Europa The notice of objections is the measure stating the final attitude of the commission concerning undertakings against which proceedings for infringement of the rules on competition have been commenced. In order to protect the rights of the defence during the course of the administrative procedure, those concerned must be informed of the essential elements … Continue reading Badische Anilin- and Soda-Fabrik AG (BASF) v Commission of the European Communities.: ECJ 14 Jul 1972
Article 50 Notice Requires Parliament’s Authority The applicant challenged a decision by the respondent that he could use Crown prerogative powers to issue a notice under section 50 TUE to initiate the United Kingdom leaving the EU following the referendum under the 2015 Act. Held: Once the notice had been given, it was irrevocable. Consultation … Continue reading Miller and Dos Santos v The Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union and Others: QBD 13 Nov 2016
Parliament’s Approval if statute rights affected In a referendum, the people had voted to leave the European Union. That would require a notice to the Union under Article 50 TEU. The Secretary of State appealed against an order requiring Parliamentary approval before issuing the notice, he saying that the notice could be given under the … Continue reading Miller and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Exiting The European Union: SC 24 Jan 2017
The applicants were companies owned largely by Spanish nationals operating fishing vessels within UK waters. The 1988 Act required them to re-register the vessels as British fishing vessels. The sought suspension of enforcement pending a reference to the European Court. Held: This was dispute in law, and an English Court did not have power to … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for Transport, Ex parte Factortame Ltd: HL 18 May 1989
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VDT REFERENCE TO ECJ – Questions to be referred – Scope of questions in context of issues in the appeal – European Communities Act 1972, s 3(1) . .
EAT Transfer of Undertakings – Acquired rights directiveThe European Acquired rights directive sought to protect the rights of employees on the a transfer of a business to another employer. It was transposed into UK law by regulations purportedly made under 2(2) of the 1972 Act. The tribunal held that TUPE applied where the employer became … Continue reading Perth and Kinross Council v Tony Donaldson and 14 Others Newtown Construction Scotland Ltd Meldru: EAT 30 Oct 2003
A woman complained that she was not being paid as much as male colleagues who were doing work of equal value. An Act of Parliament had made certain provisions in that regard. Later, that Act had been amended for the purpose of complying with Community law and this had been done by regulations made under … Continue reading Hayward v Cammell Laird Shipbuilders Ltd (No. 2): HL 1988
The appellant, a part time recorder challenged his exclusion from pension arrangements. Held: The appeal was allowed. No objective justification has been shown for departing from the basic principle of remunerating part-timers pro rata temporis. ‘The reality is that recorders are expected to observe the terms and conditions of their appointment, and that they may … Continue reading O’Brien v Ministry of Justice: SC 6 Feb 2013
Once rights by way of licences had been granted to a party by virtue of a statute, an amendment to those licences required the Secretary to be explicit with Parliament when altering the licences. The Act provided clear rules for making amendments to licences. The Secretary purported to amend the licences to comply with a … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry ex parte Orange Personal Communications Ltd and Another: Admn 25 Oct 2000
The claimant had taken two leases, but had been made subject to beer ties with the defendant. He claimed damages for the losses, saying he had been forced to pay higher prices than those allowed to non-tied houses, and that the agreement was anti-competitive, and that the individual exemption from the EC Treaty obligations which … Continue reading Crehan v Inntrepreneur Pub Company (CPC): CA 21 May 2004
The claimant made application for judicial review of the stated intention of the Government of the UK to issue an article 50 notice to leave the EU, by means of the use of the royal Prerogative. They said that any use of the royal prerogative had been displaced by the 1998 Act. Held: There was … Continue reading McCord, Re Judicial Review: QBNI 28 Oct 2016
The claimant sought to challenge the removal of the exemption for renewable source electricity from the Climate Change Levy. Held: Review was refused. The court rejected the Respondents’ submission that EU law has no application to the RSE Exemption at all and that therefore the claim must fail because at the national level legitimate expectations … Continue reading Drax Power Ltd and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Hm Treasury and Others: Admn 10 Feb 2016
