A will made by a widow in 1939, left certain property to her son Francesc-Xavier, as tenant for life, with a stipulation that he was to leave this inheritance to a son or grandson of a lawful and canonical marriage, failing which the estate was to pass to the children and grandchildren of the testatrix’s … Continue reading Pla and Puncernau v Andorra: ECHR 13 Jul 2004
The claimant journalist sought disclosure of papers acquired by the respondent in its conduct of enquiries into the charitable Mariam appeal. The Commission referred to an absolute exemption under section 32(2) of the 2000 Act, saying that the exemption continued until the papers were destroyed, or for 20 years under the 1958 Act. Held: The … Continue reading Kennedy v The Charity Commission: SC 26 Mar 2014
Grand Chamber – The defendants had been convicted after the prosecution had withheld evidence from them and from the judge under public interest immunity certificates. They complained that they had not had fair trials. Held: The right was breached insofar as the prosecution had themselves sought to make that assessment without judicial involvement. Disclosure at … Continue reading Jasper v The United Kingdom: ECHR 16 Feb 2000
(Antigua and Barbuda) The applicant was employed as a civil servant. He joined a demonstration alleging corruption in a minister. It was alleged he had infringed his duties as a civil servant, and he replied that the constitution allowed him to speak out. Held: The demonstration did contravene the restriction on publishing his views. Analogies … Continue reading De Freitas v The Permanent Secretary of Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Lands and Housing and others: PC 30 Jun 1998
When considering the division of matrimonial assets following a divorce, the court’s duty was, within the context of the rules set down by the Act, to impose a fair settlement according to the circumstances. Courts should be careful not to make assumptions about the roles taken by the parties according to their sex, and the … Continue reading Cowan v Cowan: CA 14 May 2001
For a charge of aiding and abetting, the defendant must be shown to have been aware of the essential elements of his acts which constituted the complete crime. However, that may be inferred if a defendant shuts his eyes to the obvious. Lord Goddard CJ said: ‘Before a person can be convicted of aiding and … Continue reading Johnson v Youden: KBD 1950
The appellants claimed housing benefit. They appealed against rejection of their claims that the imposition of limits to the maximum sums payable, ‘the bedroom tax’, was unlawful on equality grounds. The claimants either had disabilities, or lived with dependent family with disabilities, or live in what are known as ‘sanctuary scheme’ homes (accommodation specially adapted … Continue reading MA and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v The Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: SC 9 Nov 2016
The claimants said that they had been tortured by Saudi police when arrested on false charges. They sought damages, and appealed against an order denying jurisdiction over the defendants. They said that the allegation of torture allowed an exception to state immunity. Held: The Kingdom’s appeal succeeded. The protection of state immunity was essentially a … Continue reading Jones v Ministry of Interior for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and others: HL 14 Jun 2006
The pursuer sought damages after injury arising from the use of a tool for a purpose other than that for which it was intended to be used. Lord Denning quoted Sir Frederick Pollock to say: ‘Judicial authority belongs not to the exact words used in this or that judgment, nor even to all the reasons … Continue reading Close v Steel Company of Wales Ltd: 1962
The court considered the extent of the duty to compensate for disturbance of a business when land was compulsorily purchased. Lord Selborne LC said: ‘The obstruction by the execution of the work, of a man’s direct access to his house or land, whether such access be by a public road or by private way, is … Continue reading Caledonian Railway Co v Walker’s Trustees: 1882
The court was asked whether Turkey was answerable under the Convention for its acts in Northern Cyprus. Held: It was unnecessary to determine whether Turkey actually exercised detailed control over the policies and actions of the authorities of the TRNC. It was obvious from the fact that more than 30,000 Turkish military personnel were engaged … Continue reading Loizidou v Turkey (Merits): ECHR 18 Dec 1996
