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Crime - 1993

Criminal Law. Generally, this includes all questions as to whether any particular act is a criminal offence.

These cases are extracted from a very large database. The entries on that database are now being published individually to the main swarb.co.uk website in a much improved form. As cases are published here, the entry here will be replaced by a link to the same case in that improved form on swarb.co.uk. In addition the swarb.co.uk site includes very substantial numbers of cases after 2000. Please take the time to look.  

This page lists 68 cases, and was prepared on 21 October 2013. These case are being transferred one by one to the main swarb.co.uk site which presents them better, with links to full text where we have it, and much improved cross referencing.
Regina -v- Aitken [1993] 95 Crim App R 304
1993
CACD
Crime

High-spirited, "horseplay" which resulted in serious injury.
Normand -v- Lucas; 1993
Stobo -v- HM Advocate 1993 SCCR 1105
1993
HCJ
Crime, Scotland, Criminal Evidence
1 Citers
Attorney General of Hong Kong -v- Lee Kwong-Kut [1993] AC 951
1993
PC
Lord Woolf
Crime, Commonwealth Casemap

(Hong Kong) In order to maintain the balance between the individual and the society as a whole, rigid and inflexible standards should not be imposed on the legislature's attempts to resolve the difficult and intransigent problems with which society is faced when seeking to deal with serious crime. It must be remembered that questions of policy remain primarily the responsibility of the legislature. It would not assist the individuals who are charged with offences if, because of the approach adopted to ‘statutory defences’ by the courts, the legislature, in order to avoid the risk of legislation being successfully challenged, did not include in the legislation a statutory defence to a charge.
Lord Woolf set down a test for when a reverse of the burden of proof would be acceptable: "Whether they are justifiable will in the end depend upon whether it remains primarily the responsibility of the prosecution to prove the guilt of the accused to the required standard and whether the exception is reasonably imposed, notwithstanding the importance of maintaining the principle [of the presumption of innocence] . . If the exception requires certain matters to be presumed until the contrary is shown, then it will be difficult to justify that presumption unless, as was pointed out by the United States Supreme Court in Leary v United States [1969] 23 L Ed 2d 57, 82, "it can be at least said with substantial assurance that the presumed fact is more likely than not to flow from the proved fact on which it is made to depend."
Regina -v- Bailey and Smith [1993] 97 Cr App R 365
1993
CACD
Crime Casemap
1 Citers
Regina -v- Manjdadria [1993] Crim LR 73
1993
CACD
Crime
Though a cheque is a valuable security within the section, a telegraphic transfer of funds is not.
Theft Act 1968 20(3)
Bugg -v- Director of Public Prosecutions; Director of Public Prosecutions -v- Percy [1993] QB 473; [1993] 2 WLR 628
1993
QBD
Crime, Local Government Casemap


The defendants appealed convictions for having entered military bases contrary to various bye-laws. They appealed challenging the validity of the bye-laws. Held: The validity of a bye-law could be challenged in criminal proceedings, but where the irregularity alleged was procedural, the bye-law remained effective until it was set aside in civil proceedings. Except in the "flagrant" and "outrageous" case a statutory order, such as a byelaw, remains effective until it is quashed. Byelaws which are on their face invalid or are patently unreasonable (termed "substantive" invalidity) may be called in question by way of defence in criminal proceedings, whereas byelaws which are invalid because of some defect in the procedure by which they came to be made (termed "procedural" invalidity) may not be called in question in such proceedings, so that a person might be convicted of an offence under them even if the byelaws were later quashed in other proceedings.
Regina -v- Shorrock; CACD 1993
Director of Public Prosecutions -v- McCabe [1993] 157 JP 443
1993

Crime Casemap

The defendant had 76 library books at his home which he had taken from one or more of the 32 different branches of a county library. He was convicted of a single offence of theft in relation to those books.
Regina -v- Charlie Williamson (1993) 30 JLR
1993

Crime, Commonwealth Casemap
1 Citers
(Court of Appeal of Jamaica)
Regina -v- Dixon [1993] Crim LR 579
1993
CACD
Crime

