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Garland v British Rail Engineering Ltd (No 2): HL 22 Apr 1982

Under English law and under Community law, the national court should construe a regulation adopted to give effect to a Directive as intended to carry out the obligations of the Directive and as not being inconsistent with it if it is reasonably capable of bearing such a meaning. Lord Diplock said that: ‘it is a … Continue reading Garland v British Rail Engineering Ltd (No 2): HL 22 Apr 1982

Knoeckel, Schmidt and Cie, Papierfabriken Ag v Hauptzollamt Landau/Pfalz.: ECJ 14 Feb 1989

Agriculture – Common organization of the markets – Cereals – Rice – Production refunds for the use of starch – Conditions for granting such refunds – Use of products derived solely from specified raw materials – Starch obtained partly from other products – Disallowed – Whether legal Article 6 of Council Regulation No 1009/86 establishing … Continue reading Knoeckel, Schmidt and Cie, Papierfabriken Ag v Hauptzollamt Landau/Pfalz.: ECJ 14 Feb 1989

Cumbernauld and Kilsyth District Council v Dollar Land (Cumbernauld) Ltd: HL 22 Jul 1993

A walkway had existed from the town centre to residential areas. When the land was acquired the defendant new owners sought to close the walkway. The authority asserted that a public right of way had been acquired. Held: There was no need to demonstrate any conflict of interest between the proprietor and users to establish … Continue reading Cumbernauld and Kilsyth District Council v Dollar Land (Cumbernauld) Ltd: HL 22 Jul 1993

Percy v Church of Scotland Board of National Mission: HL 15 Dec 2005

The claimant appealed after her claim for sex discrimination had failed. She had been dismissed from her position an associate minister of the church. The court had found that it had no jurisdiction, saying that her appointment was not an employment. However the jurisdiction in sex discrimination cases was wider, extending to those who ‘contract … Continue reading Percy v Church of Scotland Board of National Mission: HL 15 Dec 2005

Kahn and Another v Commissioners of Inland Revenue; In re Toshoku Finance plc: HL 20 Feb 2002

A company went into liquidation, being owed substantial sums by another company in the same group, but itself insolvent. A settlement did not include accrued interest, but was claimed to be taxed as if it had, and on an accruals basis. If so, was this an expense properly arising in the insolvency, and payable as … Continue reading Kahn and Another v Commissioners of Inland Revenue; In re Toshoku Finance plc: HL 20 Feb 2002

American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd: HL 5 Feb 1975

Interim Injunctions in Patents Cases The plaintiffs brought proceedings for infringement of their patent. The proceedings were defended. The plaintiffs obtained an interim injunction to prevent the defendants infringing their patent, but they now appealed its discharge by the Court of Appeal. Held: The questions which applied when looking for an interim injunction in patent … Continue reading American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd: HL 5 Feb 1975

Regina v Secretary of State for Transport, ex parte Factortame (No 2): HL 11 Oct 1990

The validity of certain United Kingdom legislation was challenged on the basis that it contravened provisions of the EEC Treaty by depriving the applicants of their Community rights to fish in European waters, and an interlocutory injunction was sought against the Secretary of State to restrain enforcement of that law pending a reference. The House … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for Transport, ex parte Factortame (No 2): HL 11 Oct 1990

Preston and Others v Wolverhampton Healthcare NHS Trust and Others, Fletcher and Others v Midland Bank Plc (No 2): HL 8 Feb 2001

Part-time workers claimed that they had been unlawfully excluded from occupational pension schemes because membership was dependent on an employee working a minimum number of hours per week and that that was discriminatory because a considerably . .

Cyprus v Turkey: 1 May 1975

(Commission) Turkey argued that she had not extended her jurisdiction to the island of Cyprus because she had neither annexed a part of the island nor established a military or civil government there. She maintained that the administration of the . .

Acts

1267 – 1278 – 1285 – 1297 – 1361 – 1449 – 1491 – 1533 – 1677 – 1688 – 1689 – 1700 – 1706 – 1710 – 1730 – 1737 – 1738 – 1751 – 1774 – 1792 – 1793 – 1804 – 1814 – 1819 – 1824 – 1828 – 1831 – 1832 … Continue reading Acts

In re Nortel Companies and Others: SC 24 Jul 2013

The court was asked as to the interrelationship of the statutory schemes relating to the protection of employees’ pensions and to corporate insolvency. Held: Liabilities which arose from financial support directions or contribution notices issued by the Pensions Regulator under the 2004 Act after the company had gone into administration, which required the company to … Continue reading In re Nortel Companies and Others: SC 24 Jul 2013