Prisoner’s death – need for full public enquiry The deceased had been a young Asian prisoner. He was placed in a cell overnight with a prisoner known to be racist, extremely violent and mentally unstable. He was killed. The family sought an inquiry into the death. Held: There had been a police investigation and trial … Continue reading Amin, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 16 Oct 2003
Lawfulness of Contraceptive advice for Girls The claimant had young daughters. She challenged advice given to doctors by the second respondent allowing them to give contraceptive advice to girls under 16, and the right of the first defendant to act upon that advice. She objected that the advice infringed her rights as a parent, and … Continue reading Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and Department of Health and Social Security: HL 17 Oct 1985
(Grand Chamber) The claimants said that differences between the sexes in the payment of reduced earning allowances and retirement allowances were sex discrimination. Held: The differences were not infringing sex discrimination. The differences arose from the differences in pensionable ages for men and women introduced in 1940 in order to help remedy severe social inequalities … Continue reading Stec and Others v United Kingdom: ECHR 12 Apr 2006
Police Obligations to Witnesses is Limited A prosecution witness was murdered by the accused shortly before his trial. The parents of the deceased alleged that the failure of the police to protect their son was a breach of article 2. Held: The House was asked ‘If the police are alerted to a threat that D … Continue reading Hertfordshire Police v Van Colle; Smith v Chief Constable of Sussex Police: HL 30 Jul 2008
Citations: 11562/05,  ECHR 648, (2006) 46 EHRR 675 Links: Worldlii, Bailii Statutes: European Convention on Human Rights Jurisdiction: Human Rights Cited by: Cited – Smith, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Defence and Oxfordshire Assistant Deputy Coroner (Equality and Human Rights Commission intervening) SC 30-Jun-2010 The deceased soldier died of … Continue reading Byrzykowski v Poland: ECHR 27 Jun 2006
Appeal Officials Transfer of pension rights – Professional activities prior to entering the service of the Communities – Calculation of the years of pensionable service Article 11(2) of Annex VIII to the Staff Regulations General implementing provisions Principle of non’discrimination Principle of equal treatment Citations:  EUECJ C-227/04,  ECR I-6767 Links: Bailii Jurisdiction: European … Continue reading Lindorfer v Council (Staff Regulations) C-227/04: ECJ 11 Sep 2007
The appellants said they had been had been discriminated against on the grounds of their sex by the TUPE Regulations. Their discrimination cases had been dismissed as out of time. Held: The employees’ appeals were dismissed: ‘A statute cannot speak with two different voices at one and the same time. The rule that section 2(4) … Continue reading Powerhouse Retail Ltd and others v Burroughs and others; Preston and others v Wolverhampton Healthcare NHS Trust and others (No 3): HL 8 Mar 2006
The court was aked what article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights requires of a coroner when a serving prisoner dies of natural causes. Held: The reuest for judicial review failed. Mr Tyrrell’s death was, from the outset, one which was clearly from natural causes. The cause of death was established and then … Continue reading Tyrrell v HM Senior Coroner County Durham and Darlington and Another: Admn 26 Jul 2016
Wrong assumptions made by police officers in the killing of terrorists amounted to a human rights breach, despite the existence of danger to the public of an imminent attack. Article 2(1) is ‘one of the most fundamental provisions in the Convention’. It would have been incumbent on the state to conduct a ‘thorough, impartial and … Continue reading McCann and Others v The United Kingdom: ECHR 6 Oct 1995
The deceased had committed suicide in prison. His family felt that the risk should have been known to the prison authorities, and that they had failed to guard against that risk. The coroner had requested an explanatory note from the jury. Held: The jury should indeed have been given opportunity to explain their verdict: ‘By … Continue reading Middleton, Regina (on the Application of) v Coroner for the Western District of Somerset: HL 11 Mar 2004
A public authority, and the Prison Service in particular, is free, within the limits of rationality, to decide on any policy as to how to exercise its discretions; it is entitled to change its policy from time to time for the future, and a person whose case falls within the scope of the policy is … Continue reading In Re Findlay, in re Hogben: HL 1985