The defendant was convicted of affray where he and his Alsatian type dog were pursued by two police officers and cornered in the driveway of a house and he repeated "go on, go on" to the dog who ran forward and bit the police officers. Held: The appeal failed.
Regina -v- Mitchell [1993] Crim LR 788
1993
CACD
Crime
1 Cites
1 Citers
Theft Act 1968
Lockhart -v- Kevin Oliphant Ltd 1993 SLT 179
1993
HCJ
Lord Justice Clerk Ross
Scotland, Health and Safety, Crime
1 Citers
One of the company's employees was electrocuted and died when a street lamp he was erecting touched an overhead power line. It was charged with a contravention of sections 2(1) and (2) and 33(1)(a) of the 1974 Act. The sheriff acquitted the respondent, holding that the Crown had not established a sufficient case against it because the company was entitled to rely on plans and the site engineer's marking of the location of the lamp post. The prosecutor appealed. Held. The appeal succeeded. The sherriff's approach was incorrect
Regina -v- Robinson [1993] Crim LR 581
1993
CACD
Crime

The defendant appealed his conviction for affray. With a co-accused he had asked a motorist in an aggressive manner to drive them to a particular destination and threatened to take the car if he did not do so. Under s3(3) a threat on a charge of affray cannot be made by the use of words alone. At trial Crown counsel argued that in addition to what was said there was conduct which created an aura of menace. Held: The appeal succeeded. The evidence was devoid of anything that went beyond the use of words alone.
Public Order Act 1986 3(3)
Regina -v- Steele; 1993
Regina -v- Carroll and others; CACD 1993
Regina -v- Toney
27 Jan 1993
CACD
Crime
Pervert course of Just by interfering with witness; unlawful means not essential.
Regina -v- Rook; CACD 29-Jan-1993
Murray -v- Director of Public Prosecutions [1993] RTR 209; [1993] Crim LR 968
4 Feb 1993
QBD
Watkins LJ
Road Traffic, Crime Casemap
1 Citers
The defendant claimed that a breathalyser procedure mistake vitiated the subsequent prosecution. Held: It was essential that the motorist who was asked to provide a sample of breath be first warned that a failure to provide a specimen would make him liable to be prosecuted. Even though the motorist had not in this case been prejudiced by the omission, the evidence produced by the test was not admissible: "It is, therefore, in our judgment, not surprising that a strict and compulsory code is laid down as a set of pre-conditions which must be fulfilled before any specimen produced by the defendant, which may condemn him at the hearing of the charge against him, can be adduced in evidence: no matter that there may be some instances where breach of the code occasions no discernible prejudice."
Road Traffic Act 1988 7 15
Airedale NHS Trust -v- Bland; HL 04-Feb-1993
Regina -v- Warwickshire County Council, ex parte Johnson; HL 10-Feb-1993
Hussain -v- Bradford City Council
15 Feb 1993
QBD
Local Government, Licensing, Transport, Crime
If a complaint was made that a private hire vehicle was acting in contravention of the regulation, requiring it to display the licence plate issued by the local authority, indicating the maximum number of passengers, it was necessary for the prosecution to prove that the vehicle was plying for hire at the time of the alleged offence.
Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1976 48 (6)(b)
Tesco Stores Ltd -v- Brent London Borough Council [1993] 1 WLR 1037
16 Feb 1993
QBD
Crime Casemap
1 Citers
An employee's actual knowledge of and information about the age of a video purchaser could properly be imputed to his employer company.
Video Recordings Act 1984 11(1) 11(2)(b)
Regina -v- Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Marchon [1993] Imm AR 384
23 Feb 1993
CA
Crime, Immigration, European Casemap

