The laudable motives of the defendant in an infringement of copyright were no defence, but relieved him from liability for additional damages. Citations: Times 24-Sep-1997 Statutes: Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 97(2) Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited by: Appeal from – Pro Sieben Media AG v Carlton Television Ltd and Another CA 7-Jan-1999 The … Continue reading PRO Sieben Media Ag v Carlton UK Television Ltd and Another: ChD 24 Sep 1997
The defendant had admitted copying B’s drawings and designs for the creation of a nebulizer. To assist its election on damages, B sought preparation of details of the sales including costs and sale prices. When B also sought statutory damages, M said that having omitted it from the statement of claim, it was too late … Continue reading Brugger v Medic-Aid Ltd: PatC 1996
Additional infrimgement damages were not a fine. The Society had succeeded in its claim of copyright infringement. The defendant having continued his breaches, it sought additional damages and committal for contempt. Having granted the committal the trial judge declined to award additional damages, by way of an analogy with criminal fines. Held: The appeal succeeded … Continue reading Phonographic Performance Ltd v Ellis (T/A Bla Bla Bar): CA 18 Dec 2018
The plaintiff alleged that the defendant had copied its house designs after a senior employee involved in creating the designs left and eventually came to work for the defendant. The plaintiff alleged that the copying was flagrant allowing . .
Additional damages under section 97 of the 1988 Act, can only be awarded with compensatory damages, not with a claim for damages under section 96. . .
A plaintiff may claim damages under section 97(2) in addition to claiming an account of profits, as his primary remedy. A person claiming joint rights in the copyright as author must contribute to the ‘production’ of the work and create something . .
The claimant sought damages against the respondent for various infringements in sales of unlicensed products, and also additional damages. The defendant argued that Microsoft’s licensing arrangements acted anti-competively.
Held: ‘the . .
The claimant had in the past obtained an injunction to prevent the defendant broadcasting without their licence musical works belonging to their members at his nightclub. The defendant had obtained a licence, but had not renewed it. The claimants in . .
The defendants appealed a finding that they had infringed the claimant’s unregistered design rights in collapsible umbrellas. The defendants said the law protected only the design as a whole, and that only part had been copied. Held: Authority was clear that subject to considerations as to the non-protection of ‘must fit/must match elements’ of a … Continue reading A Fulton Company Limited v Totes Isotoner (UK) Limited: CA 4 Nov 2003
An authorisation to broadcast sound recording included right to make back up tapes, but not to keep that back up beyond 28 days. Broadcasters are bound by an obligation to destroy copies of material which had been used for broadcast within 28 days unless a licence given otherwise. Citations: Times 14-Jul-1997, Gazette 23-Jul-1997 Statutes: Copyright … Continue reading Phonographic Performance Ltd v AEI Rediffusion Music Ltd: ChD 14 Jul 1997
The use of an injunction to prevent the use of copyrighted recordings was not to be misused to obtain recovery for past unlicensed playing. Citations: Times 14-Jul-1997 Statutes: Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Cited by: Appeal from – Phonographic Performance Limited v Maitra and Others CA 3-Feb-1998 An injunction without … Continue reading Phonographic Performance Ltd v Maitra and Others: ChD 14 Jul 1997
The claimant asserted infringement of copyright by the defendants in photographs of the family of David Beckham. The defendant admitted using the photographs but asserted that no permission was required since the use was a fair dealing. Held: Most of the photographs were used to demonstrate a particular style, and the use was fair criticism … Continue reading Fraser-Woodward Ltd v British Broadcasting Corporation Brighter Pictures Ltd: ChD 23 Mar 2005
The claimant magazine publisher alleged breach of copyright by the defendant in their magazine, as to the cover page designs used. It was not clear just which cover was said to have been copied. Held: The first step in a copyright action is for the claimant to identify what work or works he relies on. … Continue reading IPC Media Ltd v Highbury-Leisure Publishing Ltd: ChD 21 Dec 2004
The claimant, during his career had written private diaries, including minutes of secret political meetings. As he stepped down from leadership, he began to arrange publication. Before this was complete, the defendant published extracts. He complained of breach of copyright. Held: The claim succeeded. The VC granted a final injunction against any further infringement and … Continue reading Ashdown v Telegraph Group Ltd: ChD 11 Jan 2001
There is a public interest defence to an allegation of copyright infringement. A newspaper republished video camera stills to demonstrate the untruth of assertions made publicly about the relationship if Princess Diana and Dodi Fayed. It was a current event. Citations: Gazette 19-May-1999 Statutes: Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 30(2) 97 Jurisdiction: England and … Continue reading Hyde Park Residence Ltd v News Group Newspapers Ltd et Al: ChD 19 May 1999