Pimlico Plumbers Ltd and Another v Smith: SC 13 Jun 2018

The parties disputed whether Mr Smith had been an employee of or worker with the company so as to bring associated rights into play. The contract required the worker to provide an alternate worker to cover if necessary. Held: The company’s appeal failed. Mr Smith was a worker: ‘there were features of the contract which … Continue reading Pimlico Plumbers Ltd and Another v Smith: SC 13 Jun 2018

Clyde and Co LLP and Another v van Winkelhof: SC 21 May 2014

Solicitor Firm Member was a Protected Worker The solicitor appellant had been a member of the firm, a limited liability partnership. She disclosed criminal misbehaviour by a partner in a branch in Africa. On dismissal she sought protection as a whistleblower. This was rejected, it being found that a member of such a firm was … Continue reading Clyde and Co LLP and Another v van Winkelhof: SC 21 May 2014

In Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation): CA 22 Sep 2000

Twins were conjoined (Siamese). Medically, both could not survive, and one was dependent upon the vital organs of the other. Doctors applied for permission to separate the twins which would be followed by the inevitable death of one of them. The parents, devout Roman Catholics, resisted. Held: The parents’ views were subject to the overriding … Continue reading In Re A (Minors) (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment); aka In re A (Children) (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation): CA 22 Sep 2000

Regina v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry ex parte Unison: 1996

The 1978 Directive required consultation in the case of collective redundancies. Acts had incorrectly incorporated this requirement into English law. The error was corrected in the 1995 Regulations. Held: Anything is ‘related to’ a Community obligation so long as it is not distinct, separate or divorced from it. The 1995 Regulations were valid.Otton LJ said: … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry ex parte Unison: 1996

Duke v GEC Reliance Systems Limited: HL 2 Jan 1988

The court was asked about the differential in retirement ages between men and women in private sector employment, and whether it constituted sex discrimination. Held: Section 2(4) of the 1972 Act did not allow a British Court to distort the meaning of a British Statute in order to enforce a Community Directive which does not … Continue reading Duke v GEC Reliance Systems Limited: HL 2 Jan 1988

Regina (on the application of Abassi and Another) v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and Another: CA 6 Nov 2002

A British national had been captured in Afghanistan, and was being held without remedy by US forces. His family sought an order requiring the respondent to take greater steps to secure his release or provide other assistance. Held: Such an order would question the legitimacy of the actions of a foreign sovereign state, and to … Continue reading Regina (on the application of Abassi and Another) v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and Another: CA 6 Nov 2002

Desnousse v London Borough of Newham and others: CA 17 May 2006

The occupier had been granted a temporary licence by the authority under the homelessness provisions whilst it made its assessment. The assessment concluded that she had become homeless intentionally, and therefore terminated the licence and set out to evict her. She claimed that the authority had to get a court authority before so evicting her. … Continue reading Desnousse v London Borough of Newham and others: CA 17 May 2006

Collins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: CA 4 Apr 2006

The claimant had dual Irish and US nationality. He therefore also was a citizen of the EU. He complained that the British rules against payment of job seekers’ allowance were discriminatory. The matter had already been to the ECJ. Held: The residence test as applied was not in contravention of EU law. ‘[T]he proper interpretation … Continue reading Collins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: CA 4 Apr 2006

Sharp v Caledonia Group Services Ltd: EAT 1 Nov 2005

EAT Equal Pay Act – Material factor defence – In an equal pay claim involving a presumption of direct discrimination the genuine material factor defence requires justification by objective criteria.The claimant appealed dismissal of her action for equal pay, saying that the ‘material factor’ defence used to justify a different payment had been incorrectly applied. … Continue reading Sharp v Caledonia Group Services Ltd: EAT 1 Nov 2005

International Transport Workers’ Federation and Another v Viking Line Abp and Another: CA 3 Nov 2005

An order had been made restraining the defendant trades unions from taking industrial action. The unions said the UK court had no jurisdiction. Held: ‘It is at first sight surprising that the English Commercial Court should be the forum in which a dispute between a Finnish company and a Finnish Trade Union and an international … Continue reading International Transport Workers’ Federation and Another v Viking Line Abp and Another: CA 3 Nov 2005

Alabaster v Barclays Bank Plc and Another: CA 3 May 2005

The claimant sought increased maternity pay. Before beginning her maternity leave she had been awarded a pay increase, but it was not backdated so as to affect the period upon which the calculation of her average pay was based. The court made a detailed comparison of the regimes for protection under the Employment Rights Act … Continue reading Alabaster v Barclays Bank Plc and Another: CA 3 May 2005

