A compromise of a claim involved a settlement with the value given, and a release did not import requirement for any consideration. A compromised claim could not be set aside for lack of knowledge, and no duty of disclosure of any wrongdoing existed. Judges: Lightman J Citations: Times 25-Jan-1999, Gazette 17-Feb-1999,  ICR 1068 Cited … Continue reading Bank of Credit and Commerce International Sa (In Liquidation) v Ali and Another: ChD 17 Feb 1999
The employees argued that they should be allowed to be accompanied by a representative to a meeting where they might receive an oral warning. Held: A disciplinary warning becomes a formal warning within the section where it is recordable as part of the employees formal disciplinary record. Citations: Gazette 10-Jul-2003,  IRLR 252,  ICR … Continue reading London Underground Ltd v Ferenc-Batchelor; Harding v London Underground Ltd: EAT 10 Jul 2003
A company which refused to recognise a union shop steward as such, because of the way in which he behaved, was treating him less favourably to restrict those activities, despite the fact that he had not been treated worse as an employee. In de-recognising Mr McCoid as a shop steward: ‘The only effect of the … Continue reading F W Farnsworth Limited v McCoid: CA 31 Mar 1999
A university was not acting in a racially discriminatory manner because of the acts of its student union in dismissing two workers after the university had itself expelled them as students. The term ‘knowingly aided’ in the Act was not to be read so widely. The expulsion by the applicants made the termination of employment … Continue reading Anyanwu and Another v South Bank Students’ Union and Another: CA 4 Nov 1999
An assault on a company sponsored day out could be within the course of employment. Exclusion by the employer of consideration that the assault might be racially motivated, was itself race-specific and discriminatory. Citations: Gazette 10-Nov-1999, (1999) IRLR 683 Statutes: Race Relations Act 1976 32(1) Citing: Appealed to – Sidhu v Aerospace Composite Technology Ltd … Continue reading Sidhu v Aerospace Composite Technology Ltd: EAT 10 Nov 1999
A contract of apprenticeship is synallagmatic. The master undertakes to educate and train the apprentice (or pupil) in the practical and other skills needed to practise a skilled trade (or learned profession) and the apprentice (or pupil) binds himself to serve and work for the master and comply with all reasonable directions. In the case … Continue reading Edmonds v Lawson, Pardoe, and Del Fabbro: CA 10 Mar 2000
Appeal as to the meaning of three words, those words being ‘as an individual’ in section 146 of the 1992 Act. Lord Woolf MR, Otton, Ward LJJ  IRLR 626,  ICR 1047,  EWCA Civ 1064 Bailii Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 146 England and Wales Employment Updated: 03 January 2022; … Continue reading FW Farnsworth Ltd v McCoid: CA 23 Mar 1999
The applicant had soft tissue injuries around the spine as a consequence of a back injury at work. He was absent from work for a long time as a result of his injuries, and he was eventually dismissed when his medical advisers could provide no clear idea of when it would be possible for him … Continue reading Clark v TDG Limited (Trading As Novacold): CA 25 Mar 1999
Same Sex Paartner to Inherit as Family Member The claimant had lived with the original tenant in a stable and long standing homosexual relationship at the deceased’s flat. After the tenant’s death he sought a statutory tenancy as a spouse of the deceased. The Act had been extended to include as a spouse someone living … Continue reading Fitzpatrick v Sterling Housing Association Ltd: HL 28 Oct 1999
EAT CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYMENT Written Particulars The employment tribunal can reformulate the juridical basis of a complaint so long as the facts upon which the complaint is based remain the same and the other party suffers no prejudice; Chapman v Simon distinguished; Dr P Evans v Parasol Ltd and RSA Consulting Ltd considered. The employment … Continue reading Southern Cross Healthcare Co Ltd v Perkins and Others: EAT 21 Apr 2010
Judge’s Reasons Must Show How Reached In each case appeals were made, following Flannery, complaining of a lack of reasons given by the judge for his decision. Held: Human Rights jurisprudence required judges to put parties into a position where they could understand how the decision in their case had been arrived at. Flannery preceded … Continue reading English v Emery Reimbold and Strick Ltd; etc, (Practice Note): CA 30 Apr 2002
The company decided to make redundancies. The applicants, all selected, had worked in more than one section of the plant. All employees worked under the same contract, but employees were chosen only from the one section. The complainants said that the entire workforce should have been considered. Held: Under the Order it was for the … Continue reading Murray and Another v Foyle Meats Ltd (Northern Ireland): HL 8 Jul 1999