The claimant had asserted a joint authorship of the song ‘A Whiter Shade of Pale’ written in the sixties. The defendant appealed saying that the claim had been brought too late, and that the finding ignored practice in the music industry. The copyright in the song had already been assigned by the authors before the … Continue reading Brooker and Another v Fisher: CA 4 Apr 2008
The parties disputed on preliminary issues the ownership of the rights in the trade mark ‘World Cup Willie’. The claimant had set out to register the mark, and the defendant gave notice of its intention to oppose. The claimant now alleged threat and unlawful interference in contractual relations. The defendant alleged copyright infringement in the … Continue reading Jules Rimet Cup Ltd v The Football Association Ltd.: ChD 18 Oct 2007
The defendant appealed against a finding of copyright infringement in a computer game. Held: The appeal failed. The court must identify the artistic work relied upon and then decide whether it has been reproduced by copying of the work as a whole or of any substantial part of it. ”Graphic work’ is defined as including … Continue reading Nova Productions Ltd v Mazooma Games Ltd and others: CA 14 Mar 2007
The court undertook an enquiry as to damages: ‘(1) Damages were to be assessed liberally on the basis of such inferences as the evidence justified.(2) Damages were to be assessed by reference to two periods, November 1992 to February 1996 and March 1996 to March 1997. The difference between them is that in the latter … Continue reading Blayney (T/A Aardvark Jewelry) v Clogau St David’s Gold Mines Ltd and others: ChD 20 Jul 2001
The claimant music producer and songwriter had entered into a publishers agreement with the defendant, agreeing to work for it. He now sought to be free to work for another company. The factual background was unclear, and the contract documentation self contradictory as to its term. Held: The court had first to try to read … Continue reading Taylor v Rive Droite Music Ltd: ChD 6 Jul 2004
The freedom for a claimant in registered design right to frame his claim, as to whether he asserts an infringement of the entire design, or limits it to the section infringed, is important. Laddie J said: ‘This means that the proprietor can trim his design right claim to most closely match what he believes the … Continue reading Ocular Sciences Ltd v Aspect Vision Care Ltd: ChD 11 Nov 1996
The claimants claimed damages for the sale by the defendants in the UK of CD’s manufactured for sale only in the far East. The defendants challenged the right of a claimant phonographic society to have the right to sue on behalf of its members. Held: The right to issue representative actions varies with the nature … Continue reading Independiente Ltd and others v Music Trading On-Line (HK) Ltd and others: ChD 13 Mar 2003
The respondent company subscribed to a cuttings service, but redistributed the cuttings within its offices. The cuttings agency claimed that the re-distribution infringed their rights in the typographical arrangement. The cuttings did not give any indication of the view of the original layout, and the court held that the cuttings themselves were not such a … Continue reading Newspaper Licensing Agency Ltd v Marks and Spencer Plc: HL 12 Jul 2001
Design right is limited to shape excluding any surface decoration. There is no infringement of design right by copying only the surface decoration. ‘The design in which the plaintiff primarily claims design right is now pleaded as ‘the whole external shape and configuration of that part of the wall units which are used in its … Continue reading Mark Wilkinson Furniture Ltd v Woodcraft Designs (Radcliffe) Ltd: ChD 13 Oct 1997
The claimant was a member of Parliament and an author. The defendant published a column which was said to give the impression that the claimant had written it. It was a parody. The claim was in passing off. Held: The first issue was whether a substantial number of readers had been misled. The deception must … Continue reading Alan Kenneth McKenzie Clark v Associated Newspapers Ltd: PatC 21 Jan 1998
The defendant was accused of infringing copyright in a TV programme relating to the pregnancy of a woman with eight foetuses. The defendant claimed fair dealing, but that defence was rejected by the trial judge. Held: The decision was reversed. The test of use for ‘criticism or review’ is objective, and satisfied here with full … Continue reading Pro Sieben Media AG v Carlton Television Ltd and Another: CA 7 Jan 1999
The appellants resisted disclosure to the revenue of advice it had received. It claimed legal advice privilege (LAP), though the advice was from its accountants. Held: (Lords Sumption and Clarke dissenting) LAP applies to all communications passing between a client and its lawyers, acting in their professional capacity, in connection with the provision of legal … Continue reading Prudential Plc and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Special Commissioner of Income Tax and Another: SC 23 Jan 2013
The musician had in the 1940s assigned his copyright to the respondent. At that time a reversion in copyright could only be assigned by will. In 1973, after the 1956 Act he assigned the reversion to the respondent also. The appellant now contended that the transitional provisions of the 1956 Act mean that the second … Continue reading Novello and Co Ltd v Keith prowse Music Publishing Co Ltd: CA 14 Dec 2004
The criminal code provisions of the Copyright Designs and Patents Act was not limited in use to plainly criminal conduct, against ‘pirates’. Citations: Independent 23-Aug-1994, Times 10-Aug-1994 Statutes: Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 107(1) 110(1) Jurisdiction: England and Wales Intellectual Property Updated: 28 April 2022; Ref: scu.89786