Commission v United Kingdom (Judgment): ECJ 8 Jun 1994

ECJ Despite the limited character of the harmonization of rules in respect of collective redundancies which Directive 75/129 was intended to bring about, national rules which, by not providing for a system for the designation of workers’ representatives in an undertaking where an employer refuses to recognize such representatives, allow an employer to frustrate the … Continue reading Commission v United Kingdom (Judgment): ECJ 8 Jun 1994

Majrowski v Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Trust: CA 16 Mar 2005

The claimant had sought damages against his employer, saying that they had failed in their duty to him under the 1997 Act in failing to prevent harassment by a manager. He appealed a strike out of his claim. Held: The appeal succeeded. The issue is whether an employer may be vicariously liable under section 3 … Continue reading Majrowski v Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Trust: CA 16 Mar 2005

Bowman v Fels (Bar Council and Others intervening): CA 8 Mar 2005

The parties had lived together in a house owned in the defendant’s name and in which she claimed an interest. The claimant’s solicitors notified NCIS that they thought the defendant had acted illegally in setting off against his VAT liability the VAT on works carried out on his own property. Because of the delay which … Continue reading Bowman v Fels (Bar Council and Others intervening): CA 8 Mar 2005

Lancashire County Council, Regina (on The Application of) v SSEFRA and Another: SC 11 Dec 2019

Two appeals as to the circumstances in which the concept of ‘statutory incompatibility’ will defeat an application to register land as a town or village green where the land is held by a public authority for statutory purposes. In the first case, five plots in Lancaster were owned by LCC who objected to an application … Continue reading Lancashire County Council, Regina (on The Application of) v SSEFRA and Another: SC 11 Dec 2019

Golden Strait Corporation v Nippon Yusen Kubishka Kaisha (‘The Golden Victory’): HL 28 Mar 2007

The claimant sought damages for repudiation of a charterparty. The charterpary had been intended to continue until 2005. The charterer repudiated the contract and that repudiation was accepted, but before the arbitrator could set his award, the Iraq war broke out, under which the charterer could have terminated the charter as of right. The defendant … Continue reading Golden Strait Corporation v Nippon Yusen Kubishka Kaisha (‘The Golden Victory’): HL 28 Mar 2007

Webb v EMO Air Cargo (UK) Ltd: CA 20 Dec 1991

The applicant had been taken on to stand in for an employee taking maternity leave. She herself became pregnant, and she was dismissed. Her clam for sex discrimination had been rejected by the industrial tribunal and EAT. Held: Since a man who had been recruited in the same situation would have been dismissed if he … Continue reading Webb v EMO Air Cargo (UK) Ltd: CA 20 Dec 1991

Wilson v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry; Wilson v First County Trust Ltd (No 2): HL 10 Jul 2003

The respondent appealed against a finding that the provision which made a loan agreement completely invalid for lack of compliance with the 1974 Act was itself invalid under the Human Rights Act since it deprived the respondent lender of its property rights. It was also argued that it was not possible to make a declaration … Continue reading Wilson v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry; Wilson v First County Trust Ltd (No 2): HL 10 Jul 2003

Osman v The United Kingdom: ECHR 28 Oct 1998

Police’s Complete Immunity was Too Wide (Grand Chamber) A male teacher developed an obsession with a male pupil. He changed his name by deed poll to the pupil’s surname. He was required to teach at another school. The pupil’s family’s property was subjected to numerous acts of vandalism, which the police investigated and in respect … Continue reading Osman v The United Kingdom: ECHR 28 Oct 1998

The Law Society v Kamlesh Bahl: EAT 7 Jul 2003

EAT Sex Discrimination – DirectThe complainant had been suspended from her position as Vice President of the Law Society. The Society and its officers appealed findings of sex and race discrimination against her. The complainant appealed findings that she had lied to the tribunal on oath, and that the discrimination had been only indirect. Held: … Continue reading The Law Society v Kamlesh Bahl: EAT 7 Jul 2003

Mott, Regina (on The Application of) v Environment Agency: SC 14 Feb 2018

The Court considered the legality under the European Convention on Human Rights of licensing conditions imposed by the Environment Agency restricting certain forms of salmon-fishing in the Severn Estuary. The claimant operated a licensed putcher rank salmon fishing business. Held: The Agency’s appeal failed. The judge’s reasoning was correct. He had not find it necessary … Continue reading Mott, Regina (on The Application of) v Environment Agency: SC 14 Feb 2018