The applicants had had their requests for asylum refused. They complained that if they were removed from the UK, their article 3 rights would be infringed. If they were returned to Pakistan or Vietnam they would be persecuted for their religious faiths. Held: A distinction was to be made between domestic cases involving actions within … Continue reading Regina v Special Adjudicator ex parte Ullah; Regina v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 17 Jun 2004
The claimants had acted as foster carers for several years, but challenged a potential decision to discontinue that when, as committed Christians, they refused to sign to agree to treat without differentiation any child brought to them who might be homosexual. A declaration was sought as to the legality of the proposed decision. Held: A … Continue reading Johns and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Derby City Council and Another: Admn 28 Feb 2011
The tenant had been secure but had his tenancy had been reduced to an insecure demoted tenancy after he was accused of anti-social behaviour. He had not himself been accused of any misbehaviour, but it was said that he should have controlled his family members. The county court had been unwilling to allow any challenge … Continue reading Manchester City Council v Pinnock: SC 3 Nov 2010
In each case the local authority sought to recover possession of its own land. In the Lambeth case, they asserted this right as against an overstaying former tenant, and in the Leeds case as against gypsies. In each case the occupiers said that the recovery of possession interfered with their right respect for their family … Continue reading Kay and Another v London Borough of Lambeth and others; Leeds City Council v Price and others and others: HL 8 Mar 2006
The court was asked whether proceedings in a military court against soldiers for disciplinary offences involved criminal charges within the meaning of Article 6(1): ‘In this connection, it is first necessary to know whether the provision(s) defining the offence charged belong, according to the legal system of the respondent State, to criminal law, disciplinary law … Continue reading Engel And Others v The Netherlands (1): ECHR 8 Jun 1976
The applicant had soft tissue injuries around the spine as a consequence of a back injury at work. He was absent from work for a long time as a result of his injuries, and he was eventually dismissed when his medical advisers could provide no clear idea of when it would be possible for him … Continue reading Clark v TDG Limited (Trading As Novacold): CA 25 Mar 1999
The court considered how to treat a lottery win of andpound;500,000 in the context of an ancillary relief application on a divorce. Held: The answers in such cases must be fact specific. ‘In the application of the sharing principle (as opposed to the needs principle) matrimonial property will normally be divided equally (see para 14(iii) … Continue reading S v AG (Financial Remedy: Lottery Prize): FD 14 Oct 2011
SIC Email concerning equality impact assessment – On 30 July 2014, Mr Irvine asked North Lanarkshire Council (the Council) for a specified email from the Council to Unison in 2006 concerning an equality impact assessment. The Council withheld the information on the basis that it was exempt from disclosure in terms of section 30(c) (Prejudice … Continue reading Irvine v North Lanarkshire Council: SIC 17 Dec 2014
The court was asked whether the provisions of paragraph 33(2) of Schedule 3 to the 2010 Act excluded the application of the duties contained in section 29 of the 2010 Act to the provision of airport services at an airport outside the European Union (EU). Vos, McCombe, Longmore LJJ  EWCA Civ 1668,  WLR(D) … Continue reading Campbell v Thomas Cook Tour Operations Ltd: CA 30 Oct 2014
Capacity for Litigation The claimant appealed against dismissal of his claims. He had earlier settled a claim for damages, but now sought to re-open it, and to claim in negligence against his former solicitors, saying that he had not had sufficient mental capacity at the time to accept the offer. Held: There is no definition … Continue reading Masterman-Lister v Brutton and Co, Jewell and Home Counties Dairies (No 1): CA 19 Dec 2002
EAT AGE DISCRIMINATION UNFAIR DISMISSAL Automatically unfair reasons Reason for dismissal including substantial other reason The reason for the Claimant’s dismissal was retirement. The Employment Tribunal erred in holding that the Claimant’s claim of age discrimination failed by application of Regulation 30 of the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 when the 2006 regulations had been … Continue reading Copeland v E Coomes (Holdings) Ltd (Age Discrimination): EAT 13 Jun 2013