The defendant companies provided media monitoring services, automatically searching web-sites for terms of interest. The claimant newspapers operated a licensing system through the first claimant permitting the re-use of the content on its members web-sites. The defendant denied that it required such a licence, saying that the arrangement required, in effect, double licensing. Judges: Sir … Continue reading The Newspaper Licensing Agency Ltd and Others v Meltwater Holding Bv and Others: CA 27 Jul 2011
Copyright Claim: Was it Copied, and How Much? The claimant sought to enforce its copyright in artwork for a fabric design Ixia, saying the defendant’s design Marguerite infringed that copyright. Two issues faced the House. Just what had been copied and if any, then did this amount amount to the whole or a substantial part … Continue reading Designers Guild Ltd v Russell Williams (Textiles) Ltd (Trading As Washington DC): HL 28 Nov 2000
Judges: Bean LJ, McGowan DBE J Citations:  EWHC 2151 (Admin) Links: Bailii Statutes: Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 297 Jurisdiction: England and Wales Intellectual Property Updated: 29 March 2022; Ref: scu.593601
A logo had been created for the claimants, by an independent sub-contractor. They sought assignment of their legal title, but, knowing of the claimant’s interest the copyright was assigned to a third party out of the jurisdiction. The claimant sought an order for its transfer, and an order was so made. Before it was perfected … Continue reading R Griggs Group Ltd and others v Evans and others (No 2): ChD 12 May 2004
The claimant said that the defendant had, through its members visiting their premises, breached the licence under which they entered, by taking photographs and distributing them on the internet, and in so doing also infringing the performance rights of the claimant. Held: On breach of confidence, the parties had an arguable cases on each side, … Continue reading Heythrop Zoological Gardens Ltd (T/A Amazing Animals) and Another v Captive Animals Protection Society: ChD 20 May 2016
MPS had contracted to bring private prosecutions for unlawful reception and display of premier league football matches. It now appealed from a dismissal of the information. Held: The appeal failed. The director laying the information in the name of a private limited company, when acting for reward on behalf of a client in the course … Continue reading Media Protection Services Ltd v Crawford and Another: Admn 16 Aug 2012
The Claimants had had their appeals against conviction for breaches of the 1988 Act set aside, but now appealed against refusal of their costs of defending the action. Sir Brian Leveson, P, Hallett, Burnett LJJ  EWCA Civ 1220 Bailii Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 297 England and Wales Costs, Intellectual Property Updated: 26 … Continue reading Darroch and Another v Football Association Premier League Ltd: CA 2 Dec 2016
An agreement was made for the assignment of the copyright in a music track, but it remained ‘subject to contract’. The assignor later sought to resile from the assignment. Held: It is standard practice in the music licensing business for a licensee and a licensor to enter into a deal memo followed by a long … Continue reading Confetti Records (A Firm), Fundamental Records, Andrew Alcee v Warner Music UK Ltd (Trading As East West Records): ChD 23 May 2003
Claim for damages for breach of contract and database rights, delivery up of confidential information and injunctive relief against Mr Solanki, a former employee of the Claimants. Held: The court having refused a request for adjournment applied for on medical grounds, proceeded in the defendant’s absence and found in favour of the claimant and awarded … Continue reading Intercity Telecom Ltd and Another v Solanki: Merc 27 Feb 2015
Reasons for the grant of a website blocking order under section 97A Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988  EWHC 2799 (Ch) Bailii England and Wales Intellectual Property Updated: 05 December 2021; Ref: scu.668756
The Federation appealed against a decision rejecting its complaint against the defendant of having committed offences under the 1988 Act. He ran a social club, and was accused of showing material taken via a contract with Virgin for private showing, and showing it publicly. The magistrates found that some payment having been made, no conviction … Continue reading Federation Against Copyright Theft Ltd v Ashton: Admn 7 Jun 2013
The claimant newspapers complained of the spidering of the web-sites and redistribution of the materials collected by the defendants to its subscribers. The defendants including the Public Relations Consultants Association (PRCA) denied that they needed a licence for the purpose. Held: The members of PRCA required licences from the claimants in order lawfully to receive … Continue reading The Newspaper Licensing Agency Ltd and Others v Meltwater Holding Bv and Others: ChD 26 Nov 2010
The claimant had edited ancient music scores so as to be ready for performance for the defendant. He asserted a copyright. The defendants argued that the contribution was too little to create a copyright. Held: To succeed Dr Sawkins had to establish that each of his editions is an original musical work. The argument that … Continue reading Sawkins v Hyperion Records Limited: ChD 5 Jul 2004