Necessity for Reference to ECJ Lord Denning said that the test for whether a question should be referred to the European Court of Justice is one of necessity, not desirability or convenience. There are cases where the point, if decided one way, would shorten the trial greatly. But if decided the other way, it would … Continue reading HP Bulmer Ltd and Another v J Bollinger Sa and others: CA 22 May 1974
The court was asked: ‘whether the Secretary of State was precluded under the British Nationality Act 1981 from making an order depriving the appellant of British citizenship because to do so would render him stateless. This turns on whether (within the meaning of article 1(1) of the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless … Continue reading Pham v Secretary of State for The Home Department: SC 25 Mar 2015
The applicant, a former editor of the Times, sought judicial review of the decision by the respondent to ratify the EU Treaty (Maastricht), saying that it would increase the powers of the European Parliament without it having been approved by Parliament, and would transfer the Royal Prerogative power to enter into treaties without parliamentary approval. … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs ex parte Rees-Mogg: Admn 30 Jul 1993
The defendants sought leave to appeal out of time saying that their convictions had been under the 1984 Act which was later found to have been unenforceable for failure to comply with notification requirements under European law. The 1984 Act had had to be repealed and re-enacted in the 2010 Act. Held: Leave was refused. … Continue reading Regina v Budimir and Another: CACD 29 Jun 2010
A collateral contract was entered into with a company which had not then been incorporated under which an advance by Phonogram to support an intended new pop group was repayable by the company if a recording contract was not entered into within one . .
The applicant sought, as a taxpayer, to object to the proposed payment of andpound;121m to the European Community without an Appropriation Act, but under an Order in Council. The claim was that a draft Order in Council laid by the Treasury before . .
A design for sunglasses was challenged for prior publication. However the law in England differed from that apparently imposed from Europe as to the existence of a 12 month period of grace before applying for registration.
Held: Instruments . .
The court considered for the first time, the effect of the Rome Treaty. It ‘came about because of a tin can’ .
A question requiring the exercise of a judges discretion is to be determined as at the date that the primary judge gave judgment, . .
The consideration for the grant of a lease was not a capital sum, but substantial building works. Application was made for its forfeiture.
Held: Dillon LJ assumed that the words ‘if the tenant shall enter into liquidation whether compulsorily . .
The claimants sought damages for damage to property alleging breach of statutory duty. The defendant said that the regulations were made under European not English law, and that the Secretary of State did not have power to make regulations under the . .
The claimant appealed from rejection of his judicial review of a decision that he be placed on a list of persons subject to sanctions and therefore without access to money save with the consent of the government.
Held: The Secretary of State . .
EAT VICTIMISATION DISCRIMINATION
SEX DISCRIMINATION – Burden of Proof
Ex-employee given unfavourable reference – Claim that terms of reference were partly on account of her having previously brought . .
The claimant contended that section 2(2)(b) of the the 1972 Act did not confer power on Her Majesty’s Treasury to make the 2003 Regulations and, accordingly, they should be quashed or, alternatively, construed so as to be intra vires. . .
The claimant removal company sought payment of its fees after the defendant purported to cancel the arrangement for moving his goods. The defendant now appealed against rejection of his claim that the the contract was cancellable within the 2008 . .
The 1978 Directive required consultation in the case of collective redundancies. Acts had incorrectly incorporated this requirement into English law. The error was corrected in the 1995 Regulations.
Held: Anything is ‘related to’ a Community . .
The court was asked about the differential in retirement ages between men and women in private sector employment, and whether it constituted sex discrimination.
Held: Section 2(4) of the 1972 Act did not allow a British Court to distort the . .
Time limits for reclaim of VAT. The Court considered an argument that it should treat the Court of Appeal decision in Fleming (t/a Bodycraft) v Customs and Excise Commissioners  STC 864 as inconsistent with EU law.
