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Cable and Wireless plc v British Telecommunications plc: ChD 1998

The court set out the applicable legal principles in trade mark infringement. The court considered the elements necessary to establish a defence under s10(6): The primary objective of section 10(6) of the 1996 Act is to permit comparative advertising . . As long as the use of a competitor’s mark is honest, there is nothing … Continue reading Cable and Wireless plc v British Telecommunications plc: ChD 1998

Regina v Director General of Telecommunications, Ex P Cellcom Ltd and others: QBD 7 Dec 1998

The Director General of Telecommunications can quite properly use his powers and discretion to ensure competition in telecommunications by the granting and withholding of licences. He may take account of economic factors in making such a decision. Section 3 draws a distinction between ‘means’ (namely how the demand is to be met) and ‘ends’ (the … Continue reading Regina v Director General of Telecommunications, Ex P Cellcom Ltd and others: QBD 7 Dec 1998

Regina on the Application of T-Mobile (Uk) Ltd, Vodafone Ltd, Orange Personal Communication Services Ltd v The Competition Commission, the Director-General of Telecommunications: Admn 27 Jun 2003

The applicants sought to challenge a proposed scheme regulating the prices of telephone calls. Held: The principle objection was to termination charges, charges on calls between networks. The present charges were greater than the actual cost, and had the effect of transferring to users of fixed network telephones costs which were properly attributable to mobile … Continue reading Regina on the Application of T-Mobile (Uk) Ltd, Vodafone Ltd, Orange Personal Communication Services Ltd v The Competition Commission, the Director-General of Telecommunications: Admn 27 Jun 2003

Acts

1267 – 1278 – 1285 – 1297 – 1361 – 1449 – 1491 – 1533 – 1677 – 1688 – 1689 – 1700 – 1706 – 1710 – 1730 – 1737 – 1738 – 1751 – 1774 – 1792 – 1793 – 1804 – 1814 – 1819 – 1824 – 1828 – 1831 – 1832 … Continue reading Acts

Sainsbury’s Supermarkets Ltd v Mastercard Incorporated and Others: CA 4 Jul 2018

‘The central question in these three appeals is whether the setting of default multilateral interchange fees (‘MIFs’) within the MasterCard and Visa payment card systems contravenes article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union 2012/C326/01 (the ‘TFEU’).[1] Article 101(1) provides that agreements between undertakings which may affect trade between Member States … Continue reading Sainsbury’s Supermarkets Ltd v Mastercard Incorporated and Others: CA 4 Jul 2018

Synstar Computer Service (UK) Ltd v ICL (Sorbus) Ltd and Another: ChD 1 May 2001

The complainant alleged that the ties between the separate defendants’ businesses were anti-competitive. Held: That issue was best decided by the Competition Commission Appeal Tribunal. The issues might also give rise to litigation of the instant nature. It was inappropriate for the same issues to be litigated in parallel, and accordingly the present proceedings should … Continue reading Synstar Computer Service (UK) Ltd v ICL (Sorbus) Ltd and Another: ChD 1 May 2001

Regina v Department of Education and Employment ex parte Begbie: CA 20 Aug 1999

A statement made by a politician as to his intentions on a particular matter if elected could not create a legitimate expectation as regards the delivery of the promise after elected, even where the promise would directly affect individuals, and the costs of a child’s education. Any consequences of a failure to keep a promise … Continue reading Regina v Department of Education and Employment ex parte Begbie: CA 20 Aug 1999

Regina v Inland Revenue Commission ex parte Preston; In re Preston: HL 1984

Duty of Fairness to taxpayer – Written Assurance The applicant was assured by the Inland Revenue that it would not raise further inquiries on certain tax affairs if he agreed to forgo interest relief which he had claimed and to pay a certain sum in capital gains tax. Held: Where the lawfulness of the section … Continue reading Regina v Inland Revenue Commission ex parte Preston; In re Preston: HL 1984

Regina v North and East Devon Health Authority ex parte Coughlan and Secretary of State for Health Intervenor and Royal College of Nursing Intervenor: CA 16 Jul 1999

Consultation to be Early and Real Listening The claimant was severely disabled as a result of a road traffic accident. She and others were placed in an NHS home for long term disabled people and assured that this would be their home for life. Then the health authority decided that they were in need of … Continue reading Regina v North and East Devon Health Authority ex parte Coughlan and Secretary of State for Health Intervenor and Royal College of Nursing Intervenor: CA 16 Jul 1999

Bank Mellat v Her Majesty’s Treasury (No 2): SC 19 Jun 2013

The bank challenged measures taken by HM Treasury to restrict access to the United Kingdom’s financial markets by a major Iranian commercial bank, Bank Mellat, on the account of its alleged connection with Iran’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programmes. The bank sought to have the direction given under section 7 of the 2008 Act. … Continue reading Bank Mellat v Her Majesty’s Treasury (No 2): SC 19 Jun 2013