Composers had entered an agreement with the respondent, assigning all copyrights in their works to the respondent. The respondent asserted also an equitable assignment of all future works. The appellant asserted that the rights in the particular work had not been assigned, having being written for them. Held: The appeal failed. The relative clause in … Continue reading B4U Network (Europe) Ltd v Performing Right Society Ltd: CA 16 Oct 2013
The claimant alleged infringement by the defendant of assorted intellectual property rights in its database. It provided systems for recovering materials deleted from Nokia mobile phones. Held: ‘the present case is concerned with a collection of numerical data . . the individual items of data are not protected by copyright. It follows that the collection … Continue reading Forensic Telecommunications Services Ltd v West Yorkshire Police and Another: ChD 9 Nov 2011
The claimants had made several Star Wars films for which the defendants had designed various props items. The parties disputed ownership of the rights in the designs, and in articular of a stormtrooper helmet. The issues came down to whether the defendant had rights to reproduce images under sections 51 and 52. The claimants appealed … Continue reading Lucasfilm Ltd and Others v Ainsworth and Another: CA 16 Dec 2009
The claimant had produced the Star War films which made use of props, in particular a ‘Stormtrooper’ helmet designed by the defendant. The defendant had then himself distributed models of the designs he had created. The appellant obtained judgment against the respondent in the US for punitive damages, but these had not been collected, and … Continue reading Lucasfilm Ltd and Others v Ainsworth and Another: SC 27 Jul 2011
The claimant had developed historical musical works for performance. They were published by the defendant, by means of recordings of a performance from the scores he had prepared – so called ‘performance editions’. The many hundreds of hours expended, involved transcription of the scores into modern notation and interpretation of the composers shorthand. The publisher … Continue reading Hyperion Records Ltd v Sawkins: CA 19 May 2005
The claimant sought return of items removed by the defendants under the 1984 Act. A decision had been made against a prosecution by the police. The police wished to hold onto the items to allow a decision from the second defendant. Held: The defendant’s appeal succeeded. The offence allowed an officer to seize material found … Continue reading Scopelight Ltd and Others v Chief of Police for Northumbria: CA 5 Nov 2009
The defendant operated a web-site providing a search facility of the Usenet news system which allowed its users to locate copies of films online for downloading. The claimant said this was an infringement of its copyrights. Held: The defendant had infringed the copyright of the claimants. Though its terms denied that its editors should promote … Continue reading Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation and Another v Newzbin Ltd: ChD 29 Mar 2010
How much new material for new copyright (Hong Kong) Toy building bricks were manufactured by Lego in accordance with engineering drawings made for that purpose. One issue was whether new drawings made since 1972, altering the original drawings in various minor respects but added new information addressed to the purchaser in the form of written … Continue reading Interlego AG v Tyco Industries Inc: PC 5 May 1988
The parties disputed the publication of materials relating to the exact placement of mobile phone masts. The operators wanted the information excepted from disclosure for fear of criminal acts and also said that disclosure would breach their database rights. Held: The Regulations sought merely to transpose the Directive into UK law, and it must be … Continue reading Office of Communications v The Information Commissioner: SC 27 Jan 2010
The court considered what rights existed in the annual football fixture lists created by the claimants. The claimants said that the list was created only with a considerable effort applying certain rules. The defendants denied that any copyright existed. Held: The process involved considerable effort and was not deterministic. The Directive seeks to harmonise copyright … Continue reading Football Dataco Ltd and Others v Brittens Pools Ltd (In Action 3222) and Others: ChD 23 Apr 2010
Defence had no prospect of success – Struck Out The claimant complained that the defendant newspaper had published contents from a letter she had sent to her father. The court now considered her claims in breach of privacy and copyright, and her request for summary judgment. Held: Warby J said: ‘There are two main questions … Continue reading HRH The Duchess of Sussex v Associated Newspapers Ltd: ChD 11 Feb 2021
Contractor and Client Copyrights The plaintiff had contributed a design for a system of classifying and selecting tracks to be played on a radio station. He did so under a consultancy contract. Held: A Joint authorship claim required that the contributor had made some direct contribution to the words appearing in the eventual published item. … Continue reading Robin Ray v Classic FM Plc: PatC 18 Mar 1998
The claimant sought a share in the royalties from the song ‘A whiter shade of pale’ but had delayed his claim for 38 years. He had contributed the organ solo which had contributed significantly to the song’s success. He now sought a share of future royalties. Held: His appeal was allowed. Limitation did not apply, … Continue reading Fisher v Brooker and Others: HL 30 Jul 2009
The claimant represented the interests of copyright holders, and complained that the defendant had failed to implement the Directive properly, leaving them unable properly to collect royalties in the music rental market. The respondent argued that . .