Bias may not be intentional The applicant claimed that he had been denied appointment to a job with London Regional Transport because he had brought a number of previous race discrimination claims against it or associated companies. An industrial tribunal had upheld his claim of victimisation contrary to section 2(1) of the 1976 Act, finding … Continue reading Swiggs and others v Nagarajan: HL 15 Jul 1999
The parties had reached agreement in outline and sought to have the contract formalised, but went ahead anyway. They now disputed whether an agreement had been created and as to its terms if so. Held: It was unrealistic to suggest that no contract had been created. The parties initially intended that there should be a … Continue reading RTS Flexible Systems Ltd v Molkerei Alois Muller Gmbh and Company Kg (UK Production): SC 10 Mar 2010
ECJ Principle of equal pay for men and women – Direct effect – Meaning of worker – Self-employed female lecturer undertaking work presumed to be of equal value to that which is undertaken in the same college by male lecturers who are employees, but under contract with a third company – Self-employed lecturers not eligible … Continue reading Allonby v Accrington and Rossendale College for Education and Employment: ECJ 13 Jan 2004
The court considered whether a power of appeal to the existed.
Held: A power did exist under FETO, and the CANI having mistakenly excluded a power to appeal the Supreme Court could nevertheless hear it. Both appeals were allowed. . .
The claimant sued for breach of trust. The action was re-instated after being struck out for want of prosecution, but in the meantime the defendant had been made bankrupt and then discharged from bankruptcy. An order for costs was then made which . .
There is no rule of law, to suggest that a sole director and owner of majority of shareholding, could not be an employee of that company, and be entitled to a redundancy payment on the liquidation of the company. ‘If the tribunal considers that the . .
Where a receiver of a company dismissed the employees and then transferred the business to a purchaser, that amounted to an unfair dismissal because it was a TUPE transfer, even though the manufacturing base also moved. The company was liable to the . .
Tour guides were engaged to act ‘on a casual as required basis’. The guides later claimed to be employees and therefore entitled by statute to a written statement of their terms of employment. Their case was that an exchange of correspondence . .
The claimant had contracted to purchase lead from some of the defendants. There were delays in payment but when funds were made available they should have been repaid. An incorrect bill of lading was presented. The bill certified that the goods had . .
The applicants were suspended from membership of the Labour party. As a result they were unable to stand for election as councillors. They alleged racial discrimination.
Held: The position as councillor fell within the Act, and the claim for . .
The applicant objected that one of the lay members of the Appeal Tribunal had, on other occasions, sat with a recorder who, as counsel, was appearing for a party in that appeal.
Held: There was no real possibility of bias from this scenario. . .
Legislation had been enacted to tax under Schedule E, people employed through one man service companies and similar. Representatives of such taxpayers sought review of the legislation as incompatible with European law being a hindrance to the . .
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The employer disputed a finding that the Employment tribunal had jurisdiction over the employment claims made by the respondent. Rimer, Floyd, Macur LJJ  EWCA Civ 1238 Bailii Employment Rights Act 1996 94(1), Employment Relations Act 1999 10 England and Wales Citing: Appeal from – Dhunna v Creditsights Ltd EAT 3-Apr-2013 EAT JURISDICTIONAL POINTS – … Continue reading Creditsights Ltd v Dhunna: CA 19 Sep 2014
EAT Right To Be Accompanied – This appeal invited us to reconsider the recent EAT decision in Toal and Hughes v GB Oils Ltd  IRLR 696 that the Employment Tribunal in considering whether where there has been a failure to allow an employee to be accompanied by the companion of his choice, where he … Continue reading Roberts v GB Oils Ltd: EAT 14 Oct 2013
EAT STATUTORY DISCIPLINE AND GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES Whether choice of companion to accompany employee at grievance hearing must be ‘reasonable’ (No). Whether employee refused first choice of companion waives right to be accompanied by him if, he chooses another (No). (Section 10 Employment Relations Act 1999) Mitting J  UKEAT 0569 – 12 – 2205,  … Continue reading Toal and Another v GB Oils Ltd (Statutory Discipline and Grievance Procedures): EAT 22 May 2013
The claimant had brought an action uunder the section with respect to his right to be accompanied at a disciplinary hearing. The employer lodged an appeal.