Held: Chadwick LJ . .
It was argued that the Secretary of State, when implementing the Directive in the 2001 Regulations, had exceeded his powers in preserving provisions of the Registered Designs Act. The judge had held the Seceretary had exceeded his powers. The . .
Various shopkeepers appealed convictions for breach of regulations requiring food sold by weight to be described in metric amounts. They claimed that the Regulations made under the 1985 Act, to the extent that they were inconsistent with it . .
The claimant company set out to sell land whilst it was still only in the process of incorporation. Its solicitors had signed as agents, and now sought an order for the purchaser to complete the contract. The respondent had not known of the . .
The Scottish Parliament and its members have a limited statutory immunity from suit. No interdict or other order could be made against a member of the Parliament if the effect would be to grant an order against the Parliament not otherwise . .
The claimants sought to challenge regulations putting into effect the directive. . .
The appellants resisted disclosure to the revenue of advice it had received. It claimed legal advice privilege (LAP), though the advice was from its accountants. Held: (Lords Sumption and Clarke dissenting) LAP applies to all communications passing between a client and its lawyers, acting in their professional capacity, in connection with the provision of legal … Continue reading Prudential Plc and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Special Commissioner of Income Tax and Another: SC 23 Jan 2013
Mutual Knowledge admissible to construe contract The parties had entered into a development contract in respect of a site in Wandsworth, under which balancing compensation was to be paid. They disagreed as to its calculation. Persimmon sought rectification to reflect the negotiations. Held: The appeal succeeded. There were difficulties in construing the contract. The contract … Continue reading Chartbrook Ltd v Persimmon Homes Ltd and Others: HL 1 Jul 2009
In each case the local authority sought to recover possession of its own land. In the Lambeth case, they asserted this right as against an overstaying former tenant, and in the Leeds case as against gypsies. In each case the occupiers said that the recovery of possession interfered with their right respect for their family … Continue reading Kay and Another v London Borough of Lambeth and others; Leeds City Council v Price and others and others: HL 8 Mar 2006
The bank challenged measures taken by HM Treasury to restrict access to the United Kingdom’s financial markets by a major Iranian commercial bank, Bank Mellat, on the account of its alleged connection with Iran’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programmes. The bank sought to have the direction given under section 7 of the 2008 Act. … Continue reading Bank Mellat v Her Majesty’s Treasury (No 2): SC 19 Jun 2013
The claimant sought equal pay with other, male, warehouse operatives who were doing work of equal value but for more money. The Court of Appeal had held that since other men were also employed on the same terms both as to pay and work, her claim failed. Held: The claim was not disbarred in this … Continue reading Pickstone v Freemans Plc: HL 30 Jun 1988
D. wanting to develop an office block, bought neighbouring semi-detached houses hoping to provide additional car parking, enhancing the visual aspects and improving highway safety. When temporary planning consent for use of these properties as site offices ran out without being used, D began to demolish the properties which were not listed and not in … Continue reading Cambridge City Council v Secretary of State for the Environment and Milton Park Investments Ltd: 1992
The House was asked ‘whether a local authority can obtain a summary order for possession against an occupier of a site which it owns and has been used for many years as a gipsy and travellers’ caravan site. His licence to occupy the site has come to an end. He has no enforceable right to … Continue reading Doherty and others v Birmingham City Council: HL 30 Jul 2008
The company had obtained legal advice but had taken it from their accountants. The Revenue sought its disclosure, and the company said that as legal advice it was protected by legal professional privilege. Held: The material was not protected. The privilege given under the Act by virtue of the Morgan Grenfell decision was limited to … Continue reading Prudential Plc and Another, Regina (on the Application of) v Special Commissioner of Income Tax and Another: Admn 14 Oct 2009
The defendant appealed his convictions for offences relating to the claiming of benefits, saying that he was immune from prosecution as a member of the European Parliament, and that the verdicts were inconsistent with acquittals on other charges. . .