Jackson and others v Attorney General: HL 13 Oct 2005

The applicant sought to challenge the 2004 Hunting Act, saying that it had been passed under the provisions of the 1949 Parliament Act which was itself an unlawful extension of the powers given by the 1911 Parliament Act to allow the House of Commons to bring into law an Act which had not been approved … Continue reading Jackson and others v Attorney General: HL 13 Oct 2005

Gillick v BP Chemicals: EAT 1993

Ms Gillick had made an application based on sex discrimination in the first place against an agency which had contracted out her services to various divisions of BP Chemicals Ltd. The Respondents were the Company which had done that and in their Notice of Appearance they disputed that there had been an employment relationship between … Continue reading Gillick v BP Chemicals: EAT 1993

Bank Mellat v Her Majesty’s Treasury (No 2): SC 19 Jun 2013

The bank challenged measures taken by HM Treasury to restrict access to the United Kingdom’s financial markets by a major Iranian commercial bank, Bank Mellat, on the account of its alleged connection with Iran’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programmes. The bank sought to have the direction given under section 7 of the 2008 Act. … Continue reading Bank Mellat v Her Majesty’s Treasury (No 2): SC 19 Jun 2013

O’Neill v Governors of St Thomas More RC School: EAT 12 Oct 1995

The claimant had lodged an appeal against a rejection of her claim of sex discrimination, and against the amount of damages awarded on the success of her claim of unfair dismissal. After rejection of her request for a review, her counsel had lodged a letter withdrawing her appeal. She then received a reply from the … Continue reading O’Neill v Governors of St Thomas More RC School: EAT 12 Oct 1995

National Westminster Bank plc v Spectrum Plus Limited and others: HL 30 Jun 2005

Former HL decision in Siebe Gorman overruled The company had become insolvent. The bank had a debenture and claimed that its charge over the book debts had become a fixed charge. The preferential creditors said that the charge was a floating charge and that they took priority. Held: The appeal was allowed. The debenture, although … Continue reading National Westminster Bank plc v Spectrum Plus Limited and others: HL 30 Jun 2005

London Tara Hotel Ltd v Kensington Close Hotel Ltd: ChD 1 Nov 2010

The defendant asserted that it had acquired the right to use a private access road over the claimant’s land. There had been a licence granted under which an earlier owner had been said to have used the land. The defendant claimed under the 1832 Act or by lost modern grant. Held: The earlier cases on … Continue reading London Tara Hotel Ltd v Kensington Close Hotel Ltd: ChD 1 Nov 2010

Plantagenet Alliance Ltd, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice and Others: QBD 23 May 2014

The parties disputed the final resting place of the newly discovered body of King Richard III. The claimants argued for the burial to be in York, and said that the respondents had failed to consult adequately.The court set out the principles at common law: ‘(1) There is no general duty to consult at Common Law. … Continue reading Plantagenet Alliance Ltd, Regina (on The Application of) v Secretary of State for Justice and Others: QBD 23 May 2014

Webb v EMO Air Cargo (UK) Ltd (No 1): HL 3 Mar 1993

Questions on pregnancy dismissals included unavailability at required time. The correct comparison under the Act of 1975 was between the pregnant woman and: ‘a hypothetical man who would also be unavailable at the critical time. The relevant circumstance for the purposes of the comparison required by section 5(3) to be made is expected unavailability at … Continue reading Webb v EMO Air Cargo (UK) Ltd (No 1): HL 3 Mar 1993

Re X (A Child): FD 29 Oct 2020

Limited transfusion against young adults wishes The Court was asked whether a blood transfusion should be administered to a young woman who was almost, not quite, 16, against her profound religious beliefs. X is a Jehovah’s Witness. She has explained to me, in very powerful and moving words, the basis of her belief and the … Continue reading Re X (A Child): FD 29 Oct 2020

Jivraj v Hashwani: SC 27 Jul 2011

The parties had a joint venture agreement which provided that any dispute was to be referred to an arbitrator from the Ismaili community. The claimant said that this method of appointment became void as a discriminatory provision under the 2003 Regulations. The High Court found the appointment to be outwith the provisions, but this was … Continue reading Jivraj v Hashwani: SC 27 Jul 2011

A v Hoare; H v Suffolk County Council, Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs intervening; X and Y v London Borough of Wandsworth: CA 12 Apr 2006

Each claimant sought damages for a criminal assault for which the defendant was said to be responsible. Each claim was to be out of the six year limitation period. In the first claim, the proposed defendant had since won a substantial sum from the National Lottery. They complained that the Limitation Act gave the court … Continue reading A v Hoare; H v Suffolk County Council, Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs intervening; X and Y v London Borough of Wandsworth: CA 12 Apr 2006