Held: The jurisdiction of the EAT was purely statutory. The powers to hear appeals were . .
The appellants resisted disclosure to the revenue of advice it had received. It claimed legal advice privilege (LAP), though the advice was from its accountants. Held: (Lords Sumption and Clarke dissenting) LAP applies to all communications passing between a client and its lawyers, acting in their professional capacity, in connection with the provision of legal … Continue reading Prudential Plc and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Special Commissioner of Income Tax and Another: SC 23 Jan 2013
An MOD ban on employing homosexuals was not Wednesbury unreasonable, even though it might be out of date. Pannick (counsel for the applicant, approved): ‘The court may not interfere with the exercise of an administrative discretion on substantive grounds save where the court is satisfied that the decision is unreasonable in the sense that it … Continue reading Regina v Ministry of Defence Ex Parte Smith and Others: QBD 7 Jun 1995
The Court discussed how to evaluate whether the employers acted reasonably: ‘Whether someone acted reasonably is always a pure question of fact. Where parliament has directed a tribunal to have regard to equity – and that, of course, means common fairness and not a particular branch of the law – and to the substantial merits … Continue reading Union of Construction, Allied Trades and Technicians (UCATT) v Brain: CA 1981
The court considered selection procedures in redundancy situations. Stamp LJ said: ‘It may be hard on employers in the embarrassing situation in which Mr Benfield [the employer] found himself in this case to have the matter so largely removed out of their control and left to the discretion of the so-called industrial jury. But once … Continue reading Bessenden Properties Limited v Corness: CA 1974
Loss of Confidentiality Protection – public domain A retired secret service employee sought to publish his memoirs from Australia. The British government sought to restrain publication there, and the defendants sought to report those proceedings, which would involve publication of the allegations made. The AG sought to restrain those publications. Held: A duty of confidence … Continue reading Attorney-General v Guardian Newspapers Ltd (No 2) (‘Spycatcher’): HL 13 Oct 1988
The claimant appealed after her claim for sex discrimination had failed. She had been dismissed from her position an associate minister of the church. The court had found that it had no jurisdiction, saying that her appointment was not an employment. However the jurisdiction in sex discrimination cases was wider, extending to those who ‘contract … Continue reading Percy v Church of Scotland Board of National Mission: HL 15 Dec 2005
Limitation of Loss from Negligent Mis-statement The plaintiffs sought damages from accountants for negligence. They had acquired shares in a target company and, relying upon the published and audited accounts which overstated the company’s earnings, they purchased further shares. Held: The duties of an auditor are founded in contract and the extent of the duties … Continue reading Caparo Industries Plc v Dickman and others: HL 8 Feb 1990
(1) An employment tribunal was entitled to hold that an investigative meeting with a manager inquiring into another employee’s grievance was not a ‘disciplinary hearing’ at which the applicant had a right to be accompanied under section 10 Employment Relations Act 1999, notwithstanding that the matters to be discussed could lead to some later disciplinary … Continue reading Skiggs v South West Trains Ltd: EAT 7 Mar 2005
The appellant, a part time recorder challenged his exclusion from pension arrangements. Held: The appeal was allowed. No objective justification has been shown for departing from the basic principle of remunerating part-timers pro rata temporis. ‘The reality is that recorders are expected to observe the terms and conditions of their appointment, and that they may … Continue reading O’Brien v Ministry of Justice: SC 6 Feb 2013
The plaintiff, who worked in financial services, complained of the terms of the reference given by his former employer. Having spoken of his behaviour towards members of the team, it went on: ‘his former superior has further stated he is a man of little or no integrity and could not be regarded as honest . … Continue reading Spring v Guardian Assurance Plc and Others: HL 7 Jul 1994
Rehearing/Review – Little Difference on Appeal The appellant asked the Court to reverse a decision on the facts reached in the lower court. Held: The appeal failed (Majority decision). The court’s approach should be the same whether the case was dealt with as a rehearing or as a review. Tanfern was limited to appeals from … Continue reading Assicurazioni Generali Spa v Arab Insurance Group (BSC): CA 13 Nov 2002
Smartphone App Contractors did so as Workers The court was asked whether the employment tribunal was entitled to find that drivers whose work was arranged through Uber’s smartphone application work for Uber under workers’ contracts and so qualify for the national minimum wage, paid annual leave and other workers’ rights; or whether, as Uber contended, … Continue reading Uber Bv and Others v Aslam and Others: SC 19 Feb 2021