Ten disabled claimants challenged the changes to the 2006 Regulations introduced by the 2012 Regulations. The changes restricted the ability to claim Housing Benefit for bedrooms deemed extra. The claimants said that in their different ways each had needs for additional bedrooms not allowed for by the Regulations. Held: The request for judicial review failed. … Continue reading MA and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions and Others: QBD 30 Jul 2013
The court was asked whether the Employment Tribunal had jurisdiction to hear claims of age discrimination brought by the appellant’s employees, based in Hong Kong, but working as crew on flights between there and London. Held: The appeal failed: ‘There was no error of law in the ET’s ruling that Ms Mak did ‘her work … Continue reading British Airways Plc v Mak and Others: CA 24 Feb 2011
The claimant solicitors had failed to submit their tender for a new contract in time. The respondent refused to accept the late submission. The claimant said that the respondent had not directly notified it of the deadline and so failed to meet its obligations under the 2006 Act and European law, and that the refusal … Continue reading Azam and Co v Legal Services Commission: ChD 5 May 2010
The court was asked whether, by adopting a staff dress code which forbade the wearing of visible neck adornment and so prevented the appellant, a Christian, from wearing with her uniform a small, visible cross, British Airways (BA) indirectly discriminated against her on grounds of religion or belief. Held: There was no requirement that a … Continue reading Eweida v British Airways Plc: CA 12 Feb 2010
EAT EQUAL PAY ACT JURISDICTIONAL POINTS: Claim in time and effective date of termination The claimants alleged that their employer had been in breach of their rights under the Equal Pay Act 1970. They had been transferred pursuant to a TUPE transfer and claimed their equal pay rights some five years later. Their claims relied … Continue reading Sodexo Ltd v Gutridge and others: EAT 31 Jul 2008
amnesty_ahmedEAT2009 EAT RACE DISCRIMINATION – Direct discriminationRACE DISCRIMINATION – Indirect discriminationRACE DISCRIMINATION – Protected by s. 41UNFAIR DISMISSAL – Constructive dismissalClaimant, of (northern) Sudanese ethnic origin, applied for promotion to role of ‘Sudan researcher’ for Amnesty International – Not appointed because Amnesty believed that the appointment of a person of her ethnic origin would compromise … Continue reading Amnesty International v Ahmed: EAT 13 Aug 2009
The appellant had failed in his claim for indirect age discrimination. Approaching retirement, he complained that new conditions allowing advancement to graduates only, discriminated against him since he could not complete a degree before retiring. Held: The appeal succeeded, but the case was remitted to investigate whether the discrimination could be properly justified: ‘Part of … Continue reading Homer v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police: SC 25 Apr 2012
The parties disputed whether the inclusion of length of service within a selection matrix for redundancy purposes would amount to unlawful age discrimination. The court was asked whether it was correct to make a declaratory judgment when the case had otherwise been effectively settled. Held: With considerable misgivings, the court agreed to hear the appeal. … Continue reading Rolls-Royce plc v Unite the Union: CA 14 May 2009
Same Sex Partner Entitled to tenancy Succession The protected tenant had died. His same-sex partner sought a statutory inheritance of the tenancy. Held: His appeal succeeded. The Fitzpatrick case referred to the position before the 1998 Act: ‘Discriminatory law undermines the rule of law because it is the antithesis of fairness. It brings the law … Continue reading Ghaidan v Godin-Mendoza: HL 21 Jun 2004
The applicants had been made subject of anti-social behaviour orders. They challenged the basis upon which the orders had been made. Held: The orders had no identifiable consequences which would make the process a criminal one. Civil standards of evidence therefore applied, and hearsay evidence was admissible. Nevertheless, the test as to whether it was … Continue reading Clingham (formerly C (a minor)) v Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea; Regina v Crown Court at Manchester Ex parte McCann and Others: HL 17 Oct 2002
Appeal about the proper approach of the courts where the defendant to a claim for possession of his home raises a defence of unlawful discrimination, contrary to the Equality Act 2010, by the claimant landlord. In particular, the issue is whether the courts are entitled to take the same summary approach to such a defence, … Continue reading Akerman-Livingstone v Aster Communities Ltd: SC 11 Mar 2015