It was permissible for the Home Secretary to order the deportation of a convicted drug trafficker for the public good, even though he was an EC national, and though there was nothing to suggest any propensity to commit any further offences. It was not necessary to show that the offence was so notorious as to require special treatment. The offence here was sufficiently serious to justify such an action.
Gillingham Borough Council -v- Cock
1 Mar 1993
QBD
Planning, Crime
Where the defendant was accused of affixing posters to lampposts contrary to the Act, the defence under the section was available to him only if he could show that he had no knowledge or had not consented to the posters being displayed in this manner. The knowledge and consent were disjunctive, and he might still have a defence if he knew of the act but did not consent to it.
Town and Country Planning (Control of Advertisements) Regulations 1989 5 - Town and Country Planning Act 1990 224(5)
Regina -v- Less and Depalo Unreported, 02 March 1993
2 Mar 1993
CACD
Crime Casemap
1 Citers
The defendant appealed his conviction for cheating the public revenue. Held: The court approved the judge's direction to the jury as follows: "The next direction I have to give you is what in law is cheating the Public Revenue. To cheat, members of the jury, is defined by the Concise Oxford Dictionary as: 'To deceive or trick a person into or out of a thing'. The common law offence of cheating the Public Revenue does not necessarily require a false representation either by words or conduct. Cheating can include any form of fraudulent conduct which results in diverting money from the Revenue and in depriving the Revenue of the money to which it is entitled. It has, of course, to be fraudulent conduct. That is to say, deliberate conduct by the defendant to prejudice, or take the risk of prejudicing, the Revenue's right to the tax in question knowing that it has no right to do so."
Regina -v- Brown (Anthony); Regina -v- Lucas;etc; HL 11-Mar-1993
Regina -v- Kirkup
17 Mar 1993
CA
Crime
Interpretation of 'immoral purpose' needs restating by Parliament.
Sexual Offences Act 1956 32
H.M. Advocate -v- Harris [1993] ScotHC HCJ_1
18 Mar 1993
HCJ
Scotland, Crime
[ Bailii ]
Regina -v- Shorrrok
22 Mar 1993
CACD
Crime
Public nuisance committed on knowledge of risk of nuisance.
Regina -v- Leather (1993) 98 Cr App R 179; Times, 21 January 1993
24 Mar 1993
CA
Crime

The child abduction offence may be complete without physical removal. 'removal from lawful control' under the Act did not import a necessary spatial element. The issue is the removal of control.
Child Abduction Act 1984 2(1)(a)
Regina -v- Rafique and Others [1993] QB 843; [1993] 97 Cr App R 395
23 Apr 1993
CACD
Crime Casemap
1 Cites

Acts carried out before the start of enquiry which was intended to interfere with that enquiry may still pervert cause of justice. Here a body or weapon had been hidden in order to impede the inquiry.
Regina -v- Kingston [1994] QB 81
10 May 1993
CACD
Lord Taylor CJ
Crime Casemap


The defendant and a co-accused had sexually assaulted a boy. He appealed saying that the co-defendant had secretly administered drugs to him. Held. The appeal succeeded. Involuntary intoxication can be a sufficient defence to a criminal charge, since it has the effect of denying mens rea. Lord Taylor CJ said: "In our judgment, the question can be answered by turning to first principles. The importance of ensuring, under a system of law, that members of the community are safeguarded in their persons and property is obvious and was firmly stated in Reg. v. Majewski [1977] AC 443 (see for example the speech of Lord Edmund Davies at p 495). However, the purpose of the criminal law is to inhibit, by proscription and by penal sanction, anti-social acts which individuals may otherwise commit. Its unspoken premise is that people may have tendencies and impulses to do those things which are considered sufficiently objectionable to be forbidden. Having paedophiliac inclinations and desires is not proscribed; putting them into practice is. If the sole reason why the threshold between the two has been crossed is or may have been that the inhibition which the law requires has been removed by the clandestine act of a third party, the purposes of the criminal law are not served by nevertheless holding that the person performing the act is guilty of an offence. A man is not responsible for a condition produced 'by stratagem, or the fraud of another.' If therefore drink or a drug, surreptitiously administered, causes a person to lose his self control and for that reason to form an intent which he would not otherwise have formed, it is consistent with the principle that the law should exculpate him because the operative fault is not his. The law permits a finding that the intent formed was not a criminal intent or, in other words, that the involuntary intoxication negatives the mens rea. As was pointed out in argument, there is some analogy to be found here in the rationale underlying the defence of duress. While it is not necessary for the decision of this case, it appears to us that if the principle applies where the offence is one of basic intent, it should apply also where the offence is one of specific intent.

We would add that there must be evidence capable of giving rise to the defence of involuntary intoxication before a judge is obliged to leave the issue to the jury. However, once there is an evidential foundation for the defence, the burden is upon the Crown to prove that the relevant intent was formed and that notwithstanding the evidence relied on by the defence it was a criminal intent.
By answering the first of the questions put to him at the beginning of the trial in the negative, the learned judge may have inhibited a sufficient ventilation of this issue at a later stage. Further, by summing up as he did, the learned judge effectively withdrew the issue from the jury. In our judgment, that amounted to a material misdirection."