The court was asked whether it was lawful for the Secretary of State to make subordinate legislation imposing a cap on the amount of welfare benefits which can be received by claimants in non-working households, equivalent to the net median earnings of working households. The challenge was under the 1998 Act on the basis that … Continue reading SG and Others, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: SC 18 Mar 2015
The respondent’s child lived with the estranged father for most of each week. She was obliged to contribute child support. She now lived with a woman, and complained that because her relationship was homosexual, she had been asked to pay more than someone in a heterosexual relationship. Held: The claim failed. The regulations had now … Continue reading Secretary of State for Work and Pensions v M: HL 8 Mar 2006
PI Damages not Reduced for Own Pension The plaintiff policeman was disabled by the negligence of the defendant and received a disablement pension. Part had been contributed by himself and part by his employer. Held: The plaintiff’s appeal succeeded. Damages for personal injury were not to be reduced by deducting the full net value of … Continue reading Parry v Cleaver: HL 5 Feb 1969
Shareholder May Sue for Additional Personal Losses A company brought a claim of negligence against its solicitors, and, after that claim was settled, the company’s owner brought a separate claim in respect of the same subject-matter. Held: It need not be an abuse of the court for a shareholder to seek damages against advisers to … Continue reading Johnson v Gore Wood and Co: HL 14 Dec 2000
EAT Unfair Dismissal Disability discrimination The Tribunal had found a dismissal to be unfair because of flaws in a grievance procedure, following which the Claimant had resigned. They also found that the Claimant, who suffered an obsessive compulsive disorder, was subjected to taunts that she would not have had inflicted on her if she had … Continue reading Abbey National Plc v Fairbrother: EAT 12 Jan 2007
The claimants challenged the 2004 Order which prevented their return to their homes on the Chagos Islands. The islanders had been taken off the island to leave it for use as a US airbase. In 2004, the island was no longer needed, and payment had been made (ineffectively) to assist the dispossessed islanders, but an … Continue reading Bancoult, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (No 2): HL 22 Oct 2008
A public authority, and the Prison Service in particular, is free, within the limits of rationality, to decide on any policy as to how to exercise its discretions; it is entitled to change its policy from time to time for the future, and a person whose case falls within the scope of the policy is … Continue reading In Re Findlay, in re Hogben: HL 1985
The court was asked whether the appellant, Airtours Holidays Transport Ltd (formerly MyTravel Group plc), was entitled to recover, by way of input tax VAT charged by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP in respect of services provided by PwC and paid for by Airtours. Held: The appeal was dismissed (Clarke and Carnwath LL dissenting) For the VAT to … Continue reading Airtours Holidays Transport Ltd v Revenue and Customs: SC 11 May 2016
EAT Sex Discrimination – DirectThe complainant had been suspended from her position as Vice President of the Law Society. The Society and its officers appealed findings of sex and race discrimination against her. The complainant appealed findings that she had lied to the tribunal on oath, and that the discrimination had been only indirect. Held: … Continue reading The Law Society v Kamlesh Bahl: EAT 7 Jul 2003
The claimant rugby league player complained of his dismissal under a clause allowing such for behaviour which might bring the club into disrepute. He had engaged in a celebratory evening out involving a naked run. Saffman HHJ  EWHC 2869 (QB) Bailii Citing: Cited – Ross T Smythe and Co v Bailey and Sons HL … Continue reading Mason v Huddersfield Giants Ltd: QBD 15 Jul 2013
Rebalancing of Enhanced Disclosure Requirements The Court was asked as to the practice of supplying enhanced criminal record certificates under the 1997 Act. It was said that the release of reports of suspicions was a disproportionate interference in the claimants article 8 rights to a private life. The enhanced record revealed that the claimant’s son … Continue reading L, Regina (On the Application of) v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis: SC 29 Oct 2009
A male to female transsexual who had undergone full gender reassignment surgery wished to marry. The court held that despite the Resolution of the European Parliament on 12th September 1989 and Recommendation 1117 adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on 29th September 1989 – both of which sought the encourage the … Continue reading Cossey v The United Kingdom: ECHR 27 Sep 1990