The parties had a joint venture agreement which provided that any dispute was to be referred to an arbitrator from the Ismaili community. The claimant said that this method of appointment became void as a discriminatory provision under the 2003 Regulations. The High Court found the appointment to be outwith the provisions, but this was … Continue reading Jivraj v Hashwani: SC 27 Jul 2011
amwell_dogherty The claimant had secretly recorded the disciplinary hearings and also the deliberations of the disciplinary panel after their retirement. The tribunal had at a case management hearing admitted the recordings as evidence, and the defendant appealed, saying also that it had been disclosed too late. Held: The evidence contained in the recordings was relevant … Continue reading Amwell View School v Dogherty: EAT 15 Sep 2006
The claimant firm of solicitors sought an order requiring the defendant to amend her employment tribunal claim so as to accord with the partnership agreement to which she was party, and to submit to arbitration. The defendant said that statutory provisions said that her freedom to go to court could not be ousted, and that … Continue reading Clyde and Co Llp and Another v Winkelhof: QBD 22 Mar 2011
The deceased had committed suicide on escaping from a mental hospital. The Trust appealed against a refusal to strike out the claim that that they had been negligent in having inadequate security. Held: The Trust’s appeal failed. The fact that she was detained for her own protection rather than to protect others required different standards … Continue reading Savage v South Essex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust (MIND intervening): HL 10 Dec 2008
The claimant alleged discrimination. As a teaching assistant, she had been refused permission to wear a veil when assisting a male teacher. Held: Direct discrimination had not been shown. The respondent had shown that any comparator would have also been required to remove a veil since it obscured her face and mouth and was a … Continue reading Azmi v Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Council: EAT 30 Mar 2007
The police had arrested three peaceful but vociferous preachers when some members of a crowd gathered round them threatened hostility. Held: Freedom of speech means nothing unless it includes the freedom to be irritating, contentious, eccentric, heretical, unwelcome and provocative provided it did not tend to provoke violence. There was no reasonable inference available in … Continue reading Redmond-Bate v Director of Public Prosecutions: Admn 23 Jul 1999
The appellants owned a guesthouse. They appealed from being found in breach of the Regulations. They had declined to honour a booking by the respondents of a room upon learning that they were a homosexual couple. The appellants had said that they were practising Christians and viewed the guest house as their home, and that … Continue reading Bull and Bull v Hall and Preddy: CA 10 Feb 2012
The applicant had held a joint tenancy of the respondent. His partner gave notice and left, and the property was taken into possession. The claimant claimed restoration of his tenancy saying the order did not respect his right to a private life and home. Held: Article 8 does not, in terms, give a right to … Continue reading London Borough of Harrow v Qazi: HL 31 Jul 2003
Eweida_ukECHR2013 The named claimant had been employed by British Airways. She was a committed Christian and wished to wear a small crucifix on a chain around her neck. This breached the then dress code and she was dismissed. Her appeals had failed. Other claimants had variously relied upon their Christian faith to justify refusal to … Continue reading Eweida And Others v The United Kingdom: ECHR 15 Jan 2013
molaudi_modEAT11 EAT JURISDICTIONAL POINTS The Claimant sought to bring a claim for racial discrimination against the defendant relating to events which occurred while the Claimant was a serving soldier. He had previously made a complaint about the same matters to the military authorities, which was not brought in time and which was rejected. The Employment … Continue reading Molaudi v Ministry of Defence: EAT 15 Apr 2011
Complaints were made as to the deaths of six Iraqi civilians which were the result of actions by a member or members of the British armed forces in Basra. One of them, Mr Baha Mousa, had died as a result of severe maltreatment in a prison occupied and run by British military personnel. It was … Continue reading Secretary of State for Defence v Al-Skeini and others (The Redress Trust Intervening): HL 13 Jun 2007
The House was asked ‘whether a local authority can obtain a summary order for possession against an occupier of a site which it owns and has been used for many years as a gipsy and travellers’ caravan site. His licence to occupy the site has come to an end. He has no enforceable right to … Continue reading Doherty and others v Birmingham City Council: HL 30 Jul 2008