Regina -v- Scarlett [1993] 4 All ER 629
18 May 1993
CACD
Beldam LJ
Crime
1 Cites

The force used by the defendant in self defence was justified even though there was a mistake as to the extent to which force was required. "If the mental element necessary to prove an assault is an intention to apply unlawful force to the victim, and the accused is to be judged according to his mistaken view of the facts, whether that mistake was on an objective view reasonable or not, we can see no logical basis for distinguishing between a person who objectively is not justified in using force, but mistakenly believes that the circumstances call for a degree of force objectively regarded as unnecessary. Where, as in the present case, an accused is justified in using some force and can only be guilty of an assault if the force used is excessive, the jury ought to be directed that he cannot be guilty of an assault unless the prosecution prove that he acted with the mental element necessary to constitute his action on assault, that is that the defendant intentionally or recklessly applied force to the person of another. (See R v Venna [1975] 3 All ER 788 at 793, [1976] 1 QB 421 at 429 per James LJ)
Further, they should be directed that the accused is not to be found guilty merely because he intentionally or recklessly used force which they consider to have been excessive. They ought not to convict him and unless they are satisfied that the degree of force used was plainly more than was called for by the circumstances as he believed them to be and, provided he believed the circumstances called for the degree of force used, he is not to be convicted even if his belief was unreasonable."
Regina -v- Shulman, Regina -v- Prentice, Regina -v- Adomako & Regina -v- Holloway
21 May 1993
CACD
Crime, Health Professions Casemap

A patient had been injected with the wrong medicine, and died as a result. Held: The ingredients of the offence of involuntary manslaughter by breach of duty are the existence and breach of a duty, which had caused death and gross negligence considered so serious as to justify a criminal conviction; the jury might properly find gross negligence on proof of indifference to an obvious risk of injury to health or of actual foresight of the risk coupled either with a determination nevertheless to run it or with an intention to avoid it but involving such a high degree of negligence in the attempted avoidance as the jury considered justified conviction or of inattention or failure to advert to a serious risk going beyond mere inadvertence in respect of an obvious and important matter which the defendant's duty demanded he should address; The appeals of the two junior doctors and the electrician would be allowed and the appeal of the anaesthetist, namely Dr. Adomako, was be dismissed.
Richardson, Regina v- [1993] EWCA Crim 4
24 May 1993
CACD
Crime
Link[s] omitted
Regina -v- Brown
28 May 1993
CACD
Staughton LJ, Hidden and Laws JJ
Information, Crime
A police officer misused his position to access records held on a police computer. Held: Merely accessing computer data by viewing it was not 'use' within the Act, and this particular offence was not established. The word 'use' must be given its ordinary meaning, which required something more. The court certified a question of law and refused leave to appeal.
Data Protection Act 1984 5(2)(b)
[ lip ]
Regina -v- Director of Public Prosecutions
1 Jun 1993
QBD
Crime, Road Traffic
The type approval of a radar speed gun was either to be proved, or the police officer was to confirm that a radar gun was of a permitted type.
Road Traffic Act 1984 - Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988
Director of Public Prosecutions -v- Lavender
2 Jun 1993
QBD
Crime
A council tenant treating the council's doors as his own, and regardless of the council's rights, steals. Moving fixtures between a Landlord's properties was still theft. It amountied to using the fixtures 'as his own'.
Theft Act 1968 6(1)
Regina -v- Simons (1993) 98 Cr App R 100
4 Jun 1993
CACD
Crime Casemap
1 Citers
The appellant had bought five consignments of drugs from a Hong Kong supplier and sold them on to an African buyer, from whom in each case he had received the purchase price which he had paid on to the supplier. He appealed confiscation orders in the amount of the sums received saying that these sums had been paid on. Held: The appeal failed. A drug trafficking middleman is liable to a confiscation order on the receipts not just on profits. The proceeds of sale were not profit made in the sale but the sale price. It was clear that where there is a chain of contracts each purchase price is a payment. This result could not be avoided by treating the intermediary as a postman, and those acting as a conduit should not be treated differently.
Drug Trafficking Offenders Act 1986
Rukira -v- Director of Public Prosecutions
9 Jun 1993
QBD
Crime
Communal landings outside flats in a block do not form part of a home.
Public Order Act 1986 4-2
Attorney-General's Reference (No 2 of 1992) [1993] 4 All ER 683
21 Jun 1993
CACD
Crime Casemap
1 Cites
1 Citers
Driving without awareness cannot be used as a defence of automatism, where the loss of awareness was short of the total loss of voluntary control.
Criminal Justice Act 1972
Regina -v- Jefferson; Regina -v- Skerritt; and similar; CACD 22-Jun-1993
Regina -v- Knightsbridge Crown Court ex parte Dunne; Brock -v- Director of Public Prosecutions
7 Jul 1993
QBD
Animals, Crime
"Type of Dog" has a broader meaning than the phrase "Breed of Dog". American breed standards include characteristic behaviour also.
Dangerous Dogs Act 1991 1(1)(a)
Regina -v- Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate Ex Parte Chaudhry [1994] QB 340
9 Jul 1993
QBD
Kennedy LJ, Bell J
Judicial Review, Crime, Magistrates
1 Citers
The Crown Prosecution Service was in the process of pursuing a prosecution when the private prosecutor sought to bring a prosecution for a serious offence arising out of the same facts. There would be potentially concurrent prosecutions. Held: Magistrates were not wrong to disallow a private prosecution in addition to crown prosecution. A private prosecutor does not have the unfettered right to a trial. Kennedy LJ said that on the question of the relevant considerations, when deciding whether to issue a summons in such a case: "The magistrate should have regard to all of the relevant circumstances of which he is aware . . . such as whether the incident giving rise to the information which he is considering has already been investigated by a responsible prosecuting authority which is pursuing what it considers to be the appropriate charges against the same proposed defendant."
Prosecution of Offenders Act 1985 6(1)
Criminal Proceedings Against Paul Corbeau (Civil Party: Regie Des Posts)
21 Jul 1993
ECJ
Crime, European
Article 90 prevents monopoly by national body on specific postal services.
Regina -v- Kenny
27 Jul 1993
CA
Crime
The question of status as mentally handicapped is not to be rigidly determined from one case to next.
Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 77-3
Regina -v- Williams (Jacqueline) & Crick
30 Jul 1993
CACD
Crime Casemap
1 Cites
1 Citers
The defendant was accused of having obtained by deception a mortgage advance, the amount having been paid by electronic transfer. Held: The sum of money represented by a figure in a bank account was not fully property for the purposes of the section. The reduction of the sum standing in the lending institution's account, and the corresponding increase in the sum standing to the credit of the mortgagor's solicitor's account, constituted the obtaining of intangible property within section 15(1).
Thet Act 1968 15(1)
Regina -v- Crick and Another
18 Aug 1993
CACD
Crime
Balance transferred electronically is 'other intangible property'.
Theft Act 1968 4(1)
Regina -v- Bull
18 Aug 1993
CA
Crime, Licensing
A firearms dealer must register particulars of every place of business. Registration as firearms dealer does not allow the keeping of firearms outside business.
Firearms Act 1968 8(1)(1)
Regina -v- Morhall
23 Aug 1993
CACD
Crime
1 Cites