ECHR (Grand Chamber) Article 10-1 Freedom of expression Refusal of permission for non-governmental organisation to place television advert owing to statutory prohibition of political advertising: no violation Facts – The Communications Act 2003 prohibits political advertising in television or radio services, the aim being to maintain impartiality in the broadcast media and to prevent powerful … Continue reading Animal Defenders International v The United Kingdom: ECHR 22 Apr 2013
Unrelated Detriment was no Discrimination The tenant had left his flat and sublet it so as to allow the landlord authority an apparently unanswerable claim for possession. The authority appealed a finding that they had to take into account the fact that the tenant was disabled and make reasonable adjustments. Held: The authority’s appeal succeeded. … Continue reading London Borough of Lewisham v Malcolm: HL 25 Jun 2008
EAT Working Time Regulations – TRADE UNION RIGHTS – Action short of dismissal Working Time Regulations 1998 (‘WTR’) Regulation 2(1)(a) and (c) – ‘working time’ Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 section 146 – detriment The Employment Tribunal having dismissed the Claimants’ claims of breach of the WTR and of detriment, the following … Continue reading Edwards and Another v Encirc Ltd (Working Time Regulations): EAT 23 Feb 2015
The claimants in the employment tribunal are airline pilots employed by the respondent and based in Great Britain. They are members of the trade union BALPA. They all participated in a strike called by BALPA. Because of that the respondent withdrew concessionary travel benefits from them for a year. They complained that they had been … Continue reading Ryanair DAC v Morais and Others (Trade Union Rights): EAT 18 Nov 2021
The employee had failed to mention at the hearing of his claim for a redundancy payment a fact which was arguably highly material to the issue of whether his refusal of alternative employment was reasonable; and his claim had been dismissed. He applied for a review. Held: The court was asked whether, and in what … Continue reading Flint v Eastern Electricity Board: EAT 1975
EAT Employment Tribunal claim brought out of time because of Solicitor’s negligent advice. Application of British Coal Corporation -v- Keeble  IRLR 337. His Hon Judge Mcmullen QC UKEAT/0851/03,  UKEAT 0851 – 03 – 0704 Bailii, EATn England and Wales Citing: Cited – British Coal Corporation v Keeble and others EAT 26-Mar-1997 The employer … Continue reading Chohan v Derby Law Centre: EAT 2 Mar 2004
Minor Irregularity in Break Notice Not Fatal Leases contained clauses allowing the tenant to break the lease by serving not less than six months notice to expire on the third anniversary of the commencement date of the term of the lease. The tenant gave notice to determine the leases on 12th January 1995, although the … Continue reading Mannai Investment Co Ltd v Eagle Star Assurance: HL 21 May 1997
ECJ (Advocate General’s Opinion) Preliminary ruling – Social policy – Directive 1999/70/EC – Framework agreement ETUC, UNICE and CEEP on fixed-term work – Contracts of successive fixed-term work – Area Public School – Clause 5, point 1 – measures to prevent the abuse of fixed-term contracts – Concept of ‘objective reasons’ justifying such contracts – … Continue reading Mascolo v Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Universita e della Ricerca: ECJ 17 Jul 2014
Former HL decision in Siebe Gorman overruled The company had become insolvent. The bank had a debenture and claimed that its charge over the book debts had become a fixed charge. The preferential creditors said that the charge was a floating charge and that they took priority. Held: The appeal was allowed. The debenture, although … Continue reading National Westminster Bank plc v Spectrum Plus Limited and others: HL 30 Jun 2005
The innocent plaintiff buyers had been found to have failed to mitigate their damages because they had not accepted an offer from the defendant sellers (who were in breach of contract) to supply goods on cash terms, the contract having originally provided for sales on credit. the plaintiffs submitted that as a matter of law … Continue reading Payzu Limited v Saunders: CA 1919
EAT Appeal from ET’s decision, at directions hearing, permitting evidence to be adduced, at the forthcoming hearing of a direct sex discrimination and victimisation complaint, of the Applicant’s allegation that, at a meeting expressed to be ‘without prejudice’, her employers sought to terminate her employment following a grievance raised by her about her treatment on … Continue reading BNP Paribas v A Mezzotero: EAT 30 Mar 2004
Mr Lawson was employed by Serco as a security supervisor at the British RAF base on Ascension Island, which is a dependency of the British Overseas Territory of St Helena. Mr Botham was employed as a youth worker at various Ministry of Defence establishments in Germany; under the NATO Status of Forces Agreement of 1951 … Continue reading Serco Ltd v Lawson; Botham v Ministry of Defence; Crofts and others v Veta Limited: HL 26 Jan 2006