Relatives sought judicial review of the coroner’s decision not to allow a jury, and against allowance of an expert witness. The deceased had been a mental patient but had been arrested with a view to being hospitalised. He was taken first to the AandE department. From there he escaped and jumped into and drowned in … Continue reading Takoushis, Regina (on the Application of) v HM Coroner for Inner North London and others: CA 30 Nov 2005
The deceased soldier died of heat exhaustion whilst on active service in Iraq. It was said that he was owed a duty under human rights laws, and that any coroner’s inquest should be a fuller one to satisfy the state’s duty under Article 2. Held: The SSD’s appeal succeeded. ‘jurisdiction’ within the meaning of Article … Continue reading Smith, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Defence and Oxfordshire Assistant Deputy Coroner (Equality and Human Rights Commission intervening): SC 30 Jun 2010
(Plenary Court) The applicant was held in prison in the UK, pending extradition to the US to face allegations of murder, for which he faced the risk of the death sentence, which would be unlawful in the UK. If extradited, a representation would be made to the judge at the time of sentencing that the … Continue reading Soering v The United Kingdom: ECHR 7 Jul 1989
When the court looked at the issue of foreseeability of murder in an allegation of joint enterprise, there was no requirement to show intent by the secondary party. The forseeability of the risk of the principal committing the offence from the point of view of the secondary party is sufficient. The question certified was ‘Is … Continue reading Regina v Powell (Anthony) and Another; Regina v English: HL 30 Oct 1997
The claimant was a post operative male to female trans-sexual. She claimed that her human rights were infringed when she was still treated as a man for National Insurance contributions purposes, where she continued to make payments after the age at which a woman would have ceased payments thus causing harassment. A second claimant again … Continue reading Goodwin v The United Kingdom: ECHR 11 Jul 2002
The House considered a petition by a holder of 25 of the 100 issued shares in the company against the majority shareholder. The petitioner, an ex-employee, had been taken into management and then given his shares and permitted to take 50% of the company’s profits and a salary. Later the respondent in negotiations with the … Continue reading O’Neill and Another v Phillips and Others; In re a Company (No 00709 of 1992): HL 20 May 1999
The claimant police officer sought judicial review of a decision to continue his suspension. He had been investigated and cleared after a death in custody. He sought to join the Church of England Ministry and was offered a post. He was re-assured that the matter was closed, resigned and took up the new post with … Continue reading Birks, Regina (On the Application of) v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis: Admn 25 Sep 2014
Police officers appealed against refusal of orders protecting their anonymity when called to appear before the Robert Hamill Inquiry. Held: ‘The tribunal accordingly approached the matter properly under article 2 in seeking to ascertain whether giving evidence would give rise to a materially increased risk to life. Having found that it did not, it did … Continue reading In re Officer L: HL 31 Jul 2007
The claimant pursued a civil claim for damages, alleging complicity of the respondent in his torture whilst in the custody of foreign powers. The respondent sought that certain materials be available to the court alone and not to the claimant or the public under a closed material procedure. It argued that whilst the need for … Continue reading Al Rawi and Others v The Security Service and Others: SC 13 Jul 2011
The appellant claimed that the requirement imposed on him to retire from his law firm partnership on attaining 65 was an unlawful discrimination on the grounds of age. Held: The matter was remitted to the Employment tribunal to see whether the fixing of the mandatory retirment age at 65 was a proportionate means of achieving … Continue reading Seldon v Clarkson Wright and Jakes: SC 25 Apr 2012
EAT JURISDICTIONAL POINTS Worker, employee or neither Working outside the jurisdiction Whether LLP equity member was a limb (b) worker under section 230(3). Allowing Claimant’s appeal, she was. Applying Lawson v Serco, Duncombe (No. 2) and Ravat, on any view Employment Tribunal entitled to conclude that it had jurisdiction territorially to entertain both whistleblowing claim … Continue reading Clyde and Co Llp v Van Winkelhof: EAT 26 Apr 2012