Webb v EMO Air Cargo (UK) Ltd (No 2): HL 20 Oct 1995

The applicant complained that she was dismissed when her employers learned that she was pregnant. Held: 1(1) (a) and 5(3) of the 1975 Act were to be interpreted as meaning that where a woman had been engaged for an indefinite period, the fact that pregnancy was the reason for her temporary unavailability at a time … Continue reading Webb v EMO Air Cargo (UK) Ltd (No 2): HL 20 Oct 1995

Paddico (267) Ltd v Kirklees Metropolitan Council and Others: ChD 23 Jun 2011

The company sought the rectification of the register of village greens to remove an entry relating to its land, saying that the Council had not properly considered the need properly to identify the locality which was said to have enjoyed the rights claimed. Held: Rectification was ordered. The Green ought not to have been registered … Continue reading Paddico (267) Ltd v Kirklees Metropolitan Council and Others: ChD 23 Jun 2011

Patmalniece v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: SC 16 Mar 2011

The claimant challenged as incompatible with EU law, the Regulations which restricted the entitlement to state pension credit to those entitled to reside in the UK. Held: The appeal failed (Majority). The conditions imposed by the Regulations were indirectly discriminatory. There was not an exact correspondence between the advantaged and disadvantaged groups and the protected … Continue reading Patmalniece v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions: SC 16 Mar 2011

O’Brien v Department for Constitutional Affairs: CA 19 Dec 2008

The claimant was a part time recorder. He claimed to be entitled to a judicial pension. Held: The Employment Appeal Tribunal was wrong to find an error of law in the decision of the Employment Tribunal to extend time; but the court declined to remit the case to the Employment Tribunal for a substantive hearing … Continue reading O’Brien v Department for Constitutional Affairs: CA 19 Dec 2008

Webb v EMO Air Cargo: ECJ 14 Jul 1994

Community Law protects women from dismissal during pregnancy save in exceptional circumstances. It was discriminatory to dismiss a female not on a fixed term contract for pregnancy. The Court rejected an interpretation of the Directive that would have rendered its provisions ineffective. The dismissal of a pregnant woman recruited for an indefinite period cannot be … Continue reading Webb v EMO Air Cargo: ECJ 14 Jul 1994

Director of Public Prosecution v Withers: HL 20 Nov 1974

The House was asked to consider whether there existed the crime of a conspiracy to commit a public mischief. Held: There was no such crime, since it was so undefined as to be unfair to any defendant. Although at common law no clear distinction was originally drawn between conspiracies to ‘cheat’ and conspiracies to ‘defraud … Continue reading Director of Public Prosecution v Withers: HL 20 Nov 1974

Regina v Secretary of State Employment, ex parte Equal Opportunities Commission and Another: HL 4 Mar 1994

The Equal Opportunities Commission sought judicial review to test whether English employment law was in breach of EC law where threshold conditionsions for part time workers to make unfair dismissal and redundancy law claims were discriminatory. Held: The different employment rights for part timers were a form of indirect discrimination because they affected women more … Continue reading Regina v Secretary of State Employment, ex parte Equal Opportunities Commission and Another: HL 4 Mar 1994

Marleasing SA v La Comercial Internacional de Alimentacion SA: ECJ 13 Nov 1990

Sympathetic construction of national legislation LMA OVIEDO sought a declaration that the contracts setting up Commercial International were void (a nullity) since they had been drawn up in order to defraud creditors. Commercial International relied on an EC Directive designed to protect companies and third parties from the adverse effects of the doctrine of nullity. … Continue reading Marleasing SA v La Comercial Internacional de Alimentacion SA: ECJ 13 Nov 1990

Faisaltex Ltd and Others v Lancashire Constabulary and Another: QBD 24 Jul 2009

The claimants wished to claim damages saying that in executing a search warrant, the defendant had made excessive seizures of material. The claimants sought inspection by independent counsel of the materials seized to establish this in a manner similar to the protocol which protected seizures of material which might be protected by legal professional privilege, … Continue reading Faisaltex Ltd and Others v Lancashire Constabulary and Another: QBD 24 Jul 2009

Carson, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions; Reynolds v Same: HL 26 May 2005

One claimant said that as a foreign resident pensioner, she had been excluded from the annual uprating of state retirement pension, and that this was an infringement of her human rights. Another complained at the lower levels of job-seeker’s allowance payable to those under 25. Held: (Lord Carswell dissented in part.) The claims failed. The … Continue reading Carson, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions; Reynolds v Same: HL 26 May 2005