Appeal against rejection of claim for personal injury. While working as the catering manager at HM Prison Swansea, the Claimant was injured in an accident caused by the negligence of a prisoner carrying out paid work under her supervision. The prisoner had dropped a large bag of rice on her whilst she was kneeling. The … Continue reading Cox v Ministry of Justice: CA 19 Feb 2014
The claimant alleged infringement by the defendant of assorted intellectual property rights in its database. It provided systems for recovering materials deleted from Nokia mobile phones. Held: ‘the present case is concerned with a collection of numerical data . . the individual items of data are not protected by copyright. It follows that the collection … Continue reading Forensic Telecommunications Services Ltd v West Yorkshire Police and Another: ChD 9 Nov 2011
A petition had been lodged alleging unfair prejudice in the conduct of the company’s affairs. The defendants alleged that when applying for relief under section 459, the claimants had attempted to pervert the course of justice by producing forged or falsified documentation in discovery. The forgery was admitted. Held: If a party to litigation behaved … Continue reading Arrow Nominees Inc and Another v Blackledge and Others: CA 22 Jun 2000
The defendant company appealed against an order re-instating the claimants’ claims for damages for race discrimination and victimisation after they had been struck out for wilful disobedience of the tribunal’s orders. Held: When making a strike-out order, there were two cardinal conditions at least one of which must be met. Either the unreasonable conduct has … Continue reading Blockbuster Entertainment Ltd v James: CA 25 May 2006
Discrimination – History of interactions relevant When a tribunal considered whether the motive for an act was discriminatory, it should look not just at the act, but should make allowance for earlier acts which might throw more light on the act in question. The Tribunal should assess the totality of the evidence on any material … Continue reading Dr Anya v University of Oxford and Another: CA 22 Mar 2001
Requirememts to prove breach of confidence A claim was made for breach of confidence in respect of technical information whose value was commercial. Held: Megarry J set out three elements which will normally be required if, apart from contract, a case of breach of confidence is to succeed. In this case the information was found … Continue reading Coco v A N Clark (Engineers) Ltd: ChD 1968
In Douglas, the claimants said that the defendants had interfered with their contract to provide exclusive photographs of their wedding to a competing magazine, by arranging for a third party to infiltrate and take and sell unauthorised photographs. In OBG, the defendants acted as receivers under an invalid charge, and were accused of unlawful interference … Continue reading Douglas and others v Hello! Ltd and others; similar: HL 2 May 2007
Cere Needed Releasing Future Claims A compromise agreement which appeared to claim to settle all outstanding claims between the employee and employer, did not prevent the employee later claiming for stigma losses where, at the time of the agreement, the circumstances which might lead to a claim were unknown to either party, and such losses … Continue reading Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA v Ali, Khan and others (No 1); BCCI v Ali: HL 1 Mar 2001
amnesty_ahmedEAT2009 EAT RACE DISCRIMINATION – Direct discriminationRACE DISCRIMINATION – Indirect discriminationRACE DISCRIMINATION – Protected by s. 41UNFAIR DISMISSAL – Constructive dismissalClaimant, of (northern) Sudanese ethnic origin, applied for promotion to role of ‘Sudan researcher’ for Amnesty International – Not appointed because Amnesty believed that the appointment of a person of her ethnic origin would compromise … Continue reading Amnesty International v Ahmed: EAT 13 Aug 2009
The parties disputed whether the inclusion of length of service within a selection matrix for redundancy purposes would amount to unlawful age discrimination. The court was asked whether it was correct to make a declaratory judgment when the case had otherwise been effectively settled. Held: With considerable misgivings, the court agreed to hear the appeal. … Continue reading Rolls-Royce plc v Unite the Union: CA 14 May 2009
The claimant was a male to female trans-sexual who had been refused employment as a police officer by the respondent, who had said that the staturory requirement for males to search males and for females to search females would be impossible to comply with. She had sought to be employed on the basis that her … Continue reading A v West Yorkshire Police: HL 6 May 2004
Same Sex Partner Entitled to tenancy Succession The protected tenant had died. His same-sex partner sought a statutory inheritance of the tenancy. Held: His appeal succeeded. The Fitzpatrick case referred to the position before the 1998 Act: ‘Discriminatory law undermines the rule of law because it is the antithesis of fairness. It brings the law … Continue reading Ghaidan v Godin-Mendoza: HL 21 Jun 2004
