application could not proceed without proper … Continue reading Berry Trade Ltd and Another v Moussavi and Others: CA 21 Mar 2002

Bigun v Ukraine: ECHR 21 Mar 2019

ECHR Judgment : Article 8 – Right to respect for private and family life : Fifth Section Committee Citations: 30315/10, [2019] ECHR 234 Links: Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Human Rights Updated: 29 June 2022; Ref: scu.636003

Privacy International, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and Others: CA 23 Nov 2017

The claimant sought to bring judicial review against the IPT. The IPT argued that section 67(8) of the 2000 Act prevented such a claim. Citations: [2017] EWCA Civ 1868, [2017] WLR(D) 775, [2018] 1 WLR 2572, [2018] HRLR 3, [2018] 3 All ER 95 Links: Bailii, WLRD Statutes: Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 Jurisdiction: … Continue reading Privacy International, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and Others: CA 23 Nov 2017

Becker v Norway: ECHR 5 Oct 2017

ECHR Judgment : Violation of Article 10 – Freedom of expression -(general) Article 10-1 – Freedom of expression Freedom to impart information… Citations: 21272/12, [2017] ECHR 834 Links: Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Human Rights Updated: 29 June 2022; Ref: scu.607913

Kuric And Others v Slovenia: ECHR 26 Jun 2012

Grand Chamber – Yugoslav citizens resident in Slovenia at the time of independence, failed to acquire Slovenian citizenship and their names were ‘erased’ from the register of permanent residents, thus making them stateless. It was not in dispute that the ‘erasure’ and its repercussions amounted to an interference with the ‘private or family life’ of … Continue reading Kuric And Others v Slovenia: ECHR 26 Jun 2012

Spinks, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 28 Jan 2005

May LJ said that if the State was in breach of its Article 3 obligations, that had to be remedied. If the only way to remedy was to release the prisoner, then the Secretary of State for Justice would be obliged to order his immediate release. Judges: May, Buxton, Sedley LJJ Citations: [2005] EWCA Civ … Continue reading Spinks, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: CA 28 Jan 2005

Lloyd And Others v The United Kingdom: ECHR 1 Mar 2005

Magistrates had committed the applicants to prison in their absence for non-payment of local taxes and fines. Held: The proceedings infringed the claimants’ human rights in that they had been found guilty of wilful refusal or culpable neglect without having had an appropriate opportunity to respond. Legal aid had not been available for the proceedings … Continue reading Lloyd And Others v The United Kingdom: ECHR 1 Mar 2005

Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis v Hooper: QBD 16 Feb 2005

The police applied to the court for a closure order in respect of premises they said were being used for the sale of Class A drugs. The tenant sought an adjournment, which was granted as were two later applications. On the last hearing, the police did not appear and the application was dismissed as out … Continue reading Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis v Hooper: QBD 16 Feb 2005

SB, Regina (on the Application of) v Denbigh High School: CA 2 Mar 2005

The applicant, a Muslim girl sought to be allowed to wear the gilbab to school. The school policy which had been approved by Muslim clerics prohibited this, saying the shalwar kameeze and headscarf were sufficient. The school said she was making a voluntary choice not to attend. Held: The applicant was not choosing to stay … Continue reading SB, Regina (on the Application of) v Denbigh High School: CA 2 Mar 2005

E, Regina (on the Application of) v Bristol City Council: Admn 13 Jan 2005

The patient did not wish her nearest relative, namely her sister, to be involved with her case and there was evidence that she would be so distressed by the sister being consulted that it could harm her health. The sister likewise did not wish to become involved. Held: When an adult whose mental health is … Continue reading E, Regina (on the Application of) v Bristol City Council: Admn 13 Jan 2005

Sinan Cetinkaya And Agyar Cetinkaya v Turkey: ECHR 24 May 2022

ECHR Judgment : Article 7 – No punishment without law : Second Section ECHR Judgment : Article 7 – No punishment without law : Second Section Citations: 74536/10, [2022] ECHR 388, [2022] ECHR 395 Links: Bailii, Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Human Rights Updated: 29 June 2022; Ref: scu.678141

Goodson v HM Coroner for Bedfordshire and Luton: Admn 17 Dec 2004

A patient had died in hospital following an operation. The NHS Trust submitted that ‘There is a real distinction between cases of medical negligence, which were specifically addressed as a discrete area in Calvelli, and cases of intentional killing or failure to protect someone in custody.’ Held: ‘Calvelli is both the most recent decision and … Continue reading Goodson v HM Coroner for Bedfordshire and Luton: Admn 17 Dec 2004