Getmapping plc v Ordnance Survey: ChD 31 May 2002

The claimant sought an injunction to prevent the defendant using its overwhelming resources to enter into and take over the provision of computer based mapping services in the UK. Held: The proper issue was not the use or origin of the resources to be used by a dominant member of the market, save only when … Continue reading Getmapping plc v Ordnance Survey: ChD 31 May 2002

Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for the Civil Service: HL 22 Nov 1984

Exercise of Prerogative Power is Reviewable The House considered an executive decision made pursuant to powers conferred by a prerogative order. The Minister had ordered employees at GCHQ not to be members of trades unions. Held: The exercise of a prerogative power of a public nature may be, subject to constraints of national security and … Continue reading Council of Civil Service Unions v Minister for the Civil Service: HL 22 Nov 1984

Office of Communications and Another v Floe Telecom Ltd: CA 10 Feb 2009

The court was asked to accept an appeal against not the order made by the tribunal, but the terms of the reasoned judgment. Held: The appeal was allowed. The Tribunal had made findings which were unnecessary to its judgment, and which were capable of being damaging to the public interest. Even though the Regulator had … Continue reading Office of Communications and Another v Floe Telecom Ltd: CA 10 Feb 2009

BHB Enterprises Plc v Victor Chandler (International) Ltd: ChD 27 May 2005

The claimant created a very substantial computerised database about horses and the racing industry. It licensed the database to users, including some who were able to grant sub-licenses. It sought to rely on the Database Directive to support its rights to prevent unauthorised extractions or utilisations of the database. Allegations were made that it had … Continue reading BHB Enterprises Plc v Victor Chandler (International) Ltd: ChD 27 May 2005

Humber Oil Terminals Trustee Ltd v Associated British Ports: ChD 24 Feb 2011

The claimant sought to renew its leases of docking facilities from the landlord defendant. The defendant resisted saying it intended to operate its own business, and the claimant now alleged that the defendant was abusing its dominant position to demand excessive rents. The defendant sought to strike out that part of the claim. Held: The … Continue reading Humber Oil Terminals Trustee Ltd v Associated British Ports: ChD 24 Feb 2011

O’Brien and others v Independent Assessor: HL 14 Mar 2007

The claimants had been wrongly imprisoned for a murder they did not commit. The assessor had deducted from their compensation a sum to represent the living costs they would have incurred if living freely. They also appealed differences from a prisoner also wrongly accused of the same crime, in the percentage deduction made for their … Continue reading O’Brien and others v Independent Assessor: HL 14 Mar 2007

Padfield v Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food: HL 14 Feb 1968

Exercise of Ministerial Discretion The Minister had power to direct an investigation in respect of any complaint as to the operation of any marketing scheme for agricultural produce. Milk producers complained about the price paid by the milk marketing board for their milk when compared with prices paid to producers in other regions. The Minister … Continue reading Padfield v Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food: HL 14 Feb 1968

Deutsche Bahn Ag and Others v Morgan Advanced Materials Plc: SC 9 Apr 2014

The Court was asked whether claims against MAM for losses suffered by reason of a cartel infringing article 81(1) TEC (now article 101 TFEU) were time-barred, and also as to substantive questions about the nature of the decisions of the European Commission (or European Court of Justice) which bind domestic courts as to the existence … Continue reading Deutsche Bahn Ag and Others v Morgan Advanced Materials Plc: SC 9 Apr 2014

Vehicle Inspectorate v Bruce Cook Road Planing Ltd and Another: HL 8 Jul 1999

The transport of motorway maintenance vehicles and plant to and from sites on the back of a low loader is not sufficiently closely connected with the use of such machines on the motorways, to attract exemption as for such use from the general regulation of transport, including in particular, the need for the use of … Continue reading Vehicle Inspectorate v Bruce Cook Road Planing Ltd and Another: HL 8 Jul 1999

G D Searle and Co Ltd v Celltech Ltd: CA 1982

The court was asked as to an employee’s covenant now said to be in restraint of trade. Held: In disputes between employers and ex-employees courts will usually seek to protect the rights of employees to advance their chosen trade and profession, to promote their own private interests by changing their employment and also to promote … Continue reading G D Searle and Co Ltd v Celltech Ltd: CA 1982

Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation: CA 10 Nov 1947

Administrative Discretion to be Used Reasonably The applicant challenged the manner of decision making as to the conditions which had been attached to its licence to open the cinema on Sundays. It had not been allowed to admit children under 15 years of age. The statute provided no appeal procedure, and the applicant sought a … Continue reading Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation: CA 10 Nov 1947

Littlewoods Organisations Ltd v Harris: CA 1977

When construing restrictive covenants in an employment contract, the court should construe the contract in the light of the object and intent of the contract as a whole. It may be read down and need not be read literally. Lord Denning said that it is just because there may be serious difficulties in identifying precisely … Continue reading Littlewoods Organisations Ltd v Harris: CA 1977