The court was asked whether a steamship company was liable to be rated in respect of its occupation of sheds which it occupied under a licence from the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. The court noted that liability for rates fell only on a person who had exclusive occupation. Held: ‘The poor-rate is a rate … Continue reading Allan v Liverpool Overseers: 1874
Misfeasance in Public Office – Recklessness The bank sought to strike out the claim alleging misfeasance in public office in having failed to regulate the failed bank, BCCI. Held: Misfeasance in public office might occur not only when a company officer acted to injure a party, but also where he acted with knowledge of, or … Continue reading Three Rivers District Council and Others v Governor and Company of The Bank of England (No 3): HL 22 Mar 2001
miller_IISEAT2012 EAT TRADE UNION RIGHTS – BLACKLISTING – Trade union official pressures employer to recruit three named employees with a view to their acting as shop stewards – Relevant manager declines to recruit, as the Tribunal finds, because he resents being ‘bullied’ by the union and does not wish to be dictated to about whom … Continue reading Miller and Others v Interserve Industrial Services Ltd: EAT 5 Dec 2012
The bank appealed against judgment against it on claims by former senior employees for contractual discretionary bonuses. Held: The appeal failed. The bank’s unilateral promise made within the context of an existing employment relationship to pay discretionary bonuses, became part of the contract. ‘in accordance with well established principles the clause should, in the case … Continue reading Dresdner Kleinwort Ltd and Another v Attrill and Others: CA 26 Apr 2013
The claimant appealed against refusal of his employer’s pension scheme trustees to include as a recipient of any death benefit his male civil partner. Held: The appeal succeeded. The salary paid to Mr Walker throughout his working life was precisely the same as that which would have been paid to a heterosexual man. There was … Continue reading Walker v Innospec Ltd and Others: SC 12 Jul 2017
A company’s ban on the provision of travel perks to same sex partners of employees did not constitute breach of European sex discrimination law. An employer’s policy was not necessarily to be incorporated into the contract of employment. The court said that since the rule applied equally to male and female employees it was not … Continue reading Grant v South West Trains Ltd: ECJ 17 Feb 1998
Nature of Confidentiality in Information The appellant plaintiff company had employed the defendant as sales manager. The contract of employment made no provision restricting use of confidential information. He left to set up in competition. The company now sought to prevent him using confidential information for this purpose. Held: The information and the advantage flowing … Continue reading Faccenda Chicken Ltd v Fowler: CA 1986
The employee complained of his employer’s repeated failure to regrade him, and alleged discrimination. The employer said his claim was out of time. Held: Mummery J made the distinction between single acts of discrimination, and continuing discrimination: ‘the tribunal erred in law in failing to treat the acts complained of on regrading and failure to … Continue reading Owusu v London Fire and Civil Defence Authority: EAT 1 Mar 1995
The applicants, parents of more than 800 Francophone children, living in certain (mostly Dutch-speaking) parts of Belgium, complained that their children were denied access to an education in French. Held: In establishing a system or regime to comply with a Convention obligation, a State may include within the system elements that are not strictly required … Continue reading Relating to certain aspects of the laws on the use of languages in education in Belgium (Belgian Linguistics) No 2: ECHR 9 Feb 1967
Will Drafter liable in Negligence to Beneficiary A solicitor drawing a will may be liable in negligence to a potential beneficiary, having unduly delayed in the drawing of the will. The Hedley Byrne principle was ‘founded upon an assumption of responsibility.’ Obligations may occasionally arise outside the terms of the retainer or where there is … Continue reading White and Another v Jones and Another: HL 16 Feb 1995
Car Cleaning nil-hours Contractors were Workers The company contracted with the claimants to work cleaning cars. The company appealed against a finding that contrary to the explicit provisions of the contracts, they were workers within the Regulations and entitled to holiday pay and associated benefits. The contracts were ‘nil hours’ contracts neither requiring nor entitling … Continue reading Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher and Others: SC 27 Jul 2011