The university had imposed a new constitution on its students union, which resulted in the dismissal of the claimant. He sought to assert racial discrimination. Held: The concept of ‘aiding’ somebody in committing discriminatory behaviour under the section, connoted assistance beyond the negligible, but did not need to be substantial or productive. The word should … Continue reading Anyanwu and Another v South Bank Student Union and Another: HL 24 May 2001
The appellant a British Citizen awaited execution in Singapore after conviction on a drugs charge. The only way she might get legal help for a further appeal would be if she was given legal aid by the respondent. She sought assistance both on Human Rights under article 6(2) and under common law. Held: The appeal … Continue reading Sandiford, Regina (on The Application of) v The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs: SC 16 Jul 2014
The claimant was a solicitor partner with the appellant limited liability partnership at their offices in Tanzania. She disclosed what she believed to be money laundering by a local partner. She was dismissed. She had just disclosed her pregnancy and claimed also in sex discrimination. The company appealed findings as to jurisdiction saying that she … Continue reading Clyde and Co Llp and Another v Bates van Winkelhof: CA 26 Sep 2012
ECJ Principle of equal pay for men and women – Direct effect – Meaning of worker – Self-employed female lecturer undertaking work presumed to be of equal value to that which is undertaken in the same college by male lecturers who are employees, but under contract with a third company – Self-employed lecturers not eligible … Continue reading Allonby v Accrington and Rossendale College for Education and Employment: ECJ 13 Jan 2004
Proper Investigation of Deaths with Army or Police Claims were made as regards deaths of alleged terrorists in clashes with the UK armed forces and police. In some cases the investigations necessary to justify the taking of life had been inadequate. Statements made to the inquiry as to the circumstances of the deaths had not … Continue reading Jordan v United Kingdom; McKerr v United Kingdom; similar: ECHR 4 May 2001
The appellant, a British national and European citizen was in prison in Bali convicted of a criminal charge for which she might face the death penalty. Having insufficient funds she sought legal assistance from the respondent for hr appeal, and now . .
The claimants were PRs of men who had died or were severely injured on active duty in Iraq being variously fired at by mistake by other coalition forces, or dying in vehicles attacked by roadside bombs. Appeals were heard against a finding that the . .
An entitlement to an equal division must reflect not only the parties’ respective contributions ‘but also an accrual over time’, and it would be ‘fundamentally unfair’ that a party who has made domestic contributions during a marriage of 12 years . .
ECJ (Opinion) The claimant accepted voluntary redundancy, but then alleged disability discrimination and constructive dismissal. She claimed to have been subjected to unfair treatment because she had a disabled . .
The applicant a differently sexed couple sought to marry under the Civil Partnership Act 2004, but complained that they would lose the benefits of widowed parent’s allowance. Parliament had decided to delay such rules to allow assessment of reaction . .
The court was asked as to the duty of local housing authorities towards homeless people who claim to be ‘vulnerable’, and therefore to have ‘a priority need’ for the provision of housing accommodation under Part VII of the Housing Act 1996. Those . .
The claimant said that a scheme drawn by the defendant for compensating British civilians interned by the Japanese during the second world war was indirectly discriminatory on racial grounds by requiring a national origin link with the UK. She had . .
The claimants said that changes to the Highy Skilled Migrant Programme were unfairly introduced, that they had effectively barred non-EU doctors from applying for first tier doctor appointments, and that the guidance could properly be derived only . .
The trust was created in 1948, and provided gifts over, which had now failed. The court considered the construction of the term ‘stautory next of kin’. The possible beneficiaries claimed through being adopted, arguing that at the date of the last . .
The claimant’s son had died of hyperthermia whilst serving in the army in Iraq. The parties requested a new inquisition after the coroner had rules that human rights law did not apply to servicemen serving outside Europe. Reports had been prepared . .