A self induced addiction to glue sniffing is inconsistent with a reasonable man. Judge to say if a characteristic is consistent with the reasonable man test for the purposes of judging provocation.
Homicide Act 1957 3
Chorherr -v- Austria [1993] ECHR 36; 13308/87; (1993) 17 EHRR 358;; [1993] ECHR 36
25 Aug 1993
ECHR
Human Rights, Crime

The applicant was one of two arrested demonstrating against the Austrian armed forces at a military parade. They had rucksacks on their backs, with slogans on them. The rucksacks were so large that they blocked other spectators' view of the parade. This caused "a commotion" among the spectators who were protesting loudly at the obstruction. The demonstrators were arrested to prevent disorder. Held: In the circumstances it could not be said that the arrests had not been a proportionate way of preventing disorder. There had accordingly been no violation of the applicant's article 10 rights. The phrase "likely to cause annoyance" satisfied the requirement of reasonable certainty: "the level of precision required of the domestic legislation – which cannot in any case provide for every eventuality – depends to a considerable degree on the content of the instrument considered, the field it is designed to cover and the number and status of those to whom it is addressed."
European Convention on Human Rights 10
Link[s] omitted
Regina -v- Johnson and Others
27 Sep 1993
CA
Crime
No doubt about convictions of M25 three. The evidence difficulties had been put before the jury.
Regina -v- Duffas
11 Oct 1993
CA
Evidence, Crime
A previous conviction involving dishonesty was not evidence that an act of receiving by a defendant was dishonest on this occasion.
Theft Act 1968 27(3)(b)
Regina -v- Reade, Morris and Woodwiss
19 Oct 1993
CCC
Crime
Proceedings were stayed after great adverse publicity made a fair trial impossible.
Fook, Regina -v- [1993] EWCA Crim 1
22 Oct 1993
CACD
Crime