The claimant’s product was made from drawings. The drawings were protected as copyright artistic works. They were reproduced in a three dimensional form by the claimant’s own products. Someone who copied the claimant’s products indirectly copied the . .
The owners of copyright in drawings of ‘Popeye, the Sailor’ sued importers of ‘Popeye’ dolls and other toys. The defendants contended that the copyright in the original work had been lost by the operation of section 22 of the 1911 Act because the . .
A wall plaque was published before 1950. Its design was an original artistic work but was produced for the purpose of reproduction by an industrial process. It was not registered as an industrial design under the applicable designs legislation . .
Novelty was claimed in shape or configuration of the brassiere the subject of the registration. Held; Under the law of registered designs, the designer had to state in what respect he claimed novelty – was it shape, configuration pattern or . .
The design in question consisted of a drawing or picture of a nipple, such as was used for the purpose of lubricating the bearings of automobiles. It was submitted for the plaintiff that if a design had utility, it might still be registered under . .
The order at first instance was discharged ‘without prejudice to any question so that it cannot be used as a precedent’ . .
A drawing of a letter could be both the subject matter of copyright and protected under the Patents and Designs Act 1907. . .
The claimant rights holders sought an order to require the defendant broadband internet provider to deny access to its users to websites which were said to facilitate the distribution of infringing copies of their films. An earlier judgment had . .
One plaintiff was the exclusive licensee of a registered design. The defendant sold articles alleged to infringe the design right. The registered owner had a statutory right to sue for infringement. But the question was whether the licensee could . .
A pursuer in an action for breach of copyright must take either an account of profits or additional damages but not both. . .
The claimant record companies sought injunctions to prevent the defendant broadband suppliers allowing access to a website which provided facilties to those wishing to swap materials which infringed the claimants’ copyrights in music.
Held: . .
The claimants, music copyright holders, sought an injunction against the defendant Internet Service Providers to require them to restrain access to a file-sharing website (TPB).
Held: The website was infringing the copyright of the claimants. . .
The prosecutor appealed dismissal of a charge of receiving a broadcast television programme with intent to avoid payment. The defendant ran a public house. She acquired a card which allowed her to receive transmissions from a Greek satellite . .
The claimant settled upon a combination of colours to identify its goods. It then began an action against the defendants claiming unregistered design right and artistic copyright in the combination of colours.
Held: The mere combination of . .
An injunction without time limit should normally be granted immediately where there was clear infringement and a threat of continued infringement. Copyrights can sometimes typically be identified only by reference to the trade marks under which the . .
The court was asked whether a copyright owner has a proprietary claim to money derived from infringement of the copyright.
Held: He did not. No such argument could be shown to have suceeded before. . .
The copyright tribunal was given a wide discretion for the awarding of costs on applications made to it for licenses. The nature of the applications and the different basis makes it dangerous to import rules for awards from the general rules on . .
There is a public interest defence to an allegation of copyright infringement. A newspaper republished video camera stills to demonstrate the untruth of assertions made publicly about the relationship if Princess Diana and Dodi Fayed.
Held: It . .
The parties disputed whether joint authorship of the screenplay for a film, ‘Florence Foster Jenkins’. The claimant now sought a declaration of sole authorship of film screenplay, and the defendant cross-claimed for a declaration of joint . .
The claimant was the director of a play. The defendant had written the entirety of the play first presented at rehearsals, although during rehearsals the claimant suggested changes. The parties disputed the copyright and other rights in a stage . .
A pop group had posed at a specially devised scene, consisting of a white Rolls Royce in the swimming pool of a hotel and incorporating various other props. The object of the exercise was to take a photograph to be used as a record cover. The . .
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