The claimant appealed against rejection of his claim of age discrimination. the claimant complained that the trust had deliberately failed to comply with a requirement to consult before declaring him to be redundant, so that his employment would . .
The defendant had published a set of guidelines for intelligence officers called upon to detain and interrogate suspects. The defendant said that the guidelines could only be tested against individual real life cases, and that the court should not . .
The applicants were relatives of persons who had been killed in the NATO air-raid on Belgrade in 1999. The raid was said to be an act of war in violation of international law. It had been launched from bases in Italy. The Corte de Cassazione had . .
The claimant alleged complicity by the defendant, (now former) Foreign Secretary, in his mistreatment by the US while held in Libya. He also alleged involvement in his unlawful abduction and removal to Libya, from which had had fled for political . .
A bank account used to cover the day-to-day expenses of an Embassy, clearly served sovereign purposes and therefore was immune from enforcement measures. The Act of 1978 must be read against the background of customary international law current in . .
In each case the tenant occupied the property as his home, but was not a secure tenant of the local authority. The Court was asked whether, in granting a possession order in such a case, the court was obliged to consider the proportionality of the . .
EAT RELIGION OR BELIEF DISCRIMINATION
UNFAIR DISMISSAL – Reason for dismissal
Christian counsellor dismissed by Relate for failing to give an unequivocal commitment to counsel same-sex couples.
The claimant had been imprisoned then released after his conviction for sexual assaults. He appealed against rejection of his claim for compensation. The criterion for compensation was demonstrating that something had ‘gone seriously wrong in the . .
DISABILITY DISCRIMNATION – Exclusions/jurisdictions
The Tribunal had not erred in concluding that a manifestation of the Claimant’s post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative amnesia was a tendency to steal which was an excluded . .
EU Appeal – Community official – Transfer of pension rights – Calculation of additional pensionable service – Equality of treatment. . .
The employer appealed against findings of unfair dismissal and disability discrimination. The employee worked in IT. He was profoundly deaf, but could lip read and read sign language. He had been accused of obtaining improper access to a senior . .
EAT Practice and Procedure – 2002 Act and pre-action requirements. Regulation 14 2004 Regulations; excluding discrimination Questionnaires from definition of statutory grievance. When failure to comply with SGP . .
The claimants had been convicted of murder, but their tariffs had not yet been set when the 2003 Act came into effect. They said that the procedure under which their sentence tarriffs were set were not compliant with their human rights in that the . .
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The defendant had committed a murder when aged 16, and after conviction sentenced to be detailed during Her Majesty’s Pleasure. His tarriff had been set at 18 years, reduced to 16 years after review. Held: ‘What is at issue is the general right to a ‘fair and public hearing’ in article 6(1). There is no … Continue reading Dudson, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department: HL 28 Jul 2005
There had been a racist attack. The victim was set on fire and killed in the street by assailants. His relatives sought compensation. However the assailants were not agents of the state and they were duly prosecuted, convicted and sentenced. No blame attached to state authorities for the killing and no breach of the state’s … Continue reading Menson v United Kingdom: ECHR 6 May 2003
EAT Practice and Procedure – CompromiseEqual Pay Act – Work rated equivalent; Damages/Compensation This case raises three issues, two of which are of particular significance in the field of equal pay.Do employees whose jobs are rated as equivalent under a job evaluation scheme have the right to seek compensation going back up to six years … Continue reading Bainbridge and others v Redcar and Cleveland Borough Council: EAT 23 Mar 2007
Hudoc Judgment (Merits and just satisfaction) Preliminary objection rejected (estoppel) ; Violation of Art. 2 with regard to deaths ; Violation of Art. 2 with regard to lack of effective investigation ; Not necessary to examine Art. 2 with regard to the general obligation to protect life ; No separate issue under Art. 13 ; … Continue reading Nachova and Others v Bulgaria: ECHR 6 Jul 2005