The defendant appealed his conviction for assault. He had suspected a lodger of theft, and was accused of having assaulted him while interrogating him about it. He locked the complainant in his room, but he then fell whilst escaping through a first floor window. The prosecution was on the basis that the terror induced itself was an assault occasioning actual bodily harm. Held: "[In] the phrase "actual bodily harm" . . [are] three words of the English language which receive no elaboration and in the ordinary course should not receive any. The word "harm" is a synonym for injury. The word "actual" indicates that the injury (although there is no need for it to be permanent) should not be so trivial as to be wholly insignificant. The purpose of the definition in section 47 is to define an element of aggravation in the assault. It must be an assault which besides being an assault (or assault and battery) causes to the victim some injury". Accordingly the phrase "actual bodily harm" is capable of include psychiatric injury. But it does not include mere emotions such as fear or distress nor panic nor does it include, as such, states of mind that are not themselves evidence of some identifiable clinical condition. The phrase "state of mind" is not a scientific one and should be avoided in considering whether or not a psychiatric injury has been caused; its use is likely to create in the minds of the Jury the impression that something which is no more than a strong emotion, such as extreme fear or panic, can amount to actual bodily harm. It cannot.
Offences Against the Person Act 1861 46
Link[s] omitted
In Re Baretto
26 Oct 1993
CA
Crime
Legislation implementing the Convention for recovery of proceeds of drug trafficking was not retroactive.
Criminal Justice International Co-operation Act 1990 16
Regina -v- Collett, Regina -v- Furminger, Regina -v- Nazari, Regina -v- Pope, Regina -v- Bandar
28 Oct 1993
CACD
Crime, Planning
The use of land contrary to an enforcement notice is an offence of absolute liability. The burden was on the user of land to establish what uses were lawful.
Town and Country Planning Act 1971 89(5)
Blackburn and Others -v- Bowering and Another [1994] 1 WLR 1324
5 Nov 1993
CA
Sir Thomas Bingham MR
Crime, Contempt of Court

1 Citers
It was self defence if the defendant honestly believes the victim was not an officer of court. The issue was the genuineness of the belief, not its reasonableness.
County Court Act 1984 14(1)(b)
Regina -v- Chan-Fook; CACD 15-Nov-1993
Attorney-General's Reference (No 3 of 1992) [1994] 2 All ER 121
18 Nov 1993
CA
Crime
The offence of attempted aggravated arson does not need proof of a specific intent to endanger life. Recklessness may be sufficient.
Regina -v- Wadland Unreported, 18 November 1993
18 Nov 1993
CACD
Glidewell LJ
Crime
The defendant appealed his conviction for causing a public nuisance, having made substantial numbers of obscene telephone calls to women. Held: The conviction stood
Bernard Keck and Daniel Mithouard (Rec 1993,p I-6097) (SV93-431) (Judgment) C-267/91; [1993] EUECJ C-267/91
24 Nov 1993
ECJ
European, Commercial, Crime
A national law is fair if the rules it applies deal equally to imported and home goods.
Europa Free movement of goods º Quantitative restrictions º Measures having equivalent effect º Concept º Obstacles to trade resulting from disparities between national legislation laying down requirements to be met by goods º Included º Obstacles resulting from national provisions regulating selling arrangements in a non-discriminatory way º Inapplicability of Article 30 of the Treaty º Legislation prohibiting resale at a loss.
EEC Treaty Art. 30
[ Europa ] - [ Bailii ]
Regina -v- Brockley [1994] 99 Cr App R 385
25 Nov 1993
CACD
Insolvency, Company, Crime
1 Citers
The offence of acting as a company director whilst being an undischarged bankrupt is an absolute offence.
Company Directors Disqualification Act 1986 11(1)
Windsor (Stephen John), Petitioner [1993] ScotHC HCJ_2
7 Dec 1993
HCJ
Scotland, Crime
Link[s] omitted
Regina -v- Bezzina, Regina -v- Codling, Regina -v- Elvin
7 Dec 1993
CACD
Animals, Crime
The offence under section 3(1), requiring the owner to keep a dangerous dog under control, is one of strict liability. The court noted the difference in wording between the sections.
Dangerous Dogs Act 1991 3(1) 3(2)(3)
The Director of Public Prosecutions -v- Bailey; PC 15-Dec-1993
Sutherland (James William) -v- Hma [1993] ScotHC HCJ_3
17 Dec 1993
HCJ
Scotland, Crime
[ Bailii ]

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