The House was asked whether an action for unlawful means conspiracy was available against a participant in a missing trader intra-community, or carousel, fraud. The company appealed a finding of liability saying that the VAT Act and Regulations contained the entire regime. Held: Criminal conduct at common law or by statute can constitute unlawful means … Continue reading Total Network Sl v Revenue and Customs: HL 12 Mar 2008
E complained that his exclusion from admission to the school had been racially discriminatory. The school applied an Orthodox Jewish religious test which did not count him as Jewish because of his family history. Held: The school’s appeal failed. English law may be at fault because it made no allowance for any justification of direct … Continue reading E, Regina (on The Application of) v Governing Body of JFS and Another: SC 16 Dec 2009
B, a former senior member of the security services wished to publish his memoirs. He was under contractual and statutory obligations of confidentiality. He sought judicial review of a decision not to allow him to publish parts of the book, saying it was vitiated by bias, and in breach of his right to freedom of … Continue reading A, Regina (on The Application of) v B; Regina (A) v Director of Establishments of the Security Service: SC 9 Dec 2009
ECJ Common foreign and security policy (CFSP) – Restrictive measures taken against persons and entities associated with Usama bin Laden, the Al-Qaeda network and the Taliban – United Nations Security Council Resolutions adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations Implementation in the Community Common Position 2002/402/CFSP Regulation (EC) No 881/2002 ‘ … Continue reading Kadi v Council and Commission (Common Foreign and Security Policy): ECJ 16 Jan 2008
When a licence is really a tenancy The document signed by the occupier stated that she understood that she had been given a licence, and that she understood that she had not been granted a tenancy protected under the Rent Acts. Exclusive occupation was in fact granted. Held: This was a tenancy not a licence. … Continue reading Street v Mountford: HL 6 Mar 1985
The principal claimants sold the rights to take photographs of their wedding to a co-claimant magazine (OK). Persons acting on behalf of the defendants took unauthorised photographs which the defendants published. The claimants had retained joint copyright over the photographs and reserved a right to control publication of any particular photographs. In return they made … Continue reading Douglas and others v Hello! Ltd and others (No 3): CA 18 May 2005
Eweida_ukECHR2013 The named claimant had been employed by British Airways. She was a committed Christian and wished to wear a small crucifix on a chain around her neck. This breached the then dress code and she was dismissed. Her appeals had failed. Other claimants had variously relied upon their Christian faith to justify refusal to … Continue reading Eweida And Others v The United Kingdom: ECHR 15 Jan 2013
The appellant was disabled, had legal qualifications, and worked with the respondent as a volunteer. She had sought assistance under the Disability Discrimination Act, now the 2012 Act, saying that she counted as a worker. The tribunal and CA had found no contractual relationship. She said that under the 2000 Directive (the Framework Directive ‘FD’) … Continue reading X v Mid Sussex Citizens Advice Bureau and Another: SC 12 Dec 2012
Police Retention of Suspects DNA and Fingerprints The claimants complained that their fingerprints and DNA records taken on arrest had been retained after discharge before trial, saying the retention of the samples infringed their right to private life. Held: The parts of DNA used for testing are not generally capable of revealing medical information about … Continue reading S, Regina (on Application of) v South Yorkshire Police; Regina v Chief Constable of Yorkshire Police ex parte Marper: HL 22 Jul 2004
The claimant was a post operative male to female trans-sexual. She claimed that her human rights were infringed when she was still treated as a man for National Insurance contributions purposes, where she continued to make payments after the age at which a woman would have ceased payments thus causing harassment. A second claimant again … Continue reading Goodwin v The United Kingdom: ECHR 11 Jul 2002
The appellants said that the 2004 Act infringed their rights under articles 8 11 and 14 and Art 1 of protocol 1. Held: Article 8 protected the right to private and family life. Its purpose was to protect individuals from unjustified intrusion by state agents into the private sphere within which they expected to be … Continue reading Countryside Alliance and others, Regina (on the Application of) v Attorney General and Another: HL 28 Nov 2007
The claimant police officer sought judicial review of a decision to continue his suspension. He had been investigated and cleared after a death in custody. He sought to join the Church of England Ministry and was offered a post. He was re-assured that the matter was closed, resigned and took up the new post with … Continue reading Birks, Regina (On the Application of) v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis: Admn 25 Sep 2014