Courage Ltd and Crehan v Crehan and Courage Ltd and Others: ECJ 20 Sep 2001

The company had leased a public house to the respondent. The lease was subject to a tie, under which the respondent had to purchase supplies from the company. The company came to sue for the price of beer supplied. The respondent asserted that the tie agreement was unlawful, because the company sold beer to non-tied … Continue reading Courage Ltd and Crehan v Crehan and Courage Ltd and Others: ECJ 20 Sep 2001

Imperial Tobacco Ltd v Attorney-General: HL 1980

The applicant sought a declaration as to the lawfulness of a lottery scheme whilst criminal proceedings were pending against it for the same scheme. Held: It was not necessary to decide whether a declaration as to the criminality or otherwise of future conduct can ever properly be made by a civil court. It would be … Continue reading Imperial Tobacco Ltd v Attorney-General: HL 1980

Gardner and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Social Care and Others: Admn 27 Apr 2022

Patient transfer policy was unlawful The claimants had relatives who died in care homes early in the COVID-19 pandemic. They said that the policy of moving patients from hospitals to care homes without testing had contributed to the deaths, and many others, and had been unlawful. The respondents said that at the time it was … Continue reading Gardner and Another, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Health and Social Care and Others: Admn 27 Apr 2022

Brake Brothers Limited v Ungless: QBD 2004

The court considered the law relating to post employment restrictive covenants. Gloster J said: ‘(1) Covenants in Restraint of Trade are prima-facie unlawful and accordingly are ‘to be treated with suspicion’ see per Laddie J in Countrywide Assured Financial Services Limited v Smart ChD 7 May 2004. It is for the covenantee to identify a … Continue reading Brake Brothers Limited v Ungless: QBD 2004

Devenish Nutrition Ltd and others v Sanofi-Aventis SA (France) and others: ChD 19 Oct 2007

The claimant sought damages for the losses it had suffered as a result of price fixing by the defendant companies in the vitamin market. The European Commission had already fined the defendant for its involvement. Held: In an action for breach of statutory duty the court can in appropriate circumstances make a restitutionary award, that … Continue reading Devenish Nutrition Ltd and others v Sanofi-Aventis SA (France) and others: ChD 19 Oct 2007

Donoghue (or M’Alister) v Stevenson: HL 26 May 1932

Decomposed Snail in Ginger Beer Bottle – Liability The appellant drank from a bottle of ginger beer manufactured by the defendant. She suffered injury when she found a half decomposed snail in the liquid. The glass was opaque and the snail could not be seen. The drink had been bought for her by a friend, … Continue reading Donoghue (or M’Alister) v Stevenson: HL 26 May 1932

Crehan v Inntrepreneur Pub Company (CPC): CA 21 May 2004

The claimant had taken two leases, but had been made subject to beer ties with the defendant. He claimed damages for the losses, saying he had been forced to pay higher prices than those allowed to non-tied houses, and that the agreement was anti-competitive, and that the individual exemption from the EC Treaty obligations which … Continue reading Crehan v Inntrepreneur Pub Company (CPC): CA 21 May 2004

Henderson v Merrett Syndicates Ltd: HL 25 Jul 1994

Lloyds Agents Owe Care Duty to Member; no Contract Managing agents conducted the financial affairs of the Lloyds Names belonging to the syndicates under their charge. It was alleged that they managed these affairs with a lack of due careleading to enormous losses. Held: The assumption of responsibility principle enunciated in Hedley is not confined … Continue reading Henderson v Merrett Syndicates Ltd: HL 25 Jul 1994

Telereal Trillium v Hewitt (Valuation Officer): SC 15 May 2019

The court considered correct approach to determination of the rateable value of an office building, in circumstances where the evidence showed at the relevant time a general demand in the area for comparable office buildings, but no actual tenant willing to pay a positive price for the building itself. Held: (Briggs, Black LL dissenting) The … Continue reading Telereal Trillium v Hewitt (Valuation Officer): SC 15 May 2019

R (on The Application of Zat and Others) v Secretary of State for The Home Department (Article 8 Echr – Dublin Regulation – Interface – Proportionality) (IJR): UTIAC 22 Jan 2016

(i) EU Regulation number 604/2013 (the ‘Dublin Regulation’) and the Human Rights Act 1998, while separate regimes, are not in competition with each other. (ii) Where the two regimes pull in different directions, full cohesion, or harmonisation, may not be achievable and some accommodation must be found. (iii) Where an interference with a person’s rights … Continue reading R (on The Application of Zat and Others) v Secretary of State for The Home Department (Article 8 Echr – Dublin Regulation – Interface – Proportionality) (IJR): UTIAC 22 Jan 2016

Regina v Secretary of State for The Home Department Ex Parte Simms: HL 8 Jul 1999

Ban on Prisoners talking to Journalists unlawful The two prisoners, serving life sentences for murder, had had their appeals rejected. They continued to protest innocence, and sought to bring their campaigns to public attention through the press, having oral interviews with journalists without undertakings from the journalists not to publish any element of the interview. … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for The Home Department Ex Parte Simms: HL 8 Jul 1999