The claimants, a Polish national and an Austrian national, appealed against decisions of the Court of Appeal upholding decisions that they were not entitled to certain benefits, namely income support and housing assistance respectively, pursuant to the provisions of United Kingdom domestic law. Held: The claimants’ appeals failed. When she applied, Ms Mirga was not … Continue reading Mirga v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, Samin v Westminster City Council: SC 27 Jan 2016
The company appealed against a finding that it was guilty of age discrimination in ending a consultany arrangement with the respondent who ws 73 years old. Longmore, Jackson, Underhill LJJ  EWCA Civ 439,  WLR(D) 197,  IRLR 562,  ICR 1010 Bailii, WLRD Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006, EU Council Directive 2000/78/EC England … Continue reading CLFIS (UK) Ltd v Reynolds: CA 30 Apr 2015
The appellant had failed in his claim for indirect age discrimination. Approaching retirement, he complained that new conditions allowing advancement to graduates only, discriminated against him since he could not complete a degree before retiring. Held: The appeal succeeded, but the case was remitted to investigate whether the discrimination could be properly justified: ‘Part of … Continue reading Homer v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police: SC 25 Apr 2012
Age UK challenged the implementation by the UK of the Directive insofar as it established a default retirement age (DRA) at 65. Held: The claim failed. The decision to adopt a DRA was not a disproportionate way of giving effect to the social aim of labour market confidence. The use of a designated retirement age … Continue reading Age UK, Regina (On the Application of) v Attorney General: Admn 25 Sep 2009
The claimant alleged discrimination. As a teaching assistant, she had been refused permission to wear a veil when assisting a male teacher. Held: Direct discrimination had not been shown. The respondent had shown that any comparator would have also been required to remove a veil since it obscured her face and mouth and was a … Continue reading Azmi v Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Council: EAT 30 Mar 2007
(Third Chamber) The trustees complained that the respondent had failed to implement the Directive, in that there remained, for example, rules allowing employers to have fixed retirement ages. Held: The complaint failed. The Directive allowed states to provide for certain differences in treatment provided that it could be shown to have an objective and reasonable … Continue reading Incorporated Trustees of The National Council For Ageing v Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform: ECJ 5 Mar 2009
hmlr_grantEAT10 EAT SEXUAL ORIENTATION DISCRIMINATION/TRANSEXUALISMHARASSMENT – ConductPRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – Appellate Jurisdiction /Reasons /Burns-BarkeAn Employment Tribunal accepted that 6 out of 12 complaints of discrimination, and 5 out of 12 of unlawful harassment, were made out. None of the acts complained of, save possibly one, was obviously and intrinsically discriminatory. Each finding relied on the … Continue reading HM Land Registry v Grant: EAT 15 Apr 2010
The appellant claimed that the requirement imposed on him to retire from his law firm partnership on attaining 65 was an unlawful discrimination on the grounds of age. Held: The matter was remitted to the Employment tribunal to see whether the fixing of the mandatory retirment age at 65 was a proportionate means of achieving … Continue reading Seldon v Clarkson Wright and Jakes: SC 25 Apr 2012
Age Concern challenged the implimentation of the European Directive as regards the prohibition of age discrimination. . .
This appeal concerns the directly effective right of police officers under EU law to have the principle of equal treatment applied to them. The question raised is whether the enforcement of that right by means of proceedings in the Employment . .
Europa Council Directive 2000/78/EC Article 6(1) Age discrimination – Compulsory retirement National legislation permitting employers to dismiss employees aged 65 and over if the reason of dismissal is retirement . .
Europa Council Directive 2000/78/EC Article 6 – General principle of Community law – Age discrimination – Compulsory retirement – Direct effect – Obligation to set aside conflicting national law. . .
ECJ Grand Chamber – Directive 1999/70/EC – Clauses 2, 5 and 8 of the Framework Agreement on fixed-term work – Directive 2000/78/EC – Article 6 – Equal treatment as regards employment and occupation – Age . .
Mrs Nolan had been employed at a US airbase. When it closed, and she was made redundant, she complained that the appellant had not consulted properly on the redundancies. The US denied that it had responsibility to consult, and now appealed.
EAT Unfair dismissal and Race Relations Act 1976
Unfair dismissal – Exclusions including worker/jurisdiction
Three cases were stayed pending the judgment of the House of Lords in Lawson v Serco  . .
The appellant was employed by the respondents working in Germany. Her daughter suffered chronic illness and she wished to care for her in England. She said that the refusal to allow her to return to work in the UK was discriminatory as associative discrimination. Held: The suggestion that a carer for a disable person was … Continue reading Hainsworth v Ministry of Defence: CA 13 May 2014
The two applicants were serving life sentences for murder. Each sought damages for the unlawful withdrawal of their rights to vote in elections, and the failure of the British parliament to take steps to comply with the judgment. Held: The appeals failed.Lord Mance summarised the reasons for his conclusions: ‘(A) Human Rights Act In respect … Continue reading Chester, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice: SC 16 Oct 2013
ECJ Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of age – Directive 2000/78/EC – Article 6(1) and (2) – Refusal to grant availability pay to civil servants who have reached the age of 65 and are entitled to a pension C-546/11,  EUECJ C-546/11,  1 CMLR 41,  WLR(D) … Continue reading Dansk Jurist-Og Okonomforbund v Indenrigs-Og Sundhedsministeriet: ECJ 26 Sep 2013
The claimant solicitor said that the compulsory retirement from his partnership on age grounds was discriminatory, and that the UK Regulations had not implemented the Directive fully. Held: The appeal failed. The purpose of the provision as to allow the progression of younger members of the practice. This aim was recognised by the legislation, and … Continue reading Seldon v Clarkson Wright and Jakes (A Partnership): CA 28 Jul 2010
The parties had a joint venture agreement which provided that any dispute was to be referred to an arbitrator from the Ismaili community. The claimant said that this method of appointment became void as a discriminatory provision under the 2003 Regulations. The High Court found the appointment to be outwith the provisions, but this was … Continue reading Jivraj v Hashwani: SC 27 Jul 2011
The claimant appealed against refusal of his employer’s pension scheme trustees to include as a recipient of any death benefit his male civil partner. Held: The appeal succeeded. The salary paid to Mr Walker throughout his working life was precisely the same as that which would have been paid to a heterosexual man. There was … Continue reading Walker v Innospec Ltd and Others: SC 12 Jul 2017
The appellants owned a guesthouse. They appealed from being found in breach of the Regulations. They had declined to honour a booking by the respondents of a room upon learning that they were a homosexual couple. The appellants had said that they were practising Christians and viewed the guest house as their home, and that … Continue reading Bull and Bull v Hall and Preddy: CA 10 Feb 2012
The appellant, a part time recorder challenged his exclusion from pension arrangements. Held: The appeal was allowed. No objective justification has been shown for departing from the basic principle of remunerating part-timers pro rata temporis. ‘The reality is that recorders are expected to observe the terms and conditions of their appointment, and that they may … Continue reading O’Brien v Ministry of Justice: SC 6 Feb 2013
Discriminatory Intent of Firm Founded Claim (Equal Treatment In Employment and Occupation – Prohibition of Discrimination – Judgment) Reference for a preliminary ruling – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Directive 2000/78/EC – Article 3(1)(a), Article 8(1) and Article 9(2) – Prohibition of discrimination based on sexual orientation – Conditions for access to employment … Continue reading NH v Associazione Avvocatura Per I Diritti LGBTI-Rete Lenford: ECJ 23 Apr 2020
The court considered whether a power of appeal to the existed.
Held: A power did exist under FETO, and the CANI having mistakenly excluded a power to appeal the Supreme Court could nevertheless hear it. Both appeals were allowed. . .
ECJ (Opinion) The claimant accepted voluntary redundancy, but then alleged disability discrimination and constructive dismissal. She claimed to have been subjected to unfair treatment because she had a disabled . .
The court was asked ‘Is it lawful for a Christian hotel keeper, who sincerely believes that sexual relations outside marriage are sinful, to refuse a double-bedded room to a same sex couple?’ The defendants (Mr and Mrs Bull) appealed against a . .
EAT DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION – Reasonable adjustments
The Claimant is employed as an academic at the Respondent university’s business school and suffers from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, a recognised . .
(Bristol County Court) The claimants, homosexual partners in a civil partnership, sought damages after being refused a stay at the bed and breakfast hotel operated by the defendants, who said that this was their home, and that they were committed . .
The court was asked as to the calculation of annual leave pay for crew members in civil aviation under the Regulations. The company argued that it was based on the fixed annual remuneration, and the pilots argued that it should include other . .
The court was asked whether parties to an arbitration agreement in a commercial contract can stipulate that the tribunal is to be drawn from members of a particular religious group, in this case the Ismaili community.
Held: The defendant’s . .
ECJ Social policy – Directive 2000/78/EC – Equal treatment in employment and occupation – Articles 1, 2(1), (2)(a) and (3) and 3(1)(c) – Direct discrimination on grounds of disability – Harassment related to . .
ECJ (Grand Chamber) Spain had legislated for compulsory retirement when it wanted to encourage recruitment; then abolished it when economic circumstances improved and it wanted to encourage people to stay in . .
The House considered claims that the 2002 Act, which set out to make unawful the hunting of wild mammals with dogs unlawful, infringed the claimants’ human rights, in that it contravened international treaties requiring the support for traditional . .
EAT PART TIME WORKERS
A police officer was found by the Tribunal to be significantly disadvantaged compared with his peers when carrying out examinations for promotion. Nonetheless, the Tribunal held that he . .
EAT The Employment Tribunal had erred in its construction of direct discrimination under s3A(5) of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 as amended when it failed to construct a correct hypothetical comparator . .
Three appeals raised issues about the way in which sex discrimination laws were to be applied for cases involving sexual orientation.
Held: The court should start by asking what gave rise to the act complained of. In this case it was the . .
The claimants sought a declaration that part of the Regulations were invalid, and an infringement of their human rights. The Regulations sought to exempt church schools from an obligation not to discriminate against homosexual teachers